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New Study Of Bhagavad Gita Dr. Shriniwas J. Kashalikar


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  • 3. 3 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA November 4, 2009, 10:30 am GURURBRAHMA GURURVISHNUH GURURDEVO MAHESHVARAH GURUH SAKSHAT PARABRAHMA TASMAISHRI GURAVE NAMAH I salute my Guru, who is Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh called Gunamaya i.e. the penultimate truth; and the Parabrahma; i.e. the ultimate truth. What is the background of the sharing of my perceptions of Gita? Why did I study Gita? It gives me great pleasure to share these experiences and perceptions of my study of Bhagavad Gita. Obviously; this is neither a translation nor a commentary. I may not call this an interpretation also. This is simply, a sharing of my experiences and perceptions of Bhagavad Gita! For the sake of simplicity, henceforth I am going to refer her as Gita. Another interesting thing, which may appear queer, is; I prefer to refer to Gita as “she” and not it. Because Gita is much more than a “living” and “loving” mother! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 4. 4 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It was in early childhood that I used to hear some chapters such as 15th; being recited by my brothers and sister. During our school days I remember to have learnt some shlokas from Gita Dhyana and some shlokas from Gita proper. But I don’t remember the details. After this brief encounter, all that I heard during my medical college days, from leftist friends was not in favor of Gita. But what I heard from many others was high acclaim for Gita. But somehow I was involved in many things other than Gita and probably kept on groping in the dark for quite some time. May be, this was because study of Gita did not seem to have application in medical profession or social development; or because study of Gita wasn’t thought very important by leaders in different fields. Most importantly, study of Gita was not promoted enough by the local, municipal, state and central governments; in India; to attract majority of people and especially young minds! Study of Gita was not associated with any apparent or tempting incentive! I must appreciate however; that there have been many voluntary groups trying to spread the study and message of Gita all over the world, even though I had not come in their contact or influenced by their activity! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 5. 5 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But after coming to Mumbai, flame of curiosity was ignited and interest in Gita was aroused, probably because I had begun to revisit Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran, and/or I was becoming increasingly aware of my inadequacies. Apparently it was also because; I wanted to study something world famous and ultimate in every sense; so as to boost my ego! Hence I began the study of Gita. But now it appears that there was much more to it than this. Whether I studied Gita or Gita herself made me study her, is a moot question and I feel; the latter may be truer. When did I start the study? What were the early experiences? When I seriously began to study Gita; about twenty years ago, I found many contradictions in her. For example, in 4th chapter, Lord Krishna says in the same verse, (Chaturvarnayam maya srustam…) that he created four VARNAS and also; he did not create them! Also, even as Lord Krishna advocates the war (Tasmat uttishtha Kaunteya yuddhaya kruta nishchaya…2nd chapter, nirashi nirmamo bhootva yuddhaya kruta nishchaya… 3rd chapter, Yadahankarmashritya na yotsya iti…..18th chapter), he also upholds nonviolence and control of mind in most DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 6. 6 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA of the chapters e.g. (Ahimsa satyamakrodham.. 16th chapter, Moodhagrahenamatnoyat …17th chapter, ) as a virtue. Similarly, Lord Krishna disapproves Arjuna’s arguments in 1st chapter about VARNA SANKAR, which means indisciplined and unrestricted marriages directed by mere attraction; in different groups, (Ashochyanaiva shochastvam prajnya vadanscha bhashase.. .2nd chapter) he uses the same argument (Yadi hyaham na varteyam …and Utside yurime lokam… 3rd chapter). In 2nd chapter his argument (Akeertin cha pi bhootani…, Bhayat ranat uparatam…, Awacchya vadanscha bahoon…. etc) about “what people would say”, appears to be too superficial and not enlightening or philosophical (Please refer; page 121). One can quote many such contradictions and uninteresting arguments as examples; but that is not the purpose of this writing, because as can be seen latter, these apparent contradictions kept getting resolved in the process of study. Hence, the purpose of this writing is; to share exciting changes in my perceptions of Gita and myself and hitherto impossible; amazing revelations; which occurred as I went on studying Gita, inspite of the contradictions and uninteresting arguments! Why did I continue my study of Gita inspite of the contradictions and uninteresting arguments (which at DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 7. 7 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA that time were “real” and not “merely apparent”)? Why did I go ahead even further to byheart her? The reason why I kept on studying Gita in spite of the contradictions was; I sensed that there was something in Gita, which I was not able perceive. This sensing of something; which I was not able to perceive, kept on haunting me. I sensed that it was so precious that I could not resist myself! This was like an obsession of searching a secret treasure; inspite of difficulties and dangers! That sensation of something imperceptible in Gita kept on propelling me from within also! It was as if I was possessed by this sensation in and out! In addition, I realized that I needed to correlate the shlokas or verses in different chapters so as to extract deeper meaning. This could have been possible only if I remembered all the 700 verses from different chapters, and contemplate on them, at any given point of time. This I thought was the only way to possibly resolve the contradictions; even while traveling or walking and without having to refer a book! So I started the uphill task (as I do not have the gift of very good memory) of by hearting Gita! But frankly speaking, even as I am giving these apparently logical explanations, I had not quite understood why I kept on reciting and by hearting Gita, obsessively inspite of the contradictions! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 8. 8 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It appears now, that Gita herself consumed my consciousness, without me being aware of it and kept on absorbing; my being in her! Another reason for the persistence; (inspite of pains and agonies of frequent and serious disagreements); which was beyond my desire or voluntary will, may be that; study of Gita has the roots in my previous birth. This study may be a continuation of what was left half way; in the last birth! You may believe and appreciate this or discard as a flight of imagination! I leave it to your own perceptions and experiences! But life actually encompasses the births and deaths and hence called ANUBANDHA and NITYAGA i.e. linked up and continuous! The continuity is evident in such phenomena. Why did not I write earlier? In the process of studying Gita; the thought to share my understanding used be very predominant. This may be a reaction of the excitement I derived from time to time from Gita or it may be because I thought; I have something to offer to the society! For this reason; I had tried to write on Gita about ten to twelve years back, but later I stopped halfway; as I was not quite satisfied and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 9. 9 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA was not at ease; with my own interpretations, contentions and explanations, which appeared circular to me! What is the feeling while sharing the perceptions of Gita today? Not that I am sharing now, because I can claim to have understood Gita completely, but because, I am convinced that Gita enlightens us for the journey; that starts with ignorance, individuality; and timed mortal existence; and heads towards the destinations of self realization; universality and trans-temporal immortal consciousness; respectively! Or rather, it is because it is an urge to share something wonderful with the others, with whom I feel, I am united, irrespective of their caste, creed, religion, ideology, race, country and other characteristics; such as whether I know them or not! I am keen to share this great treasure, because; at this juncture I see; that Gita deals with; 1) Molecular activities 2) Individual activities including various physical, instinctual, emotional and intellectual 3) The relationship of these with the society and universe and 4) The relationship of all these with past, present and future; and 5) The all encompassing cosmic consciousness i.e. the nature of our cosmic being. I am enthusiastic to share because, though Gita does not deal with; the drudgery of enumeration and description DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 10. 10 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA of irrelevant peripheral details, she deals with the intricate principles involved in the intermolecular, inter- moment, interpersonal, international interactions and also the interactions at all the levels of consciousness. This may be termed cosmic dynamics or cosmic orchestra; including the role of an individual blossoming in it! Do I understand Gita completely? I have realized that I may not understand Gita, I may understand Gita partially, or I may misunderstand Gita. In any case it is useful; because; with the study of Gita, there starts the exciting voyage of enlightenment and blossoming! Complete understanding of Gita is impossible, because it is trans-intellectual i.e. beyond the three levels of consciousness (SWPANA, SUSHUPTI and JAGRUTI, i.e. dream, sleep and wakefulness respectively) and four modes of communication (VAACHA) viz. PARA, PASHYANTI, MADHYAMA and VAIKHARI, i.e. roughly speaking; communication from the root of one’s existence without articulation(umbilical area), the primitive instincts communication (precoridal area), autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine system (throat) and communication as articulated and spoken through central nervous activity (tongue, lips, palate etc) respectively. These modes of communication seem to express different levels of genuinity and varying distance from the objective truth. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 11. 