Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Epidemiology

519

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
519
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. An Introduction ToEpidemiology
  • 2. 2 Deterninants Prognostic factors Causal factors Risk factors Epidemiology is the study of 1. Disease Therapy and testing new Treatments Progression or Natural History Patterns of Occurrence (Distribution) ) Etiology (Causation) 2. Performance of the Screening and Diagnostic tests 3. Different Epidemiological study designs Prevention and control Measures of occurrence (Frequency)
  • 3. 3 Definitions:  Epidemiology: Is a term derived from the Greek language (epi = upon, demos = people, logos = science). [Epidemiology is] the study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems.  Applications of epidemiology in public health: 1. Community health assessment and priority setting 2. Evaluating health interventions and programs 3. Preventing disease and promoting health 4. Improving diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of clinical disease  Basic Epidemiological information about a disease: 1. Natural history in the individual: odevelopment with age (cohort basis) oearly indicators (for screening) oimpact of different treatments opossibility of cure oneed for care osocial impact 2. Etiology: ospecific causal factors oother risk factors 3. Development in the community: otime trends ovariations with age (cross-sectional basis) 4. Differences in occurrence: osex oethnic group osocial class ooccupation ogeographical area 5. Possibilities for prevention: ospecific actions to address causal factors and underlying determinants ogeneral actions to address other risk factors oimpact of medical services including screening and early detection o impact of health policy
  • 4. 4 1.Natural History and Prognosis Natural history: refers to the stages of a disease, which include: • Pathological onset • The preclinical phase: from the onset of pathological changes to the first appearance of symptoms or signs; and • The clinical phase: The stage when the disease is clinically obvious and may be subject to remission, relapse or progress to death. Detection and treatment at any stage can alter the natural history of a disease, but the effects of treatment can only be determined if the natural history of the disease in the absence of treatment is known. Prognosis: is the prediction of the course of a disease and is expressed as the probability that a particular event will occur in the future. Knowledge of the prognosis is helpful in determining the most useful treatment. Prognostic factors are characteristics associated with outcome in patients with the disease in question. For example, in a patient with acute myocardial infarction, the prognosis is directly related to residual heart muscle function.
  • 5. 5 2.Disease Etiology (Causation) Aetiology: The science or philosophy of causation. There are two models widely applied to know the causation of a disease: a) The Epidemiological Triad. Is used to describe the intersection of Host, Agent, and Environment in analyzing an outbreak. b) The sufficient cause and component causes model • A sufficient cause is a set of factors or conditions that produces disease. • The factors or conditions that form a sufficient cause are called component causes. Component causes include host factors, agents and environmental factors. • If a disease does not develop without the presence of a particular component cause, then that component cause is classified as a necessary cause. However, a single component cause, even if it is a necessary cause, is rarely a sufficient cause by itself. • Causal Factors: Four types of factors play a part in the causation of disease, all may be necessary but they are rarely sufficient to cause a particular disease or state:
  • 6. 6 1. Predisposing factors, such as age, sex, or specific genetic traits that may result in a poorly functioning immune system or slow metabolism of a toxic chemical. Previous illness may also create a state of susceptibility to a disease agent. 2. Enabling (or disabling) factors: such as low income, poor nutrition, bad housing and inadequate medical care may lead to the development of disease. Conversely, circumstances that assist in recovery from illness or in the maintenance of good health could also be called enabling factors. The social and economic determinants of health are just as important as the precipitating factors in designing prevention approaches. 3. Precipitating factors such as exposure to a specific disease agent may be associated with the onset of a disease. 4. Reinforcing factors such as repeated exposure, environmental conditions and unduly hard work may aggravate an established disease or injury. • Risk factor: Patient characteristic (either inherited, such as a blood group, or behavioral, such as smoking and diet habits) or environmental factor (such as exposure to asbestos) associated with an increased or decreased probability (risk) of developing a disease (or other outcome). They are any factor that are associated with the risk of development of a disease but that are not sufficient to cause the disease • Health and disease determinants: Determinant: is any factor, whether an event, characteristic, or other definable entity, that contributes to a change in health. It is common to refer to proximal and distal
