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Module 2 Portraying the Earth
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Module 2 Portraying the Earth Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Module 2: Portraying Earth GEO201 Maps and Landforms September 10th – 14th
  • 2. The Nature of Maps “Not only is it easy to lie with maps, it’s essential.” Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1996. Print.
  • 3. The Nature of Maps “Cartography is concerned with reducing the spatial characteristics of a large area – a portion or all of the earth, and putting it in map form to make it observable.” Robinson, Arthur H., Morrison, Joel L., Muehrcke, Phillip C., Kimerling, A. John, and Stephen C. Guptill. Elements of Cartography. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995. Print.
  • 4. The Nature of Maps  What is a Map?  “A map is a two-dimensional (flat) representation of the whole Earth or a specific region of the Earth.”  A map is a generalized view of an area, as seen from above, that is reduced in size.”  A map is a tool that is used to depict spatial information and to analyze spatial relationships.” Arbogast, Alan F. Discovering Physical Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007. Print.
  • 5. The Nature of Maps “Maps are among the most successful forms of visual communication invented by humankind.” Andrews, Gavin J. Linehan, Denis "Maps." Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. 2007. SAGE Publications. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 6. The Nature of Maps  “The earliest maps must have been based on personal experience and familiarity with local features.”  Babylonians drew maps on clay tablets, of which the oldest specimens found so far have been dated about 2300 bc. "map." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 7. The Nature of Maps  A historian with Herodotus’ Map of the World (5th Century B.C.) geographic leanings, Herodotus recorded, among other things, an early circumnavigation of the African continent by Phoenicians. "map." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 8. The Nature of Maps  The Universalis Cosmographia map of the world by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, originally published in April 1507, is known as the first map to use the name America.
  • 9. The Nature of Maps  Maps show:  Distance  Direction  Size  Shape in horizontal (two- dimensional) spatial relationships.
  • 10. The Nature of Maps Maps Location Positions in two-dimensional space Attributes Qualitative features or quantitative values
  • 11. The Nature of Maps Maps are classified by function  General Reference Maps  Show location of features, such as roads or bodies of water. Robinson, Arthur H., Morrison, Joel L., Muehrcke, Phillip C., Kimerling, A. John, and Stephen C. Guptill. Elements of Cartography. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995. Print.
  • 12. The Nature of Maps Maps are classified by function  Thematic Maps  Concentrate on distribution of features, such as population or soils. Robinson, Arthur H., Morrison, Joel L., Muehrcke, Phillip C., Kimerling, A. John, and Stephen C. Guptill. Elements of Cartography. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995. Print.
  • 13. Map Scale Map scale refers to the distance ratio that exists between features on a map and the real world, or the relationship between area on map and area on Earth.
  • 14. Map Scale Scale can never be perfectly accurate, because of the curve of Earth’s surface. The smaller the area being mapped, the more accurate the scale can be.
  • 15. Map Scale  Graphic Map Scales  Uses a line marked off in graduated distances  Remains correct when map is reproduced in another size, because both the graphic scale line and the map size change in same dimension.
  • 16. Map Scale  Fractional Map Scales  Uses a ratio or fraction, 1:62500 called a representative fraction, to express the comparison of map distance with ground distance on Earth’s surface.  1/63,360 is commonly used because the number in denominator equals the number of inches in one mile.
  • 17. Map Scale  Verbal Map Scales 1 inch on the map =  Also called word 62,500 inches on the scale ground  Uses words to give the ratio of the map scale length to the distance on Earth’s surface.
  • 18. Map Scale Maps are classified by scale. A small-scale map shows a large area, providing limited detail. A large scale map shows a small area, providing considerable detail.
  • 19. Map Scale  Large versus small map scales © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 19
  • 20. Map Scale  Large scale map  Has a relatively large representative fraction, which means the denominator is “small”—1/1,000.
  • 21. Map Scale  Small-scale map  Has a small representation fraction, which means the denominator is “large” – 1/25,000.
  • 22. Map Essentials Map essentials help with interpretation:  Title – content, purpose, area  Date – time span of data  Legend – explanation of symbols  Scale – relationships between  the map and reality  Direction – north arrow or  geographic grid  Location – grid or coordinates  Data Source – for thematic maps  Map Projection – type of projection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 22
  • 23. Map Projections  Basic fault of maps:  Maps try to portray a curved surface on a flat piece of paper.
  • 24. Map Projections  Globes  Can represent, essentially without distortion, the spatial relationships of features on Earth’s surface.  Cannot represent much detail.  Show only one hemisphere at a time.
