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  • 1. WXES2106 Network Technology Semester 1 2004/2005 Chapter 4 TCP/IP CCNA1: Module 9, 10.3 and 11
  • 2. Contents
    • Introduction
    • Internet Address
    • Obtaining an IP Address
    • Introduction to Subnetting
    • TCP/IP Transport Layer
    • Application Layer
  • 3. Introduction
    • The design of TCP/IP is ideal for the decentralized and robust network that is the Internet.
    • The TCP/IP model has four layers: the application layer, transport layer, Internet layer, and the network access layer.
    • The application layer of the TCP/IP model handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control
  • 4. Introduction
    • TCP Applications
      • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
      • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
      • Network File System (NFS)
      • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
      • Terminal emulation (Telnet)
      • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
      • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • 5. Introduction
    • The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host.
    • TCP and UDP
      • Segmenting upper-layer application data
      • Sending segments from one end device to another end device
    • TCP only
      • Establishing end-to-end operations
      • Flow control provided by sliding windows
      • Reliability provided by sequence numbers and acknowledgments
  • 6. Introduction
    • The purpose of the Internet layer is to select the best path through the network for packets to travel.
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
      • provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of packets
    • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
      • provides control and messaging capabilities
    • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
      • Determines the data link layer address, MAC address, for known IP addresses
    • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
      • Determines IP addresses when the MAC address is known
  • 7. Introduction
    • The network access layer is also called the host-to-network layer.
    • It is the layer that make a physical link to the network media.
    • Modem protocol standards such as Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provide network access through a modem connection
    • Network access layer functions include mapping IP addresses to physical hardware addresses and encapsulation of IP packets into frames.
  • 8. Introduction
    • The Internet uses the principle of network layer interconnection.
    • Internetworking must be scalable with regard to the number of networks and computers attached.
  • 9. Internet Address
    • Each computer in a TCP/IP network must be given a unique identifier, or IP address.
    • An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s and 0s.
    • IP address is usually written as four decimal numbers separated by periods.
    • Using the IP address of destination network, a router can deliver a packet to the correct network.
    • When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination network, the router uses the IP address to locate the particular computer
    • Every IP address has two parts, the first part identifies the system's network address . The second part, called the host part
  • 10. Internet Address
    • IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large, medium, and small networks.
  • 11. Internet Address
  • 12. Internet Address
    • The network is reserved for loopback testing
    • The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in an IP address.
    • The first four bits of a Class D address must be 1110 .
    • Reserved IP addresses
      • Network address
        • Used to identify the network itself
      • Broadcast address
        • Used for broadcasting packets to all the devices on a network
        • Data that is sent to the broadcast address will be read by all hosts on that network
  • 13. Internet Address
  • 14. Internet Address
    • IANA manages the supply of IP addresses to ensure that duplication of publicly used addresses does not occur.
    • No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address because public IP addresses are global and standardized.
    • Private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use any host addresses
    • Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses.
    • This translation process is referred to as Network Address Translation (NAT) which done by router
  • 15. Internet Address Private IP Address
  • 16. Obtaining IP Address
    • Static Assignment
      • Assigns and tracks IP addresses for each computer, printer, or server on the intranet.
      • Works best on small, infrequently changing networks
    • RARP IP Assignment
      • Associates a known MAC addresses with an IP addresses.
      • A RARP server must be present on the network to answer RARP requests
      • RARP requests are broadcast onto the LAN
  • 17. Obtaining IP Address
    • BOOTP IP assignment
      • The bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client-server environment
      • The administrator creates a configuration file that specifies the parameters for each device.
      • The administrator must add hosts and maintain the BOOTP database
      • Every host on the network must have a BOOTP profile with an IP address assignment in it
  • 18. Obtaining IP Address
      • A device uses BOOTP to obtain an IP address when starting up. The device will send a broadcast IP packet
      • A BOOTP server receives the broadcast and then sends back a broadcast reply
      • If the client finds its own MAC address in the destination address field and a broadcast in the IP destination field, it takes and stores the IP address and other information supplied in the BOOTP reply message.
  • 19. Obtaining IP Address
    • DHCP IP Management
      • Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically without having to set up an individual profile for each device.
      • A range of IP addresses must be define on a DHCP server.
      • The hosts contact the DHCP server and request an address. The DHCP server chooses an address and leases it to that host.