  • 7. 7 4- Epidemiological Measures of Health and Disease. a)Measures of disease Frequency. 1. Incidence rate (IR): how fast new occurrences of disease arise? A: The number of existing affected individuals, or cases PT: person-time = size of entire population × length of observation 2. Prevalence (P): the amount of disease already present in a population C: The number of existing affected individuals, or cases N: number of persons in the population 3. Risk (R): an individual will contract a disease. Also called (Cumulative incidence) = b)Measures of exposure effect and impact. 1.Relative Measures a. Risk ratio= Risk (cumulative incidence) in the exposed group Risk (cumulative incidence) in the unexposed group b. Rate ratio = Incidence rate in the exposed group Incidence rate in the unexposed group c. Odds ratio = Odds of disease in the exposed group Odds of disease in the unexposed group Odds of disease = Probability of getting the disease by the end of time period Probability of not getting the disease by the end of the time period
  • 8. 8 2.Absolute Measures a. Attributable risk = Incidence in exposed group − Incidence in non-exposed group. b. Attributable risk percent = Incidence in exposed gp − Incidence in non-exposed gp Incidence in exposed group c. Attributable fraction = Risk (or rate) ratio - 1 Risk (or rate) ratio d. Population attributable risk fraction= Incidence in the whole population - Incidence in the non-exposed population Incidence in the whole population e. Population attributable risk= The proportion of the population in the exposed group (p) × Attributable risk. f. Population attributable fraction = Population attributable risk Risk of disease in population c)Others 1.Mortality, Morbidity and Disability Rates 2.Fatality and Life Expectancy Rates 4- Disease Classification International Classification of Diseases (ICD): It is used to classify diseases and other health problems recorded on many types of health and vital records. http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/ The broad categories, used by the World Health Organization and the World Bank in the Global Burden of Disease Study, are: 1- Communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional conditions: including all infectious diseases, deaths in women related to pregnancy, prenatal deaths, which include still births and deaths within the first week of life, and nutritional conditions such as protein-energy malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. 2- Non-communicable diseases: covering cardiovascular diseases, cancers, endocrine conditions, such as diabetes, and neuropsychiatric disorders, which includes alcohol and drug use disorders. 3- Injuries, which include unintentional injuries, such as road traffic accidents, and intentional injuries, such as suicide and violence against others.
  • 9. 9 5- Screening • The aim of screening is to identify asymptomatic disease, or risk factors for disease, by testing a population that has not yet developed clinical symptoms. • Screening tests are often not diagnostic and usually seek to identify small numbers of individuals at high risk of a particular condition. Further tests are needed to confirm a diagnosis. • a screening test can identify individuals with a disease before the presence of disease is detected by routine diagnosis (eg, when symptoms occur), • Treatment at the time of detection by screening, as opposed to the time of routine diagnosis, results in an improved chance of survival. • A screening program can either include the whole population (mass screening) or selected groups who are anticipated to have an increased prevalence of the condition for which screening has been instituted (targeted screening).. Evaluation of screening tests: 1. Reliability: a test measures a variable consistently and is free of random error. 2. Feasibility: A screening test should be inexpensive, easy to administer and impose minimal discomfort on those to whom it is administered. 3. Validity (accuracy): a test is able to differentiate between individuals with a disease, or its precursor, and those without. Measures of validity: 1. Sensitivity: probability to test positive among truly affected 2. Specificity: probability to test negative among truly unaffected 3. Positive Predictive (PV+ ) and Negative Predictive values (PV- ):
  • 10. 10 4. Prevalence = a + d . a + b + c + d 5. Efficiency % = a + c . ×100 a + b + c + d 6. Risk ratio = a/(a + b) c/(c + d) 7. Odds ratio = ad cb 8. ROC curves: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. These curves plot test sensitivity on the Y-axis vs. 1 − specificity on the X-axis. Figure 12.3 presents an ROC curve for the PSA test. The solid line on the ROC curve represents the performance of the PSA test, and the dashed, diagonal line represents the performance of a hypothetical test that is completely uninformative. A perfect test would start at the lower left-hand corner of the graph, rapidly increase in near vertical fashion toward perfect sensitivity, and then move horizontally across the graph to the upper right-hand corner. Every continuous test will have its own a unique ROC curve.