11 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA What is the scope of the study of Gita in individual life? However, even if I don’t understand Gita, due to above reason; I have the freedom and opportunity to keep on studying Gita and merge with cosmic consciousness to the extent possible, and while doing so share the perceptions! I have the freedom to be empowered in the course of time; sufficient enough to relinquish at appropriate time; “my” then redundant; intellectual, instinctual, emotional and instinctual frameworks, material possessions and my body, happily and victoriously! This is akin to a blossoming flower; that emanates its pleasant fragrance (without reservations and any kind of pain or discomfort whatsoever) or a ripe fruit that drops from the tree! What is the role of NAMASMARAN in the study of Gita? Now before I go ahead, I must state here, that NAMASMARAN enabled the much necessary inner propulsion for continued study and “understanding” Gita to the extent possible; and Gita provided the paradigm shift and strong and stabilizing conceptual foundation that made it possible to adhere to apparently meaningless and unglamorous activity of NAMASMARAN! But most importantly it is the cosmic consciousness (Guru) DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 12. 12 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA that has made all this; i.e. study of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN possible! Why wasn’t this published as printed book? I am glad that it has been uploaded for free download and is being shared with millions, WITHOUT the delay caused by various formalities involved in printing, publishing advertising, transportation, shipment and marketing or selling of hard copies. This delay due to several factors such as motivation, interest, commitment, capability, dynamism of the printers, publishers and the people involved in marketing and sale; of hard copies is avoided! I am also glad that this electronic publication is independent of any influence of charity, donations, sponsorship. This is what I call the grace of God or the benevolence of the cosmic consciousness! In as much as I don’t want to keep any copyrights; so that anybody in the world; could utilize these shared perceptions freely, I would also like to clarify that; just as well meaning use of these would aid in imminent universal blossoming; the plagiarism of this material in any form with vested interests and mercenary motives; would prove detrimental to the plagiarists and their readers; and hence to everyone. November 4, 2009, 4:30 pm. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 13. 13 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In what way was it a difficult proposition to study and continue to study Gita? Like any individual I was also engrossed in the cacophony of needs, wants, passions, infatuations, goals, dreams and aspirations, for myself and the society, which I was conscious of, there was; in addition; an inexplicable and subconscious undercurrent that seemed to give incomprehensible twists and turns to my life; often beyond my tolerance and forbearance and stirred me from deep within! Added to all this was; the challenge of study of Gita, in which there way no monetary benefit or any solution to day to day problems. Study of Gita had (and even today does not have any value) in medical curriculum. There was importance in medical curriculum! This apparent irrelevance and non utility of the study made it difficult and often disturbing! But even as it appeared to create turmoil within my intellectual and emotional framework; I could not get rid of it, till today, due to the possible reasons mentioned earlier! What is the bond that Gita creates? It is just in recent times that I have started appreciating that Gita has the nectar of immortality that is beyond individual consciousness. But till recently; I felt that Gita DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 14. 14 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA (who kills one’s subjectivity), imparted a dying experience! This is why at earlier stages I felt it was terribly frightening to study and internalize Gita! But even then, Gita immersed me in herself! In past, I used to sometimes worship Gita and sometimes contradict her; without seriously studying! I often merely used some quotations from Gita for proving my point and to impress the audience and feel good with myself. During my study in college and medical college I used get enamored by unusual terminology and bombastic uncommon words and feel elated. Many a times quoting Gita, added to this elation! But now I know that I was merely; getting enamored or repulsed by experiencing the periphery; similar to enjoying or hating the fruit by tasting its skin! What is the significance of reciting Gita? In India, Gita is recited, chanted, by hearted by many. Earlier I thought this was stupidity or slavish mentality. At times I thought this was blind belief. But today I confess frankly that I was more immature at that time, than what I am today! Today as a student of physiology for over 30 years, I feel that Gita can especially benefit all the children in the world to develop and tone up their central nervous system (including the speech areas and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 15. 15 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA speech articulation with biomedical feedback) and enhance their evolution during this life! This is true not merely for a child but for any and every person of any age in the world. This is true even if Gita is by hearted without understanding the intricacies, which one can appreciate at a later stage of development! As a student of physiology, I am also sure that; by hearting of certain facts, meaningful hymns, philosophical or scientific sutras (e.g. those from Ayurveda, Gita, and Arithmetic), without questioning; lets the child build; the edifice of knowledge and then work on it. Up to a certain age there is no capacity in us to analyze and comprehend certain aspects of life and hence insistence on clarification should not be encouraged as it can act as hindrance in the learning. In fact by hearting even if the child did not understand the meaning is as essential; as feeding the baby, even if it did not understand the nutritive principles in that food! While studying Gita I realized that questions themselves should not be discouraged, but encouraged, but it must also be clear that all questions may not be answered and if answered, the answers may not be understood. Hence insistence on clarification; as a precondition to by hearting; should not be encouraged. What is the role of patience and humility in learning Gita? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 16. 16 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Another point in learning Gita is; an approach with humility and patience. They are very important. Besides, hidden meanings are not understood by casual reading and/or egocentric approach under the spell of egalitarian, utopian or any such philosophical thought. Moreover; Gita can not be appreciated if we are already prejudiced by individualistic trends or socialistic dogmas; often hidden under the guise of analytical fervor and/or scientific temper. Patience (which is born from honesty, commitment and readiness to go beyond individual subjectivity and paradigms of every kind and sometimes called SHRADDHA) opens the doors to enlightenment and blossoming at individual and global levels! What is the benefit from study of Gita? Now I realize that study of Gita can empower a serious student of Gita to live with unconditioned acceptance, love and respect for every moment and situation, and work in consonance with nature; to one’s complete fulfillment and greatest satisfaction. Gita enables one to blossom in such a way, that subjectivity gets shed off smoothly; while global unity and harmony begin to pulsate in one’s heart! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 17. 17 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is worthwhile to share with you here; that today I feel that; opportunity to study Gita is a one of the greatest treasure in my life for me. November 4, 2009 9:45 pm. How do we reconcile the socialistic and individualistic ideas with the principles of Gita? During my first few years of study of Namasmaran, Vishnusahasranama and Gita, I was instinctively or intuitively feeling, that the essence of these teachings was not at all in opposition to the idea of social justice and material abundance; explicit in socialistic and leftist way of thinking. I felt strongly; that inequality and exploitation were aberrations; and in no way; teachings of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN (as sometimes erroneously thought even by me). I sensed the essence of Gita and Vishnusahasranam and the NAMASMARAN embodied the spirit; unifying the essence of the leftists, rightists, believers, nonbelievers and all others! But it is after ongoing study that it became clear that being not equal can mean; merely being different and complementary (and not necessarily unequal in the sense of constituting antagonistic relationship of exploiter and exploited). Then I took it upon myself to further clarify DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 18. 18 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA the essence to myself and share it with others. Because; I had in myself (which were in the outside society), the leftist, rightist, individualistic, socialistic and good and bad elements; such as superficiality, pettiness, prejudice and ideological adamancy! In what way was the study of Gita useful in practically realizing the ideals of life? I was possessed by only one question: How to see more clearly and then show that essence of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN; is the key to blossoming of all, irrespective of their identity viz. atheist, leftists, Hindus, non-Hindus, and others belonging to different cultural and socioeconomic groups? I had sensed, as mentioned earlier, that Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN had the best from capitalist or individualistic doctrines in terms of individual blossoming and the best of Marxist, leftist, socialist or communist doctrines in terms of global blossoming and welfare of all; and unite all streams in the society! So, from this point of view, I wrote my comments or interpretations on Gita and Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran, so as to highlight the innate unity and bring everyone together, irrespective caste, creed, religion and even socioeconomic group! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 19. 19 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA (Did I get frustrated any time; in the process of studying Gita?) But as the time passed, I started realizing that even though my efforts were honest (according to me), they were subjective and incomplete. They did not convey absolute or objective truth and hence, did not match the demands of the time! But having not understood this enigma; I was really frustrated. I didn’t quite understand the subtle difference between subjective and objective perspectives. I was unable to see how my efforts; admired by most readers; could apparently make no impact (in terms of socio cultural and politico economic conditions, to my satisfaction) on myself and the society! How does Gita (or NAMSMARAN) help in overcoming the frustration? But in spite of my frustration, I still felt quite strongly that my convictions if real; then must blossom the universe in every possible way at some point of time. So I was not too much vagrant or did not go too astray! Gradually I began to realize that, even as my conviction was correct according to me, it could be more subjective and hence it was essential to practice NAMASMARAN with greater commitment and grow more and more objective. Having realized this onus my head, it became increasingly clear that it was useless and/or DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 20. 