  • 25. Map Projections  Visual characteristics of the Earth on a globe:  Parallels are parallel and spaced equally on meridians.  Meridians and great circles appear as straight lines when looking straight down.  Meridians converge toward the poles and diverge toward the equator.  Spacing of meridians decrease from the equator to the poles.  Parallels and meridians intersect at right angles. Robinson, Arthur H., Morrison, Joel L., Muehrcke, Phillip C., Kimerling, A. John, and Stephen C. Guptill. Elements of Cartography. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995. Print.
  • 26. Map ProjectionsChallenge to the cartographer: Combine geographic exactness of globe with convenience of flat map © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 26
  • 27. Map Projections  Map projection  The system used to transform the rounded surface of Earth to a flat display.  Designed to preserve either the shape or size of geographic features.  The fundamental problem with mapping is how to minimize distortion while transferring data from a spherical surface to a flat piece of paper.
  • 28. Map Projections Two primary types Equivalent Ratio of areal size on map and Earth is the same Conformal Shape of locations on the map is the same as on Earth, because angular relationships are maintained.
  • 29. Map Projections Equivalence versus Conformality © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 29
  • 30. Map Projections  Impossible to perfectly portray both size and shape, so must strike a compromise between equivalence and conformality.  Can only closely approximate both equivalence and conformality in maps of very small areas (e.g., large-scale maps).
  • 31. Families of Map Projections Cylindrical Projections  “Wrap” the globe in a cylinder of paper  Paper tangent to Earth at equator  Conformal projection  Mercator projection is most famous McKnight’s Physical Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 31
  • 32. Families of Map Projections Plane Projections  Project globe onto a paper that is tangent to globe at some point  Displays one hemisphere well  Equivalent projection McKnight’s Physical Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 32
  • 33. Families of Map Projections Conic Projections  Project the map onto a cone tangent to or intersecting the globe  Principal parallel  Good for mapping small areas on Earth  Impractical for global mapping McKnight’s Physical Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 33
  • 34. Families of Map Projections Pseudocylindrical Projections  A mix of conformal and equivalent  Central parallel and meridian cross at right angles  Oval shaped; distortion increases as you move away from the center McKnight’s Physical Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 34
  • 35. Families of Map Projections Interrupted Projections  Minimize distortion  Discontinuous map, shapes and sizes maintained  Typically oceans are distorted; land masses maintain original shape and size  Goode’s projectionMcKnight’s Physical Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 35
  • 36. Isolines Definition Many types  Isobar: line of constant pressure  Isotherm: line of constant temperature  Isohyet: line of constant rain  Isoamplitude: line of constant wave amplitude © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 36
  • 37. Topographic Maps Topographic Maps  A contour line connects points of equal elevation.  The difference in elevation between two contour lines is known as the contour interval.  Usually every 5th contour lines is a wider, darker index contour. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 37
  • 38. Topographic Maps Topographic Maps  Lines closer together represent steeper terrain; far apart a gentle slope.  Contour lines never cross one another, although they may touch at a vertical cliff.  Contour lines have no beginning or end. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 38
  • 39. Remote Sensing Orthophoto maps  Photographic maps that are multicolored and distortion free  Useful in low-lying coastal regions to show marsh topography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 39
  • 40. GIS—Geographic Information Systems Computer systems used to analyze and display spatial data Layers of data used in mapping Requires high powered computing to process multiple maps © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 40
  • 41. GIS—Geographic Information Systems  A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.  GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data Maps of earthquake shaking hazards are in many ways that reveal used to create and update building codes in relationships, patterns, and the U.S. trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.
  • 42. Maps “Maps are graphic representations of the natural world and of culture and society.” Andrews, Gavin J. Linehan, Denis "Maps." Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. 2007. SAGE Publications. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 43. Maps Maps:  Are Powerful  Communicate ideas  Influence decision-making Andrews, Gavin J. Linehan, Denis "Maps." Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. 2007. SAGE Publications. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 44. Maps “A single map is but one of an indefinitely large number of maps that might be produced for the same situation or from the same data.” Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1996. Print.
  • 45. Maps “Map use is the process of obtaining useful information from maps through reading, analysis, and interpretation.” Kimerling, A. Jon "Cartography." Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science. 2007. SAGE Publications. 28 Aug. 2011.
  • 46. Maps  Find uses in:  Environmental Management  Humanitarian Aid  Urban and Regional Planning  Logistics  Travel  Trade  Business  War Andrews, Gavin J. Linehan, Denis "Maps." Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. 2007. SAGE Publications. 28 Aug. 2011.