      • It allows users to be mobile
      • Offers a one to many ratio of IP addresses
  • 20. Obtaining IP Address
    • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
      • Automatically obtain MAC addresses for local transmission.
      • When a source determines the IP address for a destination, it then consults the ARP table in order to locate the MAC address for the destination.
      • If the source locates an entry in its table, it will associate the IP address to the MAC address
      • If not found, the host broadcasts an ARP request
      • If one of the local devices matches the IP address of the request, it sends back an ARP reply that contains its IP-MAC pair.
  • 21. Obtaining IP Address
  • 22. Introduction to Subnetting
    • Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to divide the network and break a large network up into smaller, more efficient and manageable segments , or subnets.
    • Subnet addresses include the network portion, plus a subnet field and a host field
  • 23. Introduction to Subnetting
    • Subnet mask is created by using binary ones in the host
    • If three bits were borrowed, the mask for a Class C address would be or /27.
    • The last two bits in the last octet, regardless of the IP address class, may never be assigned to the subnetwork
    • (2 power of borrowed bits ) – 2 = usable subnets
    • (2 power of remaining host bits ) – 2 = usable hosts
    • (2 power of borrowed bits ) = total subnets
    • (2 power of remaining host bits ) = total hosts
    • The available bits for assignment to the subnet field in Class A address is 22 bits while a Class B address has 14 bits.
  • 24. Introduction to Subnetting
  • 25. TCP/IP Transport Layer
    • The transport layer provides transport services from the source host to the destination host.
    • It establishes a logical connection between the endpoints of the network.
    • Primary duties
      • Segmentation of upper-layer application data
      • Establishment of end-to-end operations
      • Transport of segments from one end host to another end host
      • Flow control provided by sliding windows
      • Reliability with sequence numbers and acknowledgments
  • 26. TCP/IP Transport Layer
    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented Layer 4 protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission .
    • TCP is responsible for breaking messages into segments, reassembling them at the destination station, resending anything that is not received, and reassembling messages from the segments.
    • Protocols that use TCP include: FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), Telnet
  • 27. TCP/IP Transport Layer
    • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the connectionless transport protocol
    • It exchanges datagrams, without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery.
    • UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put sequences of segments together
    • The protocols that use UDP include: TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol), DNS (Domain Name System)
  • 28. TCP/IP Transport Layer
    • Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information to the upper layers.
    • Port numbers are used to keep track of different conversations crossing the network at the same time.
    • Range of Port number
      • Numbers below 1024 - Well-known ports numbers.
      • Numbers above 1024 - Dynamically assigned ports numbers.
      • Registered port numbers are those registered for vendor-specific applications. Most of these are above 1024.
  • 29. TCP/IP Transport Layer
  • 30. Application Layer
    • DNS (Domain Name System)
      • To associate the contents of the site with the address of that site.
      • It is a system used on the Internet for translating names of domains and their publicly advertised network nodes into IP addresses .
      • A domain is a group of computers that are associated by their geographical location or their business type.
      • A domain name is a string of characters, number, or both.
  • 31. Application Layer
    • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
      • To transfer files from one computer to another by copying and moving files from servers to clients, and from clients to servers.
      • Data transfer can occur in ASCII mode or in binary mode.
    • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
      • Uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
      • Used on the router to transfer configuration files and Cisco IOS images and to transfer files between systems that support TFTP.
  • 32. Application Layer
    • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
      • Works with the World Wide Web
      • http:// tells the browser which protocol to use.
      • www is the hostname of a server with a specific IP address.
    • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
      • enables network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth.
      • Uses UDP as its transport layer protocol
  • 33. Application Layer
      • Three key components
        • Network management system (NMS)
          • Monitor and control managed devices.
        • Managed devices
          • Network nodes that contain an SNMP agent
          • Collect and store management information and make this information available to NMSs
        • Agents
          • Network-management software modules that reside in managed devices.
          • Has local knowledge of management information
  • 34. Application Layer
  • 35. Application Layer
    • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
      • Transports email messages in ASCII format using TCP.
      • The most popular mail client protocols are POP3 and IMAP4, which both use TCP to transport data.
      • SMTP port (25) or to the POP3 port (110)
    • Telnet
      • Provides the ability to login to a remote Internet host that is running a Telnet server application and then to execute commands from the command line.
      • Telnet works at the application layer of the TCP/IP model.
  • 36.