20 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA counterproductive to simply despise my own short comings! Because, self pity amounted to being suicidal, i.e. violent to myself! Having accepted the NAMASMARAN as top priority, it also became clear that it was inappropriate to hate the shortcomings of the others. Because, that is being in a subtle way, violent to others! Thus, I stopped despising what ever was happening in the society which was unpleasant to me! I realized that there was no sense in getting frustrated, feeling guilty, accepting defeat or blaming disagreeable activities and view points of others (theists, spiritualists, atheists, leftists, secular etc because I was a part all this some point in time). I also found no sense in feeling sad about the misinterpretations of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN by their worshippers and/or their detractors (because I was a party to this also!). I also realized that, what is required, is blossoming together and empowering one another; through the study and practice of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN respectively. I thought this would assist us to grow from within and actualize intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical actions; in terms of globally nurturing policy making, planning, administration and implementation and engender individual and global blossoming! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 21. 21 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA November5, 2009, 10:00 am What were the first impressions of 1st chapter? Initially when I began to read Gita, I felt that I am reading a story of war. I was rather put off by the list of names and the description of conches they blew. Later I read about the repulsion of Arjuna about the idea of war and violence and his arguments about the disastrous effects of war. I felt that there was nothing intellectual and it all seemed to be too obvious to be stated. But I kept on by hearting it apparently; as a kind of exercise of memory and probably also to fill the void in me; and actually because Gita “swallowed” me as I have mentioned earlier! I did not quite understand the exact meaning MOHA for long time. Some said that Arjuna was afraid and some said that it was his love for the family members. Some felt Arjuna was right and some said he was wrong. But I never seemed to understand how this was related to the day to day problems in life of a common man and me; and why Gita was acclaimed as the greatest exposition of philosophy! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 22. 22 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Some said that the description of war was symbolic and actually Gita relates to the higher self in an individual with lower self. This seemed impressive but could not explain the relevance of Arjuna’s arguments about VARNA SANKAR i.e. haphazard and lawless marriages amongst different strata and groups in society and their ill effects. How can we get clarifications to the doubts formed while studying the 1st chapter? At this juncture; it is clear; that Gita actually deals with the individual existence, universe, the time and cosmic consciousness. She also deals with different stages of human development from SADHAKA i.e. seeker and SIDDHA i.e. enlightened individual and the various ways and techniques to attain the ultimate state of liberation. Initially I used to feel that Gita relates to individual emancipation and hence felt that there was nothing in terms of solution for the welfare of world. This was because of the repeated description of STHITAPRAJNA (a person beyond the influence of painful and pleasurable influences in life) and absence of any reference to dream society! This could be because of my ego (not necessarily unjustified or condemnable, but not accurate either), which prevented me from seeing my unity with the universe and how the STHITAPRAJNA state was DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 23. 23 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA related to social welfare. Hence I could not see how Gita could help in social emancipation! In addition, the obsession and yearning that “I have to change the world for better” was the stumbling block in getting satisfactory solution from Gita! Moreover; I was expecting some kind of a blue print for the universal welfare; and since I did not find it; I used to feel that Gita is individualistic and hence of no consequences for the global welfare. Naturally I was not quite in love with Gita. In fact I read and studied it with reluctance and as if because; somebody was pushing me from within to study it persistently. Due to my honest (though subjective) concern; I was obsessed by global welfare, of which I had faint sketch in mind. But I was neither finding any reflections of the sketch in reality; nor was I completely convinced by it. I was probably looking for clearer blueprint in Gita. But since Gita does not give any such blueprint, I was rather getting depressed by reading Gita. Study of Gita was thus a kind of invited trouble! However gradually; this turmoil began to subside; when I started to realize that the role of Gita is not to provide any blueprint; but to inspire the student to create a universal blueprint conducive to blossoming (in a most democratic) of everyone in the world! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 24. 24 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA What were the hurdles in the process of studying Gita? Sometimes I thought Gita was produced on battlefield, sometimes I felt that it was not a creation of one individual. Sometimes I felt that many people have added different verses out of context and relevance. But these feelings did not deter me from studying Gita, because; these feelings had nothing to do with what I was looking for in Gita! I was really not concerned and bothered whether Gita was created by one or many and whether on battlefield or elsewhere! Some people said that it was not proper to read Gita at home as it leads to conflicts in home and some people said that it was inauspicious to read it because it was read after some one’s demise. Although these views sometimes disturbed me temporarily; while studying Gita; they could not deter me from studying her! I however felt that Gita was not very pleasant like a romantic poetry and did not generate elation or ecstasy. She seemed to ruthlessly remind unwanted, unnecessary and unrelated questions and problems such as those of war and death! Arguments that Gita preaches violence and the opinion that she promotes inequality and exploitation appeared too superficial and based on casual reading with DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 25. 25 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA preformed notions and prejudices; though they harmed my enthusiasm to some extent. Many people in the world alleged then and do so even today; that; Hindu scriptures such as VEDAs, SMRUTIs (Compilations of rules, regulations and practical techniques for social stability, growth and harmony) advocate inequality (and hence exploitation). This was because of the labor division that continued through generations, in a structured form. It is true that various influences such as military invasions and religious persecutions tore apart the fabric of holistic Hindu philosophy and way of life, into somewhat arbitrary, coercive and at times absurd traditions and conventions, but it does not render the Hindu philosophy as such; exploitative, outdated and counterproductive. These views create doubt and suspension in one’s mind even before a Hindu like begins to study books such as Gita. Can Gita guide the world today? I began to understand that Gita philosophy (the cosmic dynamics) reveals to us our position and role in the eternal orchestra and guides us to live to our fullest satisfaction; while simultaneously aiding the blossoming of the universe. I realized that by studying Gita superficially one can not see her potential to rejuvenate, regenerate and even revive the chaotic and turbulent human civilization all DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 26. 26 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA over the world. I therefore felt greater and greater need to explore the heart of Gita. I started getting as if haunted by a beautiful and barely seen blurred “melodious light” in the core of Gita. Gita begins with the description of legions of Kauravas and Pandavas on the Kurukshetra. Thus Gita directly begins with the most crucial dilemma or tricky situation one can have in life viz. the question of life and death! All conflicts in life are concentrated in this situation! This makes Gita the ultimate counselor! I now feel that; Gita deals with war of higher self with the lower self in an individual, where the lower self is attached to many likes and dislikes! This attachment is depicted in terms of attachment (like that for suicidal and destructive addiction) for the relatives even if they were social psychopaths. This attachment leads to despondent retreat to lower self and passive acceptance of and involvement in degeneration and decay of one’s own true self (and that of the universe). This is surrender of higher self to lower self, or surrender of higher self of the society to the lower self of the society, that is called MOHA of Arjuna, which I guess is common to most people in the world (which is why Gita is universal). Gita simultaneously deals with the actual war also; because she looks at the individual and society in a DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 27. 27 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA holistic way. She conceives and teaches to appreciate that the condition of war within and our response to that war; naturally manifest in family and social life. If our response is of surrender due to MOHA then it is detrimental to an individual as well as the society. I think, I can appreciate this (previously thought unwanted and irrelevant and hence unpleasant) unavoidable and eternal war within and out! In fact knowledge of Gita makes it clear that presence of this war and its comprehension is a golden opportunity to live in SWADHARMA and achieve individual and global blossoming! Strange (To state the war as opportunity) though it may appear it is true that this internal and external war is a product of evolution! Animals have no choice! They neither can glorify their instincts nor can they condemn it! Neither are they endowed with the freedom to choose indulgence nor are they free to opt for abstinence! They do not have the golden opportunity to live in SWADHARMA as there is o conflict. Arjuna’s response of MOHA is a response to inner war (that invariably manifests in the society)! Such despondent response to the lower self of an individual is invariably reflected in the form of a retreat to the lower self of the society i.e. psychopathic and detrimental elements in the society! