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Resid env nt-eng
 

Resid env nt-eng

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    Resid env nt-eng Resid env nt-eng Presentation Transcript

    • RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT Alexander D. Slaev, Ph.D., M.Arch. Associate Professor Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in residential environment The residential environment should be classified according to its scope as:  Separate dwelling space (room)  Dwelling  Residential block/ residential zone  Settlement – a town, a city or a village, etc Dwelling is the immediate living environment of man – the individual and the household (family). Respectively – the residential blocks/ residential zones form the immediate living environment of society Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Sustainable residential environment What does sustainable residential environment mean? The requirements for sustainability of the environment mean to maintain the best possible living conditions for man and society today and for the next generations – in the future – even better, provided that The natural environment, the natural resources and the living environment are preserved Neither now, nor in the future resources will be used that may not be restored (natural, physical), Neither renewable resources (material, financial or labour) will be used on a scale, larger than they are used at the moment Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Main requirements for sustainability of the residential environment Measures at the level of urban development Economical use of land resources Ecologically clean residential environment – clean air, soils and waters Efficient treatment of waste Urban spaces, suitable and pleasant to people Human scale of urban and architectural spaces, buildings and elements of the environment Maximum possible greenery and integration (inclusion) of elements of the natural environment Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Main requirements for sustainability of the residential environment Measures at the level of urban development Reduced car dependency and isolation of car traffic and cars to the extent to provide maximum freedom for all pedestrians Maximum use of public transport and alternative means of transportation Decreased energy consumption for transport Lively urban environment and optimal intensified (considerably more intensified than today) use of the residential environment Mix and combination of alternative urban functions and uses Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Main requirements for sustainability of the residential environment Measures at the level of buildings and construction Reduced energy consumption for heating, air-conditioning and lights Maintaining conservative cycles of resources, materials and substances in the course of construction and during the life of buildings: reducing the consumption of clean water and conservative regime of the exchange of fresh air Maintaining options for transformations, changes of uses, reshaping and reconstruction, including demolishing the buildings and other built elements Maximum use of recycled materials or materials, suitable for recycling Minimum use of material, which production is polluting the natural environment. Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Main types of spaces in residential environment There are three types of spaces in the residential environment: Residential spaces (other uses also included) Spaces for communications (pedestrian, for car traffic and mixed) Square spaces – junctions of pedestrian communications – with important public functions – meaningful social and commercial activities (Those spaces will not be studied here, because of their public character) Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in residential environment Spaces (space elements) in low-rise (single-family) housing: Open (not formed, not limited) street space Front yard Main yard (court yard) Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in low-rise housing Open street space:      Typical for villages, small towns, suburbs and town ouskirts, Historically the oldest type of urban space Street space is not clearly identified – it is more a territory than a space Open street space is a green type of environment, encouraging individual expression and responsible attitude towards urban environment Accommodates both pedestrian and car traffic Characterized by long communication distances, high consumption of land for infrastructure networks Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in low-rise housing Front yard Normally its dimensions are small, however the more luxurious and the higher class the houses are, the larger the front yard is  Maximum expression of self-esteem and individual preferences  Full of greenery, flowers landscape and design elements  Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in low-rise housing Main yard (court yard)     The main yard is the main advantage of single-family housing and, therefore, it should express all qualities of the individual natural environment The connection between the house (the living spaces, the day zone) is maximum intensive Maximum expression of the architectural quality of the environment The higher the residential standard, the higher the quality and the level of luxury – the larger the space of the main yard Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the traditional urban block Street space of urban type    Mixed traffic – pedestrian + car traffic (in fact it is dominated by cars) Pedestrian (only) streets Mixed with secured dominance of the pedestrians Enclosed space (courtyard) Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the traditional urban block Street space of urban type (no difference is made between sub-types at this point)  The street space is clearly identified (formed) and this has substantial architectural meaning  Space is saturated with public activities and social life – that is why people like the street space  Lack of greenery – greenery is most often insufficient  Pedestrian and car-traffic are usually mixed Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the traditional urban block Enclosed space (courtyard)      Usually the space is (physically) common, but it is divided functionally and legally