Final food contamination
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Final food contamination

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pathogenic food organisms,cause of food poisoning, prevention begin from kitchen, fighting bacteria,

pathogenic food organisms,cause of food poisoning, prevention begin from kitchen, fighting bacteria,

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  • 05/02/12
  • 05/02/12 It is not
  • 05/02/12
  • 05/02/12
  • 05/02/12

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  • 1. Prevention Of FoodContamination By Pathogenic Microorganisms Dr: Dina Ramadan Lithy Microbiology specialist central health laboratory Cairo . Egypt
  • 2. Pathogenic Microorganisms Very small ,Single cell organisms, seen by microscope only. Eating or drinking food that contains harmful microbes can cause food poisoning. Not all food APPEARING normal is safe to eat, it may be contaminated by harmful bacteria which cause food borne illness2 May 2, 2012
  • 3. Microbiological pathogens Food poisoningInfective food poisoning Toxic food poisoningOccurs as a result of Some bacteria produceeating food contaminated toxins ,these toxins cannotwith bacteria itself be removed or inactivatedExamples; Salmonella, .by cookingListeria and Escherichia Examples Staphylococcus .coli aureus, Clostridium perfringens
  • 4. Common Food borne Bacteria
  • 5. Salmonella one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Symptoms last 4-7 days without treatment. Salmonella is killed by cooking and pasteurization, But it can contaminate the food processing area and transmitted to another food item.Source Raw poultry and eggs  Undercooked poultry and meat5 May 2, 2012
  • 6. Staphylococcus aureus It is commonly found on the skin , hair ,noses and throats of people and animals. It can multiply quickly at room temperature and produce a toxinthat causes Food poisoningSource ; Salads, macaroni Bakery products, cream pies,and chocolate éclairs Milk and dairy products,6 May 2, 2012
  • 7. EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli)E. coli (0157:H7)Lives in intestines of healthy cattle It produce enterotoxin causes hemolytic inflammation of the intestines results in bloody diarrhea hemorrhagic uremic syndrome (HUS)• Source : – Undercooked hamburger , salami – Unpasteurized milk, Well water – Fruits and Vegetables7 May 2, 2012
  • 8. Shigella It causes diarrhea in human which called bacillary dysentery,, Shigellosis is a cause of traveler’s diarrhea from food and water contaminated in developing countries.Source :Salads and sandwiches Raw vegetables8 May 2, 2012
  • 9. Listeria It is widespread in nature, in soil and water . It grows at low temperature and in refrigerator. It is very dangerous pathogens for pregnant women; it can transmit from mother to baby through placenta results in abortion.Source Ice-cream ,unpasteurized milk,soft cheeses Ready-to-Eat foods, salads9 May 2, 2012
  • 10. Vibrio this bacteria found in warm coastal areas and in the summer months when water gets wormer V. parahaemolyticus typically causes non-bloody diarrhea V. cholerae cause watery diarrhea (called "rice water stools" It cause electrolyte imbalance by Losing body fluids Severe cases, 12 - 20 liters of liquid lost in a day Untreated cases - Mortality Rate about 50% By treatment with electrolytes mortality 1%Source : Raw or undercooked fish and shellfish Drinking contaminated water Eating food washed or made withcontaminated water 10 May 2, 2012
  • 11. Clostridium perfringens One of the most common spore forming bacteria causing food poisoning. Cooking kills Bacterial cells, but the spores grow into new cells. When food prepared in large quantities and kept long time before serving it cause infection Outbreaks usually linked to institutions (hospitals, school cafeterias, and prisons). Sourcessuch as Beef and Poultry11 May 2, 2012
  • 12. Clostridium botulinum This is one toxin producing bacteria producing neurotoxin Leads to flaccid paralysis. (Botulism) is rare but fatal caused by eating food contamination as it end by death . Sources: Honey, home-canned vegetables and fruits, and salted fish .12 May 2, 2012
  • 13. Bacillus cereusIt is type of bacteria that produces toxins. These toxins can cause two types of illness: diarrheal toxin, emetic toxin, It presents in food and can multiply quickly at room temperatureSource : Rice , sauces, soups Food that have stayed too long at room13 temperature May 2, 2012
  • 14. Symptoms of food poisoning
  • 15. General symptoms Fever, chills, malaise , aches, swollen lymph nodes • Salmonella typhi, • Listeria monocytogenes, • Campylobacter. Jejuni Upper GIT signs Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea & • S. aureus and its toxins • B. cereus and its toxin15 May 2, 2012
  • 16. Lower GIT signsLower abdominal cramps & diarrhea :• Clostridium perfringens,• Bacillus cereus• Salmonella, Shigella,Neurological signs Visual disturbances, vertigo & paralysis16 Clostridium botulinum May 2, 2012
  • 17.  The main cause for food poisoning is eating food contaminated by Bactria The bacteria need suitable condition to multiply as temperature, moisture, oxygen and have some protein,
  • 18. In suitable conditionOne bacteria multiply to more than four million bacteria in eight hours, and make food unsafe to eat within few hours.