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 28. 28 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita not only depicts the individual and global despondency; but it also depicts; an intellectual explanation and justification of such despondency in the form of apparently sublime values and concerns; as advanced by Arjuna. Thus Arjuna is dismissing the idea of killing teachers, brothers and other loved ones by forecasting the social holocaust in terms of the ruining of families and the exploitation of widows and mutilation of social discipline and harmony; leading to ill effects on the departed souls and the abyss thereof! Arjuna represents erudite but erroneous arguments! Thus Gita creates a strong case for individual and social mediocrity, individualism, pettiness, gullibility, defeatism, and despondency with intellectual explanations and justifications, which span from individual and social life; to even life after death! It is at this point that I realized that Gita is unique in NOT providing an arbitrary blue print that upholds individualism or socialism; but enlightens the root of our being and provides freedom and blossoming of individuals and the universe simultaneously. This understanding has wiped out my previous reservations about Gita (of being individualistic or addressing merely personal needs or problems) and made me far more comfortable with Gita than I used to be earlier. I now understand that Gita is more personal and more social in true sense because she takes us to the core of both! This DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 29. 29 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA makes her really and absolutely accurate, just and totally democratic in true sense, which the individualistic and socialistic philosophical frameworks are not! I felt very happy for having persisted on the study of Gita and having come out of the limitations and inadequacies of individualistic and socialistic philosophies. Through depicting the individual and social despondence (represented by ARJUNA VISHADA) Gita creates a ground for an eternal discourse to shun the individual, social and universal tendencies to sink and decay! Gita enters into 2nd chapter and then offers the omnipotent and omniscient panacea to such despondence and decay that surfaces repeatedly in the human civilization throughout history; from millennia to millennia and time and again; from the very source of eternally provident and rejuvenating cosmic consciousness! November 5, 2009; 10:00 pm How is MOHA a universal problem and the resurrection from MOHA a universal solution? After creating a strong case for the despondence; like a devil’s advocate; in 1st chapter; the propounder of Gita DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 30. 30 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA straight away proclaims in 2nd chapter; the aphorism that you don’t die! This aphorism can cause a massive shock for any serious reader and I was no exception. Isn’t it natural that normally our mindset cannot understand, agree, believe or realize the concept of immortality of soul? I however; kept on reading it, but without really understanding, agreeing, believing and of course realizing! In fact this discussion in 2nd chapter made me feel miserably torn in two conceptual premises! Neither could I agree with the claim of immortality, which was beyond my comprehension and even imagination; nor could I felt that I was a complete mortal with no traces of life after the death of my body! I could never imagine myself discarding my body like “old clothes” or in; living in absence of the body, but I could not dismiss the claim of immortality also; because I “knew” (though I had not personally realized) that a) nothing is destroyed b) consciousness; thoughts, feelings, time, space, energy etc do not have the same kind of “existence”, “birth” or “death” and c) ‘beginning and end’ are human concepts; derived from the limitations of physiological state, consciousness, perceptions, thinking, feelings and the information processing in the neurons and their network! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 31. 31 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Now I realize that such tearing off; of my conceptual premises lead to dialectical process breaking down the sectarian ideas and promoted evolution of the holistic perspective. Arjuna has indicated his disgust for a war that involves killing of near and dear ones. He is selfless and has no interest in any gains from such a war that involves shading of blood of his teachers, brothers and other close ones. So Arjuna is NOT afraid of war like a timid creature, but his conscience has paralyzed him! Arjuna like any sensitive, honest, brave and conscientious individual despised the killing of his brothers. I am sure that any sensitive and conscientious individual would relate with the plight of Arjuna; because it results from information processing through neuroendocrine, autonomic and central nervous systems; and hence is universal! But having said that; as I went on studying Gita, it started becoming clearer, that human beings are not merely physiological; they are potentially much more than that! November 6, 08:20 pm After listening to Arjuna’s plight, Lord Krishna, who is cosmic consciousness, personified; (and hence can see; what others don’t; and can’t; and is conscious of what others are not); sees that Arjuna is not able to see the truth beyond the physiologically restricted sensory DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 32. 32 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA perceptions, like most people in the world! This inability to see beyond physiological boundaries (inaccurate perception), leads to faulty feelings arrogance or despondence (as that of Arjuna), and faulty actions (refusal to participate in war by Arjuna). Lord Krishna notes that Arjuna has been paralyzed (inappropriate conation or response) due to inappropriate feelings (affect) resulting from this erroneous perception (cognition). This syndrome (actually universal) is called MOHA. Lord Krishna therefore sets out to explore and salvage the human potential of Arjuna (and mankind) that has been paralyzed and wake him to his immortal self, (and thereby rectify cognition, affect and conation) from the despondent slumber of physiological confinements. Lord Krishna does this in a step by step manner, with different explanations. As a friend, philosopher and guide; he disapproves Arjuna’s response as totally unbecoming for Arjuna. He declares it as totally inappropriate and impotent! He explains to Arjuna that love and attachment to the bodies of all the warriors representing sociopathic elements; (by virtue of dominance of lower self in us; which clouds our perceptions, vulgarizes our feelings and deteriorates our actions) is inappropriate. Such wars keep repeating in the societies (between socially benevolent DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 33. 33 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA elements and sociopathic elements) and also in the individuals (between the lower self and the higher self). Lord Krishna shows that waking up and rising to one’s immortal existence engenders the appropriate actions and one should not get deterred by any considerations born out of MOHA. Lord Krishna further clarifies, that the warring factions and the war (which also goes on in the individual as well as in the universe); had beginning and end but its core (cosmic consciousness) is immortal. Arjuna (and we all) should realize it (by evolving through the various means described in scriptures such as NAMASMARAN), and express himself enthusiastically with all might, in such wars (outside and inside)! These outer and inner wars are actually considered as golden opportunity, because, animals do NOT have such a choice to fight against the forces of darkness (within and outside). This is called DHARMYA YDDHA (one which is in tune with cosmic principles and hence inevitable; and NOT religious war) because it is in tune with as well conducive to reach the cosmic consciousness. This is similar to clinically accurate surgical treatment; which can be required for the health of the whole body (and society) and is totally different from indiscriminate violence or indiscriminate nonviolence, born out of ignorant and subjective premises. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 34. 34 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It has to be remembered that through out hereafter; Lord Krishna keeps describing how one can conquer (not coercively suppress) the physiological (individualistic and petty) elements in body (which mar the consciousness and cause MOHA). He further also shows that uninterrupted (conscious) union with immortal soul is called YOGA; and the actions born through it are accurate, precise and appropriate; and in tune with the infallible cosmic principles! He enlightens Arjuna (and the world) that such state of being (in union with immortal consciousness) and actions springing therefrom (SWADHARMA); is called YOGA (which in essence is not different from TYAGA and SANYASA). Lord Krishna guides Arjuna about this state and assures him that this state brings peace (for that individual and the universe) even in the face of bodily death. Since Lord Krishna talked so much about this state of union with immortality, which makes us desireless; the next question would be “Why not remain united with the immortal and be peaceful, instead of warring?” Arjuna asks this question in the 3rd chapter. How are Gita and NAMASMARAN complimentary? What do we gain from them? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 35. 35 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But before I go ahead to 3rd chapter; and share my understanding (?) about Gita, I must make it clear, that study of Gita, Vishnusahasranama and NAMSMARAN compliment each other tremendously. I have a feeling that NAMASMARAN; which I call a mega-fusion, a mega-process; or a mega-fountainhead; is sure to absorb the whole universe in itself i.e. immortal cosmic consciousness and in turn, as and when consciousness adequately blossoms in an individual through NAMASMARAN, the concepts of immortality in Gita would become tangible! The vice versa could also be true! It is this awakening to one’s immortality; that I think; Arjuna (and the people of world) could gain from Gita; and that is more precious than anything else in the world; and even the world itself! November 7, 2009; 12:10 pm How easy is it to realize and practice SWADHARMA? How is it relevant to behavior of an individual, family and society? In 2nd chapter Lord Krishna declares the aphorism of immortality of the core of universe and individual; and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 36. 