into individual yards Its function is close to the function of the individual main yard, however, since it is not an individual space the intimacy is lost Despite that this space is valued as a space for recreation However, it is not always full of greenery and is not always well maintained The efficiency of its function as well as the efficiency of the aesthetic approach depends on its dimensions and scale Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the housing estates: Traffic communications of higher class Service streets (lanes) - drives (cartraffic alleys) Residential environment (park-type) with walks (pedestrian connections) Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the housing estates: Traffic communications of higher class   Space, predominantly designated for cars and other motor vehicles, strictly functional designation Actually it is an element of the territory, There is no space formed Drives (service lanes)    Elements of the street network with strictly functional designation - for cars and other motor vehicles serving the residential areas, plots buildings. It is important to avoid conflicts with the pedestrian movement. Again – elements of the territory, no space formed, only linear connections that should fit in the park-type environment In principle, drives should be isolated from the dwelling function – usually by a green strip Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Types of spaces in the housing estates: Park-type residential environment with pedestrian connections  Once again – clear urban spaces are missing (an urban space is normally surrounded (formed) by buildings), the residential buildings rise in height and the territory has features typical of a park  This reflects the essence of the Modern concept with regard to housing – park-type residential environment, full of greenery and with high aesthetic quality, accessible for all  Communications are structured based on their functional designation, pedestrian and car traffic connections more or less isolated, pedestrian connections being integrated in the residential environment  Functional zoning of the territories (for dwelling function, for public service, green areas and systems, for sports and children playgrounds, etc.), however space is homogeneous (just parks, not street spaces, no courtyard spaces) Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the low-rise housing:     Open street space: The basic characteristics may not be altered, but densification of the housing will contribute to make the street network shorter Priority of the pedestrian movement must be provided. Higher densities will make the space more lively Development of alternative transport and communication options is essential and particularly for low-rise housing - especially biking because public transport is not a viable alternative. The street space is already green (in most cases), but its social potential usually is not developed – a variety of sub-spaces, nooks, recesses, etc. would be useful to develop social contacts Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the low-rise housing: Front yard   The preferences towards individual expression through the front yard should be maintained The tendency to encourage social communications may be supported by greater openness of the front yard Main yard (courtyard)  The trend to higher densities means smaller courtyards however this may be compensated by a variety of nooks and corners for (intra) family and social contacts Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the traditional urban block: Regarding the residential spaces in the traditional urban block and those in the housing estates the trends are towards conversion (despite that planners and architects have still not noticed these trends) Street space of urban type    Distinguishing between the two types of car-traffic communications is of critical importance First, the higher class communications (inter-district) car traffic is of greatest importance for the functions of towns and cities and planner should strictly follow what the communication networks dictates Service lanes and drives should be structured in such a way that cars should be limited in every possible way. Pedestrian streets (baking allowed) have been on vogue. For several decades already and still are. A new topical trend is promoting streets for mixed use by pedestrians, bikers and cars, but cars are strictly limited and the priority of pedestrians is promoted in every possible way. Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the traditional urban block: Enclosed spaces (Courtyards)    Uniting individual yards into one common courtyard space Common green system of the whole enclosed space Providing opportunities for any kind of social activities, social contacts, social (incl. commercial) services – nooks for recreation, sports and children playgrounds, bars, small cafeterias, quiet clubs, spa amenities Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the housing estates: Regarding the residential spaces in the traditional urban block and those in the housing estates the trends are towards conversion (despite that planners and architects have still not noticed these trends) Car-traffic communications   First, the higher class communications (inter-district) car traffic is of greatest importance for the functions of towns and cities and planner should strictly follow what the communication networks dictates Second, service lanes and drives are structured and designed with one main concern – not to allow any conflict with the pedestrian movement Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”
    • Trends to sustainability of the residential spaces in the housing estates: Residential environment     Tendency to saturation of the park-type environment with public services and social activities Tendency towards the formation of pedestrian streets and enclosed (courtyard) spaces The pedestrian streets should be the axes of commercial and social services. They should form attractive spaces The enclosed spaces are good for providing opportunities for any kind of quiet social activities, social contacts, social (incl. commercial) services – nooks for recreation, sports and children playgrounds, bars, small cafeterias, quiet clubs, spa amenities Alexander D. Slaev - Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”