  • 11. 11 6- Levels of Prevention 1. Primary prevention: responsible for keeping people healthy and preventing them from getting ill, through: a) Health promotion: it means the achievement and maintenance of optimum level of health, through: • Sanitary environment. • Health education. • Nutritional supplementation. • Social development. b) Health education: to change unsound healthy behavior method through: personal approach, mass media, and community participation. c) Specific prevention: • Immunization (passive and active). • Chemoprophylaxis. • Nutritional supplementation (prevention of certain deficiencies) • Others: as prophylactic diet, clothes..... 2. Secondary prevention: it is concerned with detection of the disease with prompt and proper treatment. a) Early detection: • Periodic examination specifically of vulnerable groups as mothers and the elderly. • Periodic examination of the high risk groups, e.g. screening for cancer. b) Prompt and appropriate treatment: aims at achieving complete cure and preventing complications. 3. Tertiary prevention: concerned with limitation and rehabilitation of handicapped. a) Limitation of disability: by early medical interference. b) Rehabilitation: physical, social, and psychological rehabilitation.
  • 12. 12 7- Epidemiological Study Designs Epidemiological studies can be classified as either observational or experimental. a. Observational studies allow nature to take its course: the investigator measures but does not intervene. They include studies that can be called descriptive or analytical. 1. Descriptive studies: is limited to a description of the distribution and frequency of diseases, and possible causes of diseases in populations. It is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation.  Ecological studies: the units of analysis are populations or groups of people rather than individuals 2. Analytical studies: goes further by analyzing relationships between health status and other variables (such as smoking, diet or socio-economic status)  Types of study which are used for this are cohort studies, case-control studies or cross-sectional studies. b. Experimental studies (Interventions):  Randomized controlled trials using patients as subjects (clinical trials),  Field trials in which the participants are healthy people.  Community trials in which the participants are the communities themselves.
  • 13. 13 1.Descriptive Studies Stratification of Disease Frequency by Person, Place, and Time  Once we calculate measures of disease frequency, we can examine whether these measures vary by personal characteristics, geography, and/or time periods.  Stratification refers to the process of separating analysis by subgroups.  For example, the prevalence of diabetes among all US adults is approximately 9.0%; the prevalence of diabetes stratified by race is 8.2% among whites and 14.9% among Native Americans. a. Disease Frequency Measurements Stratified by Characteristics of Person  Examples of personal characteristics include age, race/ethnicity, and sex.  For example, polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in red blood cell mass. The estimated prevalence of polycythemia vera among individuals aged 35–44 is 9 cases per 100,000, whereas the estimated prevalence in people aged 75–84 is 163 cases per 100,000. Polycythemia rates are also greater in men and in people of Jewish/Eastern European ancestry.  These data begin to define risk factors for the disease. b. Disease Frequency Measurements Stratified by Characteristics of Place  The incidence of a disease varies by geographic region.  For example, the incidence of multiple sclerosis varies by geographic region within the USA. Areas with the lowest sunlight exposure, such as Seattle, have the highest incidence of multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D is ascertained from sunlight exposure and may play an important role in suppressing autoimmunity. Circulating vitamin D levels are particularly low in regions with reduced sunlight exposure. These disease frequency data, stratified by place, suggest the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. c. Disease Frequency Measurements Stratified by Characteristics of Time  In 1970, approximately 5% of all births in the USA were by Cesarean section delivery. By the year 2000, nearly 25% of US babies were born by Cesarean section. These strong temporal changes in rates generate a number of hypotheses.  One possibility is that maternal age has also increased during this time period, leading to more complicated pregnancies that may require Cesarean section.  A second possibility is that improved fetal monitoring technology that can detect small changes in fetal status may prompt more surgical intervention.  A third possibility is that the routine use of repeat Cesarean section has become standard practice in the USA because of data demonstrating an increased risk of uterine rupture in women who have a vaginal birth after a first Cesarean section.
  • 14. 14  Disease frequency measurements stratified by time are often hypothesis generating, motivating further studies to uncover the true causes of a disease process. 2.Analytical Studies Types of analytical studies: 1. Case-control studies, comparing people who develop a condition with people who have not 2. Cohort studies, Follow-up (retrospective, prospective) studies. People without the disease are followed up to see who develops it, and disease incidence in persons with a characteristic is compared with incidence in persons without the characteristic. Follow-up studies may be done "retrospectively"(or historical), where the population at risk can be defined at some time in the past and traced forward in time, or "prospectively" (or concurrent), where the population is identified or assembled by the investigator and then followed forward in time. 3. Cross-Sectional (prevalence) surveys: A cross-sectional study refers to a study design which measures the exposure and outcome at the same time; this means that there is no follow up time in a cross-sectional study. Cross-sectional studies: 1. Measures the exposure and the outcome at the same time. 2. Estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition. 3. Cannot establish a temporal relationship between the exposure and the outcome.