  • 19. controlling bacteriaControlling bacteria, make food safe . andPrevent food poisoning begin from kitchenby:
  • 20. controlling bacteria Cooking at proper temperature destroys harmful bacteria that may be present in food Chilling By following Cooling , Freezing rules control bacterial growth can be controled Cleaning surface , products , wash hands and good hygiene. Separation to prevent cross-contamination via hands, utensils, surfaces
  • 21. Temperatures control Most types of pathogenic bacteria can grow in temperature from 41ºF to 140ºF (5ºC to 60ºC) which called temperatures danger zone (TDZ), To prevent bacteria from growing, we must set the refrigerator temperature not higher than 39ºF (4ºC). Refrigerator must not be too full, as Cold air must circulate to keep food safe.
  • 22. cooking Heating the food for enough time and at high temperature, kill harmful microorganisms Always stir while heating and rotate food to distribute heat. Avoid :  Interrupted cooking. Never refrigerate partially cooked products to be later cooking in the oven.  Traditional recipes for limited cooking: as eating Raw oysters, raw ground beef, and soft boiled eggs.
  • 23. Microwave cooking Microwaved food may have cold spots which are ideal for bacterial growth. When use it for reheating food it must be leftovers to minimum of 165ºF (74ºC) and serve immediately.
  • 24. Freezer temperaturesit Slow bacterial growth but do not necessarily kill bacteria. If food has been temperature-abused before freezing it will be unsafe upon thawing Food must be stored properly to be safe.The Thawing law Never defrost food at room temperature. Thawing food in the refrigerator. For a quick thawing, thawing in the microwave if cooking immediately.
  • 25. leftoversRemember Refrigerate food within 2 hours. Keep leftovers in small containers for quick cooling. Use a cooler or ice pack to keep perishable food cold, especially on hot summer days. When in doubt, throw it out!
  • 26. Keep CleanWash hands, utensils, and surfaces, in hot, soapy water before and after food preparationFor protection against bacteria use disinfectants cleaners or a mixture of bleach and water on surfaces. 27
  • 27. Keep CleanAll cutting boards  Cutting boards (including plastic, acrylic, and wooden boards)  Should be run through the dishwasher or washed in hot, soapy water after each useProduce:  Wash raw produce under running water.  Use vegetable brush to remove surface dirt.  Cut away any damaged or bruised areas .
  • 28. Keep CleanWipe up spills in the refrigerator,microwave immediately. Towel  If using cloth towels, wash them in the boiling water  Using paper towels to clean up kitchen surfaces. Then , throw it away
  • 29. separation Separation to prevent cross contamination: Safely Separate Separate raw meat and seafood from other food in refrigerator to avoid cross-contamination Clean up  Wash hands, cutting boards, dishes after contact with raw meat, or unwashed products.
  • 30. Take two separate USE one cutting board , Knife etc ,for raw meat, and another one for salads and ready-to-eat foods. Never place cooked food on the same plate or cutting board which previously held raw food. Handling dairy products , raw meat,then prepare salads, sandwichescan create “Cross-contamination”.
  • 31. Restaurants staff personal hygieneThey must have Basic food safety educationand:correct personal hygiene Clean hands and clothing. Minimize jewellery on hands. Tie-back or cover hair. Wearing gloves. Clean and short fingernails. Sick personal not prepare food Avoid :  touching face and hair.  cough or sneeze over food.  taste food with your fingers.
  • 32. Pest Control Food must Stored in tightly closed containers to keep out pests.Flies: Windows and doors must properly closed. Use fly proof mesh if possible. After applying pesticide spray, always maintain a time gap before reusing kitchen to prepare food , also wash utensils before reuseAnts: Always keep kitchen countertops cleanRodents: Use food traps. If using rat poisons, don’t keep it for extended period.
  • 33. Hazard Analysisand Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  • 34. The HACCP It is the system that is required for any food business or organisation in most countries. The joint FAO / WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission recommends the HACCP approach to enhance Food Safety in all process of food production.
  • 35. The HACCP AdvantagesGives insight in the critical control points of the product process Gives trust for the consumer that products are produced safely and hygienically Reduces the costs of food borne illness.
  • 36. The HACCP disadvantages: Need to train supervisors, managerial and production staff Reduced Staff time available for other tasks Increased production , implementation and supervisory costs Reduced flexibility in production process and introduction of new products.
  • 37. Remember to make food safe Food pathogens enter food chain at multiple points. Fight bacteria by cook , clean , chill and separate. Maintain a clean and sanitary environment for all areas of food production. Apply good personal hygiene. Prevent cross contamination in the kitchen. All organization dealing with food production must enforced by governments to applying HACCP system