Reading Is An Interactive Process


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This is ppt which shows how reading is an interactive process. It has illustrative examples.

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Reading Is An Interactive Process

  1. 1. Reading is an Interactive Process Dina Ocampo, Ph.D. UP College of Education
  2. 2. Factors that Influence Reading READER CONTEXT TEXT Prior Knowledge Type Organization Knowledge About Reading Linguistic Properties Attitudes and Motivation Structural Features Purpose/Task Instruction Setting Figure 1. Factors that influence reading. (Source:Lipson and Wixson, 1991)
  3. 3. Comprehension is the result of the Interaction between the Reader and the Text <ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>READER </li></ul><ul><li>Types of prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in reader’s memory </li></ul><ul><li>Script Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and beliefs about </li></ul><ul><li>The world derived from </li></ul><ul><li>repeated experiences with </li></ul><ul><li>people, places, events, </li></ul><ul><li>situations in day-to-day </li></ul><ul><li>living. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Knowledge about language </li></ul><ul><li>graphophonic information </li></ul><ul><li>syntactic information </li></ul><ul><li>semantic information </li></ul><ul><li>pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Knowledge of text structure </li></ul><ul><li>text cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>different types of text </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT </li></ul><ul><li>Text Schemata </li></ul><ul><li>Content Information </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>theme </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic features </li></ul><ul><li>spelling patterns/written conventions </li></ul><ul><li>language structure </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary, word meanings </li></ul><ul><li>language functions (context in which </li></ul><ul><li>language is used) </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive devices and general </li></ul><ul><li>text structure </li></ul><ul><li>story grammar (narratives) </li></ul><ul><li>Top-level structure (exposition) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Script Knowledge Content theme
  5. 5. <ul><li>Can you guess </li></ul><ul><li>what the paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>is about? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A newspaper is better than a magazine and on a seashore is better than a street. At first, it is better to run than walk. Also you may have to try several times. It takes some skill but it is easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brandford & Johnson, in Aulls, 1982) </li></ul>
  7. 7. KITE!
  8. 8. Let’s try this one!
  9. 9. <ul><li>Its physical make up is very similar to the make up of an orange. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes an orange has one seed in its center. </li></ul><ul><li>This also has a single central giant seed about 760 miles in radius. </li></ul><ul><li>This inner core serves to give it life, just like the orange seed gives it life . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Its interior is as liquid as the interior of an orange </li></ul><ul><li>However, the liquid of an orange is what we call orange juice. </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid in this sphere is known as the outer liquid core. </li></ul><ul><li>This liquid core is about 1400 miles in depth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The liquid iron is confined by what is called a rocky mantle; the juice of the orange is confined by a white spongy cellulose material. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference is that the white cellulose is only a fraction of the orange’s radius, while the rocky mantle accounts for about a third of its radius, about 1300 miles </li></ul><ul><li>As you may have guessed by now, both the orange and this sphere have a crust or skin, which serves to protect the interior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Can you guess </li></ul><ul><li>what the </li></ul><ul><li>sphere is? </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Usual Suspects The sun! A planet!
  14. 14. What helped? Knowledge About science Motivation Words I’ve digested Experience with oranges earth!
  15. 15. Knowledge About Language Linguistic Features
  16. 16. Do you know all these words? graph draws curve corresponding making known isolated it points one often only continuously consists between are set with variation variables values table set relation
  17. 17. If so, then do you know what this means…….. <ul><li>If the known relation between the variables consists of a table of corresponding values, the graph consists only of the corresponding set of isolated point. If the variables are known to vary continuously, one often draws a curve to show the variation </li></ul>
  18. 18. GOOD SHOW! It’s a line on a graph!
  19. 19. Knowledge of Text Structure Cohesive Devices
  20. 20. Narrative Text Structure
  21. 21. Story Structure of Narratives <ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Narrative Text Structure <ul><ul><li>Is more similar to ordinary conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is more familiar to children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is organized into a sequential pattern – with a beginning, a middle and an end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is easy of keep track of </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Expository texts
  24. 24. Structure of Expository Texts <ul><li>Types of Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Enumeration </li></ul><ul><li>Time order </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison/ Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Problem - Solution </li></ul>The Evolution of the Dodo How did the dodo change from being big birds with strong wings and beaks to a big, flightless bird? CAUSES: ___________ ___________ EFFECT: They grew bigger. CAUSES: No one chased them. Cause and Effect: _____________ _____________ EFFECT: ___________ ___________ EFFECT: The dodos were no longer able to fly.
  25. 25. Expository texts <ul><ul><li>Provide information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually found in content area materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used in newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differ from ordinary conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are used in most school materials </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Reader and the Text <ul><li>The way the information is organized makes a difference in the way we understand and use information. </li></ul>