  • 15. 15 Case–control study  In a case–control study, a group of cases (individuals who have the disease or outcome of interest) and a group of controls (individuals who do not have the disease or outcome of interest) are identified.  The prevalence or level of exposure to a risk (or protective) factor is measured and compared between the two groups. Usually, this study design is less time-consuming and less expensive.  The design allows the investigation of several risk factors for a given disease at the same time, and the study of rare diseases.  It is possible to calculate the odds of exposure among cases and among controls and obtain an odds ratio of exposure  In case–control studies, participants are selected on the basis of their disease status and not their exposure status. Therefore, it is not possible to calculate the incidence of disease in the exposed and unexposed individuals. Cohort study  In a cohort study, participants are followed over time to see whether they develop the disease of interest.  Participants are selected on the basis of whether they are exposed to a potential risk factor. All participants should be free of the disease under investigation at the start of the study.  In a prospective cohort study the investigator assembles the study groups on the basis of exposure to a risk factor, collects baseline data, and continues to collect data on the outcome and other relevant variables over time. time Exposure Study starts Disease occurrence Prospective cohort study time ExposureStudy starts Disease occurrence
  • 16. 16  In a retrospective cohort study, the investigator goes back in time to define the exposed and unexposed groups and reviews medical records to follow participants and review outcomes to the present day. Retrospective cohort studies Exposure time Disease occurrence Study starts  Cohort studies can be used to measure: 1. All three measures of relative risk (risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio) . 2. The incidence of disease in the exposed and unexposed groups. 3. Standardized mortality ratios. 4. Attributable risk and population attributable risk.
  • 17. 17 3.Experimental Studies (intervention studies) There are two main types of intervention study, therapeutic studies and preventive studies.  Therapeutic studies are designed to test the effect of therapies, which could be new drugs, surgery or vaccines, in people who already have a particular disease. These studies are also referred to as clinical trials.  Preventive studies designed to evaluate prevention strategies, on the other hand, are carried out on people who do not have a disease but are considered ‘at risk’. These studies are also referred to as field trials, and may take the form of a trial to test health education methods, training procedures or other public health programs.  An intervention study is an epidemiological experiment in which the investigator randomly allocates selected individuals (or groups of individuals) to an intervention group (the group that receives the intervention under investigation) or to control group (the group that does not receive the intervention). The investigator then measures and compares the incidence of the outcome of interest in the two groups. An example of a group-level study is a field trial or a cluster randomized trial, and an example of an individual study is a randomized controlled trial.  The main measures of effect obtained from an intervention study are the risk ratio or rate ratio. It is also possible to calculate the attributable risk and the population attributable risk from the results of an intervention study.  Studies to test new drugs or surgical procedures are conducted in four phases.. Finally, Phases of Drug Development, Phase I and II studies are typically not randomized trials but are used to develop randomized phase III and IV studies.
  • 18. 18 Phase I Studies  Phase I studies introduce a new drug to humans (usually healthy volunteers) to determine how a drug should be administered (e.g. by mouth, injection into the blood, or injection into the muscle). They also review side effects, safety and the dosage of the drug, and are usually only carried out on a small numbers of people.  Phase I studies cannot be performed in healthy adults because the drug has unacceptable adverse effects, such as a chemotherapeutic agent. Phase II Studies  Phase II studies evaluate efficacy and safety in selected populations of about 100– 300 patients who have the disease or condition to be treated, diagnosed, or prevented.  Participants tend to be hospitalized patients who can be closely monitored. The focus is on dose–response relationships, type of patient, frequency of dosing, or any of a number of other issues involved in safety and efficacy.  Phase IIa studies are clinical trials and Phase IIb studies are controlled trials.  Phase II data are used to inform phase III studies. Phase III/IV Studies  Phase III studies are randomized trials designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of an intervention.  Outcomes of phase III studies are typically clinical events, such as death or tumor- free survival.  Safety assessments occur over a longer period compared with phase II studies.  Phase IIIb studies are randomized trials that occur after a drug has been submitted for approval, but before approval has been granted.  Phase IV studies occur after approval.  Phase IV studies evaluate outcomes associated with a drug or intervention as it is used in clinical practice.  Both phase IIIb and phase IV studies typically focus on long-term safety surveillance.
