Commodities Trading </li></li></ul><li>INTRODUCTION TODERIVATIVES<br /> Derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more basic variables, called bases which can be:<br /><ul><li>index value,
value of an underlying assets</li></ul>The underlying asset can be equity, forex, commodity or any other asset.<br />
The term Derivative has been defined in securities Contracts (Regulations) Act, as:-<br /> A Derivative includes: -<br /><ul><li>a security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan, whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security;
a contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities</li></ul>DEFINITION<br />
No margins are generally payable by any of the parties to the other</li></li></ul><li> IMPORTANCE OF FORWARD CONTRACTS:<br /><ul><li>Hedging
Speculation </li></ul> NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF FORWARD CONTRACTS<br /><ul><li>Too much of flexibility and generality
Counter party Risk</li></li></ul><li> A futures contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a certain time in the future at a certain price.<br /><ul><li> Exchange traded
F= SerT<br />R= cost of financing<br />T= time till expiration in years<br />E= 2.71828<br />S= Spot Price<br />If, Nifty is at 4500, thus using this formula,<br />futures price is 4545.<br />PRICING OF FUTURES<br />
<ul><li>Option is the derivative product traded on NSE
An option gives the holder of the options the right to do something.
Whereas it costs except margin requirements to enter into a futures contract, the purchase of an option requires an upfront payment.</li></ul>OPTIONS:<br />
<ul><li>Call Option: A call option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to buy an asset by a certain date for a certain price.
Put Option: A put option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell an asset by a certain date for a certain price.</li></ul>There are two basic options:<br />
The contract months available for options:<br /><ul><li>one, two and three-month contracts available</li></ul>Strike price or exercise price:<br /><ul><li>The price at which you have the right to buy or sell is called the strike price.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Index based futures</li></ul>One, two, three month expiry cycles.<br />All contracts expire on the last Thursday.<br />On the Friday, new contract with 3 month expiry would be introduced.<br />Minimum lot size is 50 units.<br /><ul><li>Individual stock futures</li></ul>Settlement is on the basis of mark-to-market<br />Final settlement will be Cash-settled on T+1 basis.<br />Expiration cycle same as for index futures.<br />FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET INSTRUMENTS<br />
arbitrageurs</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Hedging means minimizing one’s losses.
The futures market was created as a parallel market
where one can create a reverse position to the one in the cash market,
so that the loss (profit) in cash market gets offset by profits (loss) in the futures market. </li></ul>HEDGERS<br />
<ul><li>Suppose you have a view that the markets will bounce back after two months. You buy two or three month Sensex futures. Here you are betting that the markets will increase and want to profit from it.
Somebody buying or selling futures without any exposure in the underlying is doing it with a speculative intent and hopes to profit from any unforeseen movements. Speculative trades no doubt require higher margins since they are riskier. This can result in windfall profits or losses based on market movements.</li></ul>SPECULATORS:<br />
<ul><li>Stock index arbitrage is buying and selling between cash and futures market to profit from any under or overpricing in either of the markets.
It involves buying and selling two different futures either in different indices or with different maturities.</li></ul>ARBITRAGEURS:<br />
<ul><li>With the help of various strategies a person can earn irrespective of the fact whether market is going up or down.
With the help of derivative market we can convert our unlimited losses into the limited ones.
Derivatives-Futures and Options can be used as effective risk managing tool, and one can earn risk less profits.</li></ul>CONCLUSION:<br />