36 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA human potential to realize this core that embodies cosmic consciousness. But Arjuna (and student of Gita like me) cannot experience the immortality right away! Lord Krishna therefore (apart from explaining the ways to rise and conquer the obstacles in the way of reaching the cosmic consciousness) gives other supportive arguments to emphasize the importance of SWADHARMA i.e. behavior born from the state of union with cosmic consciousness. Thus Lord Krishna indicates to Arjuna that the greatest value in life is SWADHARMA (and not some so called spiritual or material achievement, so called and often hyped miracles and mere material abundance respectively) and hence any person who goes astray (due to his subjective; whether individualistic or so called religious/socialistic; paradigm) from this SWADHARMA; is bound to be ridiculed as coward (Akirtim chaapi Bhootani… and Bhayat ranat uparatam, 2nd chapter). This essence of value system is the eternal glory of Gita that has been revitalizing mankind from millennia to millennia! Further, Lord Krishna reiterates that all the efforts of human civilization e.g. VEDAs are essentially born from and culminate into cosmic consciousness; and get expressed through individuals according to their DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 37. 37 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA constitutions. Those who know this; are always connected with the cosmic consciousness (YOGA); and do not get distracted by the illusive results (success or failure) and those who do not know this; get cut off from the cosmic consciousness and their perceptions, feelings and the quality, methodology and the elegance of their actions get marred. They develop the illusion that their limited existence is the doer of everything; (treating the subordinate as master); and vacillate between pride and pain from the changing results of their inappropriate actions. The 2nd and 3rd chapters begin with Arjuna’s reluctance to participate in the war, and remain contented without bothering about the gains of a bloody war! But Lord Krishna identifies the subtle nihilism, cynicism or pessimism hidden in this attitude. He identifies this darkness and drives the point; that such “ascetic” extremism is suicidal for the individual and the society and not conducive to liberation! Lord Krishna guides Arjuna in 3rd chapter, (Na hi kashchit kshanamapi…) that, it is impossible to live without action. (Isn’t it true that irrespective of whether we want or not, billions of biophysical and biochemical activities go on in our body and mind? Isn’t it true that even for the universe and universal consciousness this is true?). He clarifies that any one who tries to live in inaction, deceives DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 38. 38 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA himself or herself. The only way to liberation is to practice SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna says, whether the cosmic consciousness expresses itself in actions through you, or through the actions you reach the cosmic consciousness; both are essentially not different. The first is called JNANAYOGA, where apparently consciousness is predominant and latter is called KARMAYOGA, where apparently; the actions are predominant. Thus the actions which spring from the cosmic consciousness (e.g. as a result of the practice of NAMASMARAN), are the ones which lead to realization of cosmic consciousness also, and hence are called liberating or freeing actions (SWADHARMA)! Lord Krishna then highlights the cycle of nature in which universe manifests from and again dissolves into the consciousness and suggests that when the society and the individual conform to the innate principle of nature, they blossom together. He also points out that those who don’t conform to these principles, never blossom themselves and also become obstacles in the blossoming of others. This happens because of their being overwhelmed by their own subjectivity (individualistic, religious bigotry or socialistic whims and compulsions). This can happen also because of DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 39. 39 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA the superiority or inferiority complex developed about their environment, conditions and apparently (due to sick value system) unglamorous or despised nature of their SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna elaborates that since everybody is not exactly the replica of another person and the constitutions are different; the external nature of SWADHARMA varies. He reiterates; that even in such a situation; it is important not to get bogged down by the deceptive external and internal influences and persist on one’s SWADHARMA, even if one has to die in return! Initially this appeared a bit harsh. But when I keenly thought over, I realized that living devoid of SWADHARMA is itself like death! Hence SWADHARMA is preferable even in the face of death, because it is the only express highway of individual and global blossoming! November 7, 2009, 3:30 pm. How to appreciate the universal, transtemporal and relevant nature of SWADHARMA? In the 4th chapter, Lord Krishna expands this concept of SWADHARMA and informs Arjuna that this is the knowledge that has run through generations and millennia. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 40. 40 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Like any physiological individual, Arjuna also doubts Lord Krishna’s statement and then Lord Krishna reveals to him His immortal and true nature and that it is He (cosmic consciousness) that keeps reincarnating and re- manifesting; as and when the universe becomes oblivious of Him. (I feel that this is true in an individual, society as well as universe!). Lord Krishna asserts; that he manifests (through rising consciousness in an individual as well as society) and annihilates the demonic and devilish forces of darkness, (inside and outside) which obstruct the blossoming of individuals, society and the whole universe. He also reiterates that one, who realizes this, (either is united or) unites with the immortal consciousness! After revealing His cosmic nature, Lord Krishna elucidates how from the consciousness; different VARNAs i.e. four salient characteristic personalities manifest (though the consciousness does not produce them; in the physical sense of that word) and how they function! This is like involvement of space (in this case it is not mere physical and nonliving space because cosmic consciousness is like living or superliving space that encompasses everything!) which is essential for world activities, but does not directly participate in them. He also states that people work according to their stage of evolution; through different yajnas, pranayamas, and humble dialogue with a guide and reach enlightenment. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 41. 41 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Lord Krishna points out how the conflicts between upper and lower nature can sabotage one’s progress and assures that SWADHARMA or YOGA liberate the individual (and society and the universe) and hence appeals Arjuna; to get rid of any doubt whatsoever and tread the path of SWADHARMA single mindedly. November 8, 2009 11:30 am What is the difference between SANYASA and YOGA? How are they relevant to common man’s life? In 5th chapter the discussion begins with a doubt; about the choice between SANYASA and YOGA. I think the word KARMA SANYASA (Sanyasah karmayogah cha nih shreya sakarvibhau tayostu karmasanyasat …..) here, pertains to renunciation or asceticism; i.e. departure from all the day to day activities required for the normal family life and social life and YOGA pertains to participation in these activities; by following SWADHARMA. The meaning of SANYASA as explained in 18th chapter is renunciation of activities of personal interest. Individuals in the last years of life adopt SANYASA in India, i.e. give up activities of personal interest. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 42. 42 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But the SANYASA for a common man would mean, giving up all activities which are not embodied in the SWADHARMA. So any one; who engages himself or herself in SWADHARMA, invariably practices SANYASA by quitting everything; not included in SWADHARMA. Similarly YOGA for a common man would mean total, loving, committed and victorious involvement with all the skill and energy; in the activity included in the SWADHARMA! Gita has reconciled SANYASA and YOGA. Both are complementary (because life is inevitably associated with renunciation of something and involvement in something at every stage of life. Renunciation of something or other at different stages of life; is coupled with involvement in something or other at different stages of life. But renouncing in a swift and loving manner and not out of hatred or inertia; and doing the work without attachment to the fruit (in short vested interest or subjective considerations); constitute SANYASA and YOGA respectively. They culminate in cosmic consciousness; and the proportion of SANYASA may be more in one; and proportion of YOGA may be more in another; depending upon proportion of emotional and intelligence quotient and neuroendocrine and physical capabilities; thus constituting two ways suitable for two varieties of individuals. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 43. 43 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Why should Arjuna repeat this question regarding SANYASA and YOGA; in 5th chapter again? How are they relevant? The answer is; understanding supremacy of SWADHARMA is not adequate. Because, in spite of understanding; the inertia keeps on surfacing and prompting an individual; to escape from the worldly responsibilities; giving one excuse or another. In India; there were tides of ideologies glorifying irresponsible “asceticism” from time to time. Even today, there are various breeds of “spiritualism” and “SANYASA” spreading like pandemics in the world causing masses to move into irresponsible inaction, indolence and parasitism (probably as a reaction to harrowingly and violently stressful petty pursuits intermingled with fanatic ideologies of extreme individualism, extreme religious bigotry or extreme views of socialism)! Arjuna’s repetition of the question underlines the importance, span and sway over the world; of such irresponsible “asceticism” and “petty pursuits”. Lord Krishna reiterates the vital or shall we say life saving importance of SWADHARMA; for individual, social and global growth and blossoming. He confirms that SWADHARMA is more meritorious than “asceticism” in which one may conquer one’s petty selfishness; but can DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 44. 