  • 19. 19 8- Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases 1. Natural History of Communicable Diseases:  Chain of Infection Each case of communicable disease is the result of an orderly progression in a series of events, this series of events may be described as a three-link chain "(epidemiological triad), each link representing a factor essential to the transmission of disease. These links are: 1. The source of the disease agent (reservoir) 2. The means by which the disease may be transmitted (mode of transmission). 3. A susceptible person (host).
  • 20. 20 a. Patterns and extent of infections:  Sporadic: scattered cases which are separated from each other. There is unknown common source of infection.  Endemic: refers to the fact that a particular disease is usually found in a particular area all over the year. For example, malaria is endemic in the southern hemisphere.  Epidemic: a relatively sudden increase in the number of cases of a particular disease in a particular place or area, the area and the number of increased cases are always part of the description of any epidemic.  Pandemic: an epidemic that encompasses a wide geographical area (many countries). In the past pandemics were rare, but through the combination of worldwide rapid travel and the burgeoning human population (~6billion), pandemics are likely to be increasingly in our future. b. Mode of Transmission: 1. Air borne (Droplet) infection: • These are usually transmitted from person to person by discharges (spray, cough, sneeze, breath) from the nose, mouth, throat, or lungs of an infected individual. • Examples: common cold, pneumonia, sore throat, and tuberculosis. 2. Food borne infection: These are usually transmitted by food and water that has become contaminated with feces or urine from an infected human or animal. • Examples: typhoid, and paratyphoid fevers, dysentery, and cholera. 3. Contact infection: • Transmitted by contact of the skin or mucus membranes with the pathogenic organisms. Classification: 1. Direct contact to intact skin: Examples: scabies, and anthrax 2. Venereal (sexual transmitted) infection: Examples: syphilis, gonorrhea, and AIDS
  • 21. 21 3. Contact to damaged skin: i. Wound infection: Examples: Tetanus and gas gangrene ii. Blood borne infection: Examples: viral hepatitis, and AIDS iii. Animal bite (part of Animal borne infection): Example: rabies 4. Arthropod borne infection: •Transmitted from person" to person (or from animal to person) by arthropods. • Examples: malaria, typhus, and yellow fever. N.B. Animal borne infection (Zoonoses): • They are diseases naturally transmitted from animals to man. Classification: 1. Air borne infection: e.g. Q fever, anthrax, tuberculosis 2. Food borne infection: e.g. typhoid, brucellosis, anthrax, tuberculosis 3. Contact infection: e.g. anthrax, rabies, brucellosis 4. Arthropod borne infection c. General measures towards control of infectious (communicable) diseases: Breaking anyone of the links in the chain will prevent the spread of the disease. 1. Control of the disease source: One means of breaking the chain of disease transmission is through measures for controlling sick individuals (cases), carriers, and animal reservoirs. These control measures include: a. Isolation: isolation is a procedure whereby infected persons (cases or carriers) are separated from other individuals. Usually this separation is accomplished by having the patient admitted to the isolation ward in the hospital. Clothing and linens used by infected individuals are laundered with soap and hot water. Other contaminated articles are washed scrubbed aired, sunned, or incinerated as appropriate to the article. Mattresses and pillows used by apparently well persons should be sunned at intervals to destroy and bacteria that may be on them.
  • 22. 22 b. Quarantine: quarantine is the restriction of freedom of movement of those individuals who may have been in contact with a case and who may themselves develop and further spread the disease. In this case, the individual is only suspected of having a contagious disease; however, if an individual is known to have a disease of a communicable nature, he may likely be placed in isolation rather than in quarantine. c. Medical Surveillance: this measure may be carried out in two ways: • When cases or suspected cases of certain communicable diseases occur, all persons who are their contacts may be inspected daily during the incubation (developmental) period of the disease in order to detect new cases of the disease that may be developing. • In the presence of a threatened epidemic, examinations of all troops may be ordered at stated intervals for the purpose of detecting early cases. d. Treatment: when discovered, all cases of disease are treated. In this way, the disease agents are destroyed and will not spread further. e. Personal Hygiene: the spread of disease agents from infected individuals can be prevented or greatly reduced by careful observance of the rules of personal hygiene by strictly adhering to healthful habits and practices. f. Animal Reservoirs: control of animal reservoirs which tend to live in close proximity to man will do much to reduce the communicable disease hazard. Rats are reservoirs for a number of diseases, including plague, enteric salmonellosis, rat bite fever, and trichinosis. They may transmit these diseases to humans through fleas, by contaminating food or water, or by other means. Mice also are health hazards. Rats and mice should be exterminated; the usual method is by poisoning. In addition, denying rodents access to food, water, and shelter will prevent new colonies from being established in the area. Quarantine and immunization of domestic animals may sometimes be required to help prevent the spread of other diseases, such as rabies and tuberculosis. Household pets, especially dogs, may be sources of disease.
