THE TURKISH REPUBLIC
Turkey is a transcontinental country, located mostly
in Western Asia, and in Southeastern Europe.
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria and
Greece to the west; Georgia, Armenia, Iran
and Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the
Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age
including various Ancient Anatolian civilizations such
as the Trojans.
The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the
11th century. After the decline of the Byzantine, the
Ottomans ruled Anatolia and created a powerful
The empire lived 623 years.
Here are some photos of the Ottoman signs in
The Topkapı Palace
After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its
defeat in World War I,The Turkish War of
Independence was initiated by Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk and his colleagues.
It resulted in the establishment of the modern
Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first
He is referred as the father of Turks.
He modernized the young country with his reforms
Ankara is the capital of Turkey since the empire's fall in 1923 and the
country's second largest city.
Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey, constituting the
country's economic, cultural, and historical heart.
Turkey has a total population of 76 million, with half of that
under the age of 30.
This photo is from the Istiklal Street which is most crowded
place in Turkey.
The country's official language is Turkish.
Turks constitute 75% of the population. Kurds (18%)
and others (7–12%)
Turkey began full membership negotiations with
the European Union in 2005.
Abdullah Gül is the president.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the prime minister.
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and
the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate,
with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.
Winters on the eastern part of the counrty are especially severe.
Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C can occur in eastern Anatolia.
Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year.
Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C
Turkey is one of the world's newly industrialized
The country is among the world's leading producers of
agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships
and other transportation equipment; construction
materials; consumer electronics and home appliances.
Education is governed by a national system.
Primary and secondary education is financed by
the state and free of charge in public schools,
between the ages of 6 and 18.
Primary and high school education are
After the national university entrance
examination students, if they succeed, continue
with their studies at a university.
Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of
historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean
and Mediterranean Sea coasts.
In the recent years, Turkey has also become a popular
destination for culture, spa, and health care tourism.
In 2011, Turkey attracted more than 31.5 million foreign
tourists, ranking as the 6th most popular tourist
destination in the world and the number rises every
Country Number (2012)
Germany 5.0 million
Russia 3.5 million
United Kingdom 2.4 million
Bulgaria 1.5 million
Georgia 1.4 million
Netherlands 1.2 million
Iran 1.1 million
France 1.0 million
United States 0.8 million
Syria 0.7 million
Among all sports in Turkey, the most popular one is football.
Turkey's top teams are Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray
In 2000, Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super
Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball
are also popular.
Anadolu Efes S.K is one of the successful basketball teams in
Athletics is another fast improving sport. Süreyya
Ayhan set the 1500m world record in 2003.