44 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA succumb to the escapist, defeatist and irresponsible indolence and inertia, which drags the individuals, society and the world into abyss of misery! Lord Krishna makes it clear that SANYASA i.e. external renunciation (due to incidental cause) is usually impulsive and not true renunciation. Such renunciation is because of repulsion for day to day activities or SWADHARMA; (due self inflicting nature, SWADHARMA appears mediocre and unattractive; to them; though actually it can serve the purpose of blossoming one and all) that engenders misery. It is true that some individuals are born more evolved than the rest and hence neither get interested nor get involved in the day to day transactions of family and society, because of enlightenment and not inertia. They like Adya Shankaracharya; renounce the world and accept SANYASA just as ripe fruit falls from the tree. Some understand and realize the true nature of the world through SANKHYA philosophy without going through the experiences a common man and may lead a life different from a common man e.g. Dnyaneshvar o Dnyaneshwar. Being aware of this, Lord Krishna clarifies that we should not get enamored or infatuated (and tempted to emulate) by the heroic nature of SANYASA and SANKHYA philosophy (due to our subtle escapist or lethargic nature) but stick to our SWADHARMA, because even as the SANYASA, SANKHYA and YOGA (SWADHARMA) DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 45. 45 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA look different; ultimately culminate into the same pedestal of cosmic consciousness! Having said this; Lord Krishna elaborates the sublime characteristics of practitioner of SWADHARMA, which elevates the individual in a blissful state that is beyond physiological boundaries and beyond all petty and subjective considerations of life! November 8, 2009, 4:30 pm What are the practical expressions of SWADHARMA useful in individual blossoming? In 3rd chapter it is stated that one who cooks and eats merely for his petty pleasures (which are actually detrimental to his blossoming) is a thief. This is a very important aspect of Gita. Gita encourages individuals to be active physically, instinctually, emotionally and intellectually and according to one’s capabilities and skills, but with the goal of getting freed from the subjectivity and merging with the cosmic consciousness. Gita states that; one (e.g. an intellectual or spiritual leader) should never dissuade (BUDDHIBHEDA) any other person; from his or her skilled and productive activities of livelihood; such as crafts, arts and other. One DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 46. 46 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA should in fact; encourage these and try to do oneself; all such activities in life; but with the sole aim of conforming to the absolute truth and universal blossoming! Lord Krishna reiterates this even in 5th chapter. In the 6th chapter Lord Krishna reinforces this point and describes certain ways by which man can merge with the objective reality. He therefore makes it clear; right in the beginning that any one who works without attachment to the results, is a SANYASI and also a YOGI and not the one who does not do his duties (as prescribed by the scriptures with the intention of individual and global blossoming), out of escapism and inertia. Just as He imparts the insight in SANYASA by pointing out the dangers of inaction and indolence and importance of getting rid from the results, He also espouses and elucidates the nature of YOGA, which in true sense means all activities done to merge with the absolute. This YOGA is impossible in presence of SANKALPA i.e. subjective (erroneous) projections or utopia! You can imagine that individual or subjective goals (SANKALPA); act as leakages and hinder the merger of individual consciousness with the absolute consciousness! It is exactly like leakages in the pipes through which you cannot pump DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 47. 47 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA water to higher floors. So getting rid of these leakages (SANKALPA) is true SANYASA, without which YOGA is not possible! Even though these concepts pertain to individual and global blossoming, they also make sense in day to day activities. Thus if you don’t depend on results; you can avoid self destructive responses (out of excitation or depression) to the results of your activities; and live life buoyantly! But it has to be appreciated; that in everyday life action is usually associated with results. Thus some understanding and anticipation of results is bound to be and has to be there, so that you can perform the action elegantly and diligently. Gita upholds such continued improvement in technique by anticipation of results; from which your feelings and responses are not marred. This is emphasized in (Buddhiyukto jahateeha …yogah karmasu kaushalam) 2nd chapter! November 8, 2009 7:pm There are many postures, mudras, pranayamas etc apart from proper nutrition, sleep etc. which are important aspects of life, which ought to be cultivated right from childhood, so that YOGA becomes possible. Lord Krishna does not elaborate in details on this, but suffice it to say that once the goal viz. self realization is identified and given topmost priority and importance, DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 48. 48 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA then one can adopt suitable techniques; according to one’s physical and social environment, conducive to reach the goal! This is very important because during development to save us from dangerous infatuations born from some aphorisms (e.g. Aham Brahmasmi, Brham Satyam Jagat Mithya), which tend to make an individual totally unrealistic and schizoid! Of course, this not the fault of the aphorisms! Lord Krishna reassures Arjuna (and everyone) that dedication and consistent study and practice make YOGA (the correct process and progress to self realization) possible. Lord Krishna also maintains that even if an individual loses his body before reaching the goal, his efforts are never wasted and realizes the YOGA i.e. progress towards self realization in the next birth, (he/she is adorned with the necessary qualities). What are the pragmatic implications of YOGA in social life? Lord Krishna also clarifies the importance of YOGA in terms of actual practice (which seems to beneficially evolve the physiology) rather than mere reading and understanding and further emphasizes the importance the focus on the goal viz. self realization i.e. complete submission of the subjectivity to Lord Krishna i.e. objective or cosmic consciousness. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 49. 49 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA 6th chapter; (like the 16th,17th and 18th chapters) is important for any educationist, education policy maker, educational administrator, teacher or trainer in the world, so as to work holistically; because it outlines the actual factors which contribute to the process of blossoming, including diet and nutrition in brief! It is easy to understand how this would have far reaching and beneficial impact on the world in terms of perspective, policies, plans and implementation; for individual and global blossoming, which is imperative today, because; no individual nation can grow or perish in isolation, without beneficial or adverse impact on the other nations; for long period. The practical relevance of this is on policy making. For example, global reduction in the production of two wheelers and small cars; in preference to mass transport vehicles such as buses, has impact on global environment, fuel consumption, traffic jams, accidents, pollution, wearing out of roads, crowding of local trains (in metros) and so on. If principles of Gita (the essential nutrients for individual and global blossoming) are imbibed and digested by decision makers of the world, then such globally beneficial policies can emerge in all the fields of life. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 50. 50 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA How does the description of cosmic nature (in 7th chapter) of the Lord help one to blossom? In 7th chapter Lord Krishna narrates his omnipresent nature to Arjuna and indicates how only few realize this nature and how others do not realize this! He explains that he is the light beyond the physical light and remains unseen by eyes!! November 9, 2009 11:30 am In 1st chapter, there is depiction of subjective; and hence (inspite of being very conscientious); erroneous perception, feelings and response of Arjuna. In 2nd chapter there is elaborate explanation of cosmic consciousness and contingent nature of physical existence of the nonliving and living world! There is also a detailed account of the characteristics of the individual who realizes this immortality and expresses accurate cognition, affect and conation. It is obvious that; even as reading per se; is not enough to bring about the transformation in an individual and the world; the role of reading and understanding the “road map of blossoming” in the process of conscious evolutionary transformation of an individual and thereby the world; can not be denied. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 51. 51 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th chapters describe the concept SWADHARMA and some of the relevant techniques in brief; but which can vary according to geographical, historical, social, religious and other circumstances. 7th chapter is meant for reinforcing these ideas by pointing out how people in, crisis, need, greed or intellectual and emotional yearning may get attracted to the absolute truth. In 7th chapter Lord Krishna reveals His omnipresent nature and indicates how He i.e. cosmic consciousness; is present in every visible and invisible aspect of the universe (including human hearts) and how only few realize this nature and how rest others; do not realize this! This can become clear to a discerning student; when he would appreciate the stanza elucidating how Lord Krishna is a light beyond the physical light and remains inaccessible to most! Throughout 6 chapters; one finds the common idea of the rising of consciousness in an individual and the world; and thereby getting freedom from petty, mean and trivial but strong bondages. In 7th chapter there is endorsement of this and also further buttressing of this point by indicating how the cosmic consciousness encompasses every living and nonliving matter, energy, space and time; and how awareness of this enables one to reunite with this immortal self. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 52. 52 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Naturally Arjuna would ask about the nature of the universe and relevance of it to human life. Thus cosmic dynamics is described by Lord Krishna in 8th chapter. Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that a person blossoms to get freed from the shackles of subjectivity and reunites with one’s true self, through the knowledge of inseparable bond between the cosmic panorama and the individual and their relationship! But before we discuss this further, isn’t it important to clarify AHIMSA, which is indirectly discussed right from 2nd chapter? AHIMSA i.e. nonviolence; appears in chapters many chapters apart from 16th. In my view this AHIMSA refers to negation or disapproval of indiscriminate violence committed under the influence of utter darkness of ignorance (a variety of subjective activities destructive to self, society and the universe) and also strong protagnosim of surgical violence committed to destroy everything that opposes the union with cosmic consciousness i.e. individual and global blossoming. Unqualified and indiscriminate nonviolence is NOT advocated in Gita, which is clear from the repeated appeal by Lord Krishna to Arjuna (and every one) to participate tin the war against darkness and destruction (outside and inside). DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 53. 