Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e Chapter 3 Prescriptive Process Models copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 R....
Prescriptive Models <ul><li>Prescriptive process models advocate an orderly approach to software engineering </li></ul><ul...
Waterfall Model <ul><li>A.k.a.: Classic Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for problems that are well understood </li></u...
Incremental Model These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Ap...
Incremental Model <ul><li>Applies elements of the waterfall model in incremental fashion </li></ul><ul><li>First increment...
RAD Model These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, ...
RAD Model <ul><li>Emphasizes short development cycle </li></ul><ul><li>If requirements are well understood and project sco...
Evolutionary Models: Prototyping These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Pr...
Evolutionary Models: Prototyping <ul><li>Useful when the customer has a legitimate need but is clueless about the details ...
Evolutionary Models: The Spiral These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Pra...
Evolutionary Models: The Spiral <ul><li>Combines iterative prototyping with systematic aspects of the waterfall model </li...
Evolutionary Models: Concurrent These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Pra...
Evolutionary Models: Concurrent <ul><li>The former image depicted only the modeling activity </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, con...
Still Other Process Models <ul><li>Component based development —the process to apply when reuse is a development objective...
The Unified Process (UP) These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Practition...
UP Phases These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, ...
UP Work Products These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with  Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s App...
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Bab 2 Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak 3

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Bab 2 Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak 3

  1. 1. Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e Chapter 3 Prescriptive Process Models copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc. These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 Materi ini dapat didownload di : DimaraKusumaHakim.BlogSpot.com
  2. 2. Prescriptive Models <ul><li>Prescriptive process models advocate an orderly approach to software engineering </li></ul><ul><li>That leads to a few questions … </li></ul><ul><li>If prescriptive process models strive for structure and order, are they inappropriate for a software world that thrives on change? </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, if we reject traditional process models (and the order they imply) and replace them with something less structured, do we make it impossible to achieve coordination and coherence in software work? </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  3. 3. Waterfall Model <ul><li>A.k.a.: Classic Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for problems that are well understood </li></ul><ul><li>Real problems are more complex than that; changes = confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Customer must state all requirements upfront </li></ul><ul><li>Customer must have patience </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of feedback to the customer makes blunders disastrous </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  4. 4. Incremental Model These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  5. 5. Incremental Model <ul><li>Applies elements of the waterfall model in incremental fashion </li></ul><ul><li>First increment is often a core product </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent elements offer expanded functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent features (some known, some unknown) are created, while the core product may undergo evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>If a customer requires deadlines that are impossible to meet, a sequence of releases may solve the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Permits for staffing of a team to fluctuate </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  6. 6. RAD Model These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  7. 7. RAD Model <ul><li>Emphasizes short development cycle </li></ul><ul><li>If requirements are well understood and project scope is constrained, it may allow rapid creation of S/W systems </li></ul><ul><li>For large projects may require vast human resources (for many RAD teams) </li></ul><ul><li>Developers and customers must be able to cope with fast action </li></ul><ul><li>For systems that are not highly modularized the RAD approach may not work </li></ul><ul><li>If systems require mutual tuning of various components, the RAD approach may not work </li></ul><ul><li>RAD may not be appropriate with technical risks high (new technology) </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  8. 8. Evolutionary Models: Prototyping These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 communication Quick plan Modeling Quick design Construction of prototype Deployment delivery & feedback
  9. 9. Evolutionary Models: Prototyping <ul><li>Useful when the customer has a legitimate need but is clueless about the details </li></ul><ul><li>First prototype may be barely useful: too slow, too big, too unfriendly, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>DANGERS: </li></ul><ul><li>The customer may “LOVE” the prototype which is held together with “chewing gum”. When informed that it is a prototype which has to be re-built, he may want “few fixes” only </li></ul><ul><li>The developer may be tempted to deliver the raw prototype as a final product, sacrificing quality for a quick buck </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  10. 10. Evolutionary Models: The Spiral These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  11. 11. Evolutionary Models: The Spiral <ul><li>Combines iterative prototyping with systematic aspects of the waterfall model </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used throughout the S/W life cycle: from conceptualization to maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor point milestones are used for each evolutionary pass </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor point milestones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required conditions to be attained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic to the development of large-scale systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iteratively reduces risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows repeated use of the prototyping approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: Customers may not like it, fearing lack of control </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  12. 12. Evolutionary Models: Concurrent These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  13. 13. Evolutionary Models: Concurrent <ul><li>The former image depicted only the modeling activity </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, concurrent engineering is a set of framework activities such as Communication, Modeling, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these activities is in one of its states… </li></ul><ul><li>A state is some externally observable mode of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS : </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping (and other evolutionary processes) pose problems to project planning (too much uncertainty) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary speed may not be optimal: too slow affects productivity, too fast leads to chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes software processes should focus on flexibility and extensibility, rather than on quality - delivery delays may make us miss the market niche and window of opportunity </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  14. 14. Still Other Process Models <ul><li>Component based development —the process to apply when reuse is a development objective </li></ul><ul><li>Formal methods —emphasizes the mathematical specification of requirements </li></ul><ul><li>AOSD —provides a process and methodological approach for defining, specifying, designing, and constructing aspects like security, fault tolerance, adherence to business rules, systemic: DB mirroring, memory management, concurrency </li></ul><ul><li>Unified Process —a “use-case driven, architecture-centric, iterative and incremental” software process closely aligned with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) </li></ul>These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  15. 15. The Unified Process (UP) These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005 inception inception elaboration
  16. 16. UP Phases These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
  17. 17. UP Work Products These courseware materials are to be used in conjunction with Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6/e and are provided with permission by R.S. Pressman & Associates, Inc., copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005
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