  • 23. 23 2. Control of vehicle or transmitting agent: To prevent the transmission of disease organisms, the following measures of environmental sanitation should be practiced as rigidly as possible: a. Avoidance of overcrowding and close physical contact. b. Proper ventilation of living quarters. c. Water purification. d. Careful selection and preparation of food. e. Maintenance of food service sanitation. f. Sanitary waste disposal. g. Proper control of disease-bearing arthropods and animals. h. Encouragement of the individual practice of personal hygiene. 3. Protection of the susceptible persons In general, susceptibles should be protected by all measures which improve general health. It is a well-known fact that the individual who has good mental and physical health has good resistance to disease. Other protective measures include: a. Personal hygiene: the practice of personal hygiene will assist in preventing disease agents from entering the body. b. Immunization: while immunization is an excellent method of control for some diseases, it cannot be relied on completely. It should be used in conjunction with other control measures. Immunizations are rarely 100 percent effective in preventing a disease. c. Prophylaxis: prophylaxis refers to a direct measure used to prevent or help prevent a disease. For example diseases, including malaria, may be prevented or suppressed by medication given before exposure to the disease, but such prophylaxis should be used only upon orders of competent medical authority. d. Adequate nutrition: an improperly nourished body is especially susceptible to the invasion of disease germs. To remain "healthy," an individual should eat adequate balanced foods. e. Adequate Rest. Insufficient rest prevents the body from rebuilding cells that have been used to provide energy for mental and physical activities.
  • 24. 24 9- Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases What is Chronic Disease? Chronic disease can be defined as impairments or deviations from the normal status of an individual which have one or more of the following characteristics:  Permanent condition  Leave residual disability  Caused by non-reversible pathological alterations  Require special training of the patient for rehabilitation  Require a long term supervision Examples: Diabetes Mellitus, Cancer, Hypertension, Asthma, etc. What is Risk Factor? Risk factor can be defined as an aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Modifiable  Cigarette smoking  Life style changes (dietary patterns, physical activity)  Overweight/Obesity  Stress factors  Alcohol abuse Non Modifiable  Age  Gender  Family History  Genetic factors  Personality (type A)  Race
  • 25. 25 Natural History:
  • 26. 26 Control of Chronic Diseases Major Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs):  Cardiovascular diseases  Diabetes  Cancers  Chronic respiratory diseases SMOKING INTERVENTIONS  Taxation  Clean indoor air laws in public places  Comprehensive bans on advertising of tobacco products  Information dissemination through health warning labels, counter-advertising, and various consumer  Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) Primary prevention  An action taken to prevent the development of a certain diseases in a person who is well and does not have the disease yet, e.g. immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV)  Depends on identifying and attacking risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, and occupational hazards  Increase avoidance of the risk factors. Secondary prevention  Once the disease has occurred, we can identify it at an earlier stage in the natural history.  Secondary prevention depends on screening and early detection, and is of value in certain conditions, such as breast and cervical cancer. Early Detection  The aim is to detect the disease at early stages and before complications arise.  There are two components of early detection efforts: 1. Education to help people recognize early signs of disease and seek prompt medical attention with early symptoms of a disease. 2. Screening programs to identify early disease before signs are recognizable such as mammography for breast cancer, and cytology (pap smear) for cervical cancer. About 40% of the cancer burden could be decreased if cases were detected and treated early Tertiary Prevention  Medical care is largely involved with tertiary prevention of these conditions  Aims to prolong life and improve quality of life for patients.  To provide palliative care for patients and their families in low resource settings  Improve access to good quality healthcare focusing on cost-effective and equitable interventions for people with chronic diseases.
  • 27. 27

×