53 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is important to realize this; to avoid; perennial; schizophrenic state; of upholding indiscriminate nonviolence, (without being completely convinced) and practicing violence with petty selfish motives (again without being fully convinced). In our society often indiscriminate violence is legitimately practiced by killing animals to eat (not for survival, but for the petty pleasure of gustatory pleasure (taste), killing people of other countries for the so called out religious or ideological fanaticism, causing mass violence through adulteration, selling addictive, policies to promote alcohol consumption, use force to suppress peaceful demonstrations and protests, and most importantly unleashing many policies (in all the fields) detrimental to the blossoming of individuals and the universe. If we understand that AHIMSA means NOT indiscriminate nonviolence; but; protection and promotion of everything conducive to individual and global blossoming and destruction of everything that jeopardizes the blossoming of individuals and universe, then it would resolve the conflicts in the minds of all young and old and everywhere in the world and promote practice of SWADHARMA and blossoming of individuals and universe. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 54. 54 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA If we keep on trying to uphold AHINSA as indiscriminate nonviolence, then it creates value crisis and semblance of schizophrenia (contrasting, conflicting and contradictory thoughts/feelings and actions); in everyone and everywhere. What are the obstacles in the way of SWADHARMA? I found that the prescription of blossoming and merging with the absolute consciousness through various techniques and through comprehension of the nature and interactions between the cosmos and the individual in 7 chapters; and practicing SWADHARMA;; are not as simple as they appear! In daily routine we tend to get overwhelmed and confused or bewildered (and cut off from our true self) by the deceptive influences coming from our body, family, society, world and the products of all these in terms of literature, art, media, education etc. This makes the self realization (dissolving the subjectivity in objective truth) and self expression (i.e. SWADHARMA), which are mutually nurturing and promoting; very difficult. The inappropriate perception generates agony and urgency to respond. But since the response is usually ineffective (because of not being in conformity or DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 55. 55 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA harmony with the nature) one becomes agitated and/depressed. But one can not “see” how and what would rectify the “perceived” pathos in personal or global life; and hence tends to enter in a vicious cycle of increasing distress. No one seems to see (because of not practicing NAMSMARAN and grow beyond the restrictive frame of subjectivity); how this holistic perspective can create the difference in different fields and hence become nervous, not realizing the agonizing plight of people in the world is due essentially to lack of holistic perspective and spirit of Gita, amongst the policy makers! Hence in such a situation the prescriptions in Gita, or the simplest means such as NAMASMARAN advocated by saints and seers from all over the world, must be practiced with greater conviction so that the perception, feelings and actins get increasingly accurate! It is at this point that your SHRADDHA (which means unconditioned and totally selfless commitment, sincerity, devotion and dedication without any petty motive, because of accurate perception, feelings and actions) can rescue you from the vicious cycle of distress and help you to enter in the wellness cycle. This is not easy! But I keep convincing myself that the SADHANA of any suitable nature; or NAMASMARAN according to one’s tradition; must never be stopped. To convey this DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 56. 56 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA strongly; Lord Krishna has assured in 6th and 7th chapters and latter in 9th and 16th and 18th chapters; that one would never fail if marches on this path of SWADHARMA! I have begun to realize; which I did not realize before; that all activities (especially NAMASMARAN) to reach the truth, have their impact, though it may not be perceived immediately due to one’s subjectivity. The lesson from the 7 chapters therefore is to keep trying to reach the absolute and keep working in its light to the extent it is possible at any given time and in a victorious manner; and sharing the spirit and insights with others! That is exactly the reason why; I am writing this (as a form humble prayer, as a participation in eternal struggle of dark forces of lower consciousness and bright forces of consciousness DHARMYA YUDDHA); and making available for free download for sharing with any one and everyone in the world without any precondition! Trying to keep yourself connected with cosmic consciousness; keeps you reassured on the one hand and active participation in buoyantly charged and appropriate manner (SWADHARMA); on the other. What is the opinion of Gita on arbitrary suppression? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 57. 57 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA The idea of arbitrary suppression or unabated indulgence do not find place in Gita. Similarly regimentalized stereotyped procedures also do not find place in Gita. That makes Gita somewhat ambiguous initially, but as you go on internalizing her you find that she is basically universal in nature. In 3rd, 4th and also 6th chapters this is evident. Gita is universal because she shows the light to any one and every one; irrespective of the state of evolution, region in the world, his/her tradition; and without being judgmental about anyone’s life style; in any way! What are the influences of inner and outer environment on our blossoming? In 8th chapter Lord Krishna clarifies that a person engaged in SWADHARMA through intellectual, emotional, instinctual activities (through practice of NAMASMARAN throughout and hence while quitting the body; Antakale cha mameva smaran tyaktwa kalevaram…) actually is connected with the absolute and objective reality and hence does not get entangled and shackled in the repetitive basal cycles of distress through different births. There is also a declaration applicable to bright and dark external and internal environments, which lead to the fate of an individual. Thus individual is influenced by DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 58. 58 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA adverse external physical, chemical and psychological activities and inner hormonal, autonomic and central nervous activities. But it is also assured that any one who keeps trying; on the path of NAMASMARAN; reaches the summit of union with cosmic consciousness. Nov 10, 2009, 11:15 am Why has not this been written sequentially translating verse by verse? I decided to write on day to day basis; rather than sticking serially and sequentially to chapters and verses. This has the advantages of being natural in expression rather than formal. It is also beneficial because of repetition and/additional emphasis on more important points; which reverberate in my mind with reference to some verses. Sometimes it also happens; that I skip many verses, at a given point in time because I have nothing to say about them at that time, but latter additional perspective and insights develop in the flow of writing; and deserve expression latter; even if it appears out of context. Moreover the Gita and her translations are available world over. Anyone interested can refer the original text of Gita as and when he or she wishes. Is it true that acquiring skill is the same as YOGA? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 59. 59 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In the 2nd chapter YOGA is defined (….Yogah karmasu kaushalam) as (ultimate) elegance or perfection in skill; but other way round; it also implies that the greatest skill or perfection in life is to realize YOGA! In my opinion, the latter is true. Because, the skill of an individual per se; does not impart global dimension to the individual’s consciousness, which is inevitable and inseparable aspect of YOGA. In fact, the word kaushala, refers not merely to the physical skill of an action, but more importantly it refers to the perspective, plans, intentions, involvement and feelings embodied in that action. What is the perspective in Gita with respect to suppression and indulgence? There is elaborate discussion in 2nd chapter; on how physical senses should be controlled. But if one takes into account the reference in 3rd chapter, then it becomes clear that the human life and experiences there in; have (and must be appreciated by us that they have) one goal or destination; and that is SELF REALIZATION and there is one way to achieve it i.e. SWADHARMA, rather than getting trapped in arbitrary suppression or unabated, mindless indulgence. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 60. 60 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita is unique in the sense that she shows your ultimate goal, shows you the path and guides you in the method to tread it. Gita therefore does not advocate suppression or indulgence in an arbitrary manner, but inspires SWADHARMA; in which while enjoying the core or essence of all material pleasures you channellize them to blossoming of yourself and others! This is really universal thought; in view of the difference in the physiological and other needs of people in the world from different regions and cultures. Once the goal of individual and global blossoming and the way of SWADHARMA is identified and adhered to; rest of the dos and don’ts (which need not be regimentalized) follow the suit, in appropriate manner. In this context, one can appreciate the perspective born out of studying Gita about sex education. In light of Gita; we should learn and teach the father and mother principles and parental care; so that we don’t develop disgust for sex and succumb to sexual aberrations or perversions through arbitrary suppression on the one hand; and don’t commit crimes, don’t get diseased through getting trapped in carnal sexual obsession and unending, unsatisfactory and obnoxious indulgence in sex. Such holistic corrections can be made in all walks education. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 61. 