79 81
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

79 81

on

  • 325 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
325
Views on SlideShare
325
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    79 81 79 81 Presentation Transcript

    • Annex 10 : Estimates of external costs (a) External Costs of Transport in EU-15 1991 by Type of Effect (in 1000 million ECU/a) ROAD RAIL AVIATION SHIP. TOTAL EFFECT Cars Buses Motor Freight Pass. Freight Pass. Freight Freight Pass. Freight Cycles Accidents 106 4.2 16 21 0.5 0.2 * * * 126 22 Noise 15 1.9 4.4 12 0.9 1.2 2.1 0.7 * 24 14 Air Pollution & 44 3 0.9 23 1.4 0.5 10.3 3.3 0.7 59 27 Climate(b) Total 164 9.1 21 56 2.8 1.8 12 4.0 0.7 209 63 Cars1 Buses1 Freight2 Pass.1 Freight2 Pass.1 Freight2 Freight2 EFFECT Accidents 32.3 9.4 22.2 1.9 0.9 * * * Noise 4.5 4.2 12.7 3.1 4.7 3.0 16.5 * Air Pollution & 13.2 6.8 23.6 5 1.8 14.8 76.8 6.1 Climate Total 50.1 20.4 58.4 10 7.3 17.8 93.2 6.1 Source : INFRAS/IWW (1995) * Statistics not available (a) Including Switzerland and Norway (b) Including climate change 1 ECU/1000pkm 2 ECU/tonne km xviii
    • Annex 11 : List of studies to be launched. List of studies to be launched by the Commission to analyse issues discussed in this Green Paper : - A review of possible obstacles towards a cost internalisation policy in existing Community legislation - Measuring road infrastructure capital and maintenance costs in the European Union: methodologies, evidence and cost allocation options. Including principles for detailed accounts on transport fiscality. - Infrastructure cost imputation for inland waterway transport. - Railway infrastructure : cost imputation and charging. - An electronic kilometre charge for heavy goods vehicles. - Potential for bringing accident cost closer to the individual through insurance premiums. - Internalising external costs in transport : consequences for industry. In addition, many of the issues discussed in this Green Paper are already analysed in the EU's Fourth Framework Programme for Research and Development (notably the Joule, Environment and Transport Research Programmes). The results of this programme will be made available on completion of the individual research projects. The following work programme tasks in the Transport Research Programme are relevant to pricing:- (a) Strategic Research Sector Economics of transport systems : Task 14: Methodologies for valuation of transport systems. (1st Call) Task 15: Pricing of transport systems (impacts of alternative pricing policies on transport demand and modal split). (1st Call) Task 16: Financing of infrastructure investments. (2nd Call) Task 17: Economic impact assessment of transport sector activities on Member States' economy. (1st Call) Developing intermodality : Task 20: Methodology for strategic multimodal/intermodal modelling. (1st Call) Task 21: Policy instruments for improved intermodality and optimum modal split. (1st Call) xix
    • (b) Road transport sector Sustainable Mobility : Task 1: Assessment of the socio-economic and cultural factors affecting all types of road travel demand, travel behaviour, travel patterns and cost elasticities in different Member States. (1st Call) Task 2: Development of strategies designed to avoid the need for travel. (1st Call) Task 3: Development of assessment tools, to evaluate the effects of TDM. strategies on accessibility, economic conditions, and the environment. (1st Call) Task 7: 'Essential' road users: their definition, assessing their levels of demand, and devising appropriate measures to meet their needs. (1st Call) Pricing and Financing : Task 23: Integrated policy survey and development of policy instruments for shifting private traffic to public transport. (1st Call) Task 24: Specification, demonstration and evaluation of integration of pricing measures (urban and suburban) to change modal split in urban areas, inc. the concept of congestion pricing and evaluation of the implication of different fee structures. (1st Call) Task 25: Study on financing schemes for Urban Transport Systems with emphasis on the relation between real costs and their actual financial treatment. (3rd Call ) Task 26: Development of a European guide (methodology) for the evaluation of real transport costs. (3rd Call) Task 27: Investigation of the opportunities for the private sector to contribute to the optimisation of the Urban Public Transport system. (2nd Call) xx