61 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA How do the experiences of the study of Gita differ from the experiences of the study of other books? It is nice to share here that I found the study of Gita different from the study of many other books. The study of Gita coupled with NAMASMARAN elevates you from subjectivity to objectivity, i.e. getting in alignment with the nature. Gita gradually but surely changes your status of being effectual to being causative! What I mean is; you rise from being helplessly vulnerable victim or play in the hands of the inner and outer environments, but assume the status of governing them. This is certainly difficult to agree intellectually, but can only be experienced. Hence one can verify if one wishes. Another point that struck me is: Gita teaches and trains us to enter the center of universe! Thus; from being part of the world of visible appearances and interactions thereof; Gita trains us to see and merge with the core. She enables us to penetrate the shackling traps of indulgence, aversion, escapism, suppression or perversions, in the superficial and aspects of our life. Thus Gita does not advocate renunciation of the world on the one hand and does not justify or glorify the unending and unsatisfactory retrogressive shackling in petty pursuits on the other! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 62. 62 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA This is very useful in day to day life. If you experience the core of your spouse’s heart, then the fear of loss of your spouse (or any loved one) gradually disappears to a large extent and the romance becomes super romance and love becomes super love! Thus Gita trains you in super romance and super love. You learn to live every moment in super romance and super love; rather than getting worried about past and future and subjective considerations. How to reconcile the statements endorsing; “freedom from cycle of birth and rebirth” and “the phenomenon of reincarnation”? Aren’t they contradictory? In 5th chapter; Lord Krishna assures that you would not be born again (Abrahma bhuvana loka punravartino janah Mamupetya tu kaunteya punarjanma na vidyate) if you realize the self. But in 4th chapter; he also assures that he would manifest or reincarnate as and when appropriate/necessary (Paritranaya sadhunam vinashaya cha….) The explanations to these contradictory statements are: 1. Lord Krishna’s reincarnation is represented by the awakening of consciousness in every individual from time to time. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 63. 63 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA 2. The reincarnation is progressive sojourn of life of an individual (who is either already enlightened or gets enlightened) and is different from rebirth, which is full of shackles of ignorance. Hence reincarnation and freedom from rebirth are not incompatible! What is the necessity to read Gita repeatedly? Gita enables us to develop the conceptual framework of our life i.e. road map to cosmic consciousness and NAMSMARAN rejuvenates us from moment to moment to proceed. The other way round also may be true! It is like anatomy and physiology. Anatomical structure is essential and complementary to physiological function and vice versa. But when you go deeper; both seem to be indistinguishable! One of the most important things I learnt; probably as a by product of studying Gita; is; practice of the essence of Gita is immensely important. Repeated reading or recitation of Gita consolidates the convictions about the essence of Gita and thereby rejuvenates the enthusiasm to practice that essence (NAMASMARAN). The practice of NAMASMARAN in turn; endorses and reinforces the conviction about the essence of Gita and makes the repeated recitation of Gita a sublimely empowering experience! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 64. 64 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is like reading about bath, which develops conviction about the advantages of bath and actual practice of bath that endorses the convictions about bath. Thus both are perfectly complementary. One can compare it also; with the reading about the advantages of exercise and actual practice of exercise. I also learnt in the course of time that we come across a number of situations in life, (due to internal and external environment) which shroud our consciousness, from time to time; and we tend to forget our true self i.e. the essence of Gita and this is really a shattering and weakening experience. In such situation, recitation as repeatedly as possible or plausible; of Gita and NAMASMARAN helps tremendously. Gita is a window to sky of cosmic consciousness and hence this window to the cosmic consciousness if closed, we get cut off from that sky of cosmic consciousness. Or repeatedly reading Gita is like breathing repeatedly, which is essential for life. Repeated reading or reciting of Gita is like lighting (to dispel the darkness of ignorance, illusion and slumber) the lamps every night, which are essential to dispel the darkness. Repeated recitation of Gita is essential for purification of mind, which tends to get clouded from time to time; like taking bath every day repeatedly for rejuvenation and cleaning. Gita recitation is like taking the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 65. 65 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA hypoglycemic drugs by a diabetic patient, in the sipping of which there is risk of increase in blood sugar to toxic levels. Gita is like oxygen of our soul. Jut as continuous supply of oxygen is essential for the life, maintenance of the supply of Gita through recitation is essential for sustenance of and blossoming of consciousness! Hence in 6th chapter; the importance of consistent practice is emphasized. In my view, even somewhat arbitrary and formal recitation, reading or chanting of Gita; proves very useful (by acting at subconscious and conscious levels); in strengthening and expediting the process of blossoming. The repetition is important for another reason also, which has physiological basis. Thus repetition of Gita or NAMASMARAN is a central nervous system activity and probably leads to development of stronger connections between cerebral cortex and the limbic system, (which are otherwise very weak). This underlines the difference between a well read individual and an individual involved in practice of NAMASMARAN and/or self realized individual. Gita recitation leads to paradigm shift. Individual becomes cosmic. Reading of Gita casually once in a while may at best serve to feel the elation of having read her or quote references and criticizing or praising. But DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 66. 66 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA for getting the sublime experience of going beyond subjectivity, the essence that has to be imbibed and assimilated, which is impossible by reading it once. (This is my experience and hence I don’t rule out the possibility of someone exceptional getting the sublime experience in one reading or even without reading!) There is one more reason why repetition of Gita makes sense. Ordinarily one’s happiness or sadness depends on the involuntary interactions amongst the cerebral cortical, limbic, autonomic, neuroendocrine, endocrine and other systems of the body. The perceptions, feelings and actions are usually impulsive (and hence chaotic, conflicting and counter posed) because of weak input to; and weak output from cerebral cortex to the remaining systems. Repeated study and practice of Gita and NAMASMARAN probably enhance the integration of all systems, bringing them under higher controls such as cerebral cortex, conscience and cosmic consciousness and effectively lead to harmonious behavior; blossoming; one and all. One can study the changes in the brain from this point of view, in a control group; and a group involved in NAMASMARAN; to verify; the anatomical and physiological substrates; of the essence of global culture which may not be accessible to crude technology. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 67. 67 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA One of the greatest lessons (one appreciates after repetition of Gita over a period of time is) of Gita to the world is; whatever we eat, drink, see, listen, talk, write, learn, perform, use, relish and so on; should get culminated into the goal of individual and global blossoming. This makes our life itself the most meritorious activity i.e. YAJNA! This is a true and qualitative revolution in individual and global life. It is imperative to state that for a person who does not have the capacity to learn Gita for one reason or another; the doors to cosmic consciousness are opened by NAMASMARAN. NAMASMARAN is a express highway to cosmic consciusness. Nov 11, 2009, 10:00 am Can the study of Gita allay various anxieties? One of the most interesting things I learnt from Gita; and also got thoroughly convinced in the course of time from the practice of NAMASMARAN; is the fact that everyone is moving towards the same goal and the same destination. This fact usually remains concealed and one gets impatient to “teach others”, “for their welfare”! Alternatively one may desperate to learn from someone! This impatience though natural can create condescending attitude and develop subtle expectations such as publicity and growth of your (otherwise selfless) mission! The desperation to learn can lead to slavishness and/or deception. This can DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 68. 68 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA take away your peace and mar the quality of your behavior. When we appreciate this fact; that we all are going in the same direction and towards the same goal, then true love (probably more than that evident amongst the pilgrims) emerges and blossoms. That is the greatest hallmark of world culture. Once I get convinced and clear about this fact, then the acts of impatience and ignorance (whether committed by me or others) do not disturb me any more to a significant extent. It is matter of great privilege for us to realize (deep experience) this love especially amongst family members, relatives, colleagues, coworkers, people of our country, people from world and latter; even the enemies! Even as this revelation of love is magnificent; it may not manifest in the mind of the student of Gita at all times and in all persons. It is natural therefore (and hence need not be despised) that; at various stages of development even the students of Gita can be seen frantically advising, admonishing, preaching and also expect the results; from themselves and from others. But Gita surely frees the students Gita from this in the course of time and lets us enjoy the sublime love hitherto hidden or masked by superficiality! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 69. 69 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA One of the difficulties in the study of Gita is that; it can develop a doubt; “Why truth has to be shown by some one else?” or “Why should I follow the ancestors?” As the study proceeds, however; you gradually realize that the thought that “somebody else showing the truth”, is because of erroneous image of “self” and the “other”. It is also because of the faulty images of “following” and “ancestors”. The learning or accepting knowledge should never depend on who gives it and whether it comes from your ancestors or contemporary peers. The knowledge or enlightenment or revelation or objective truth is like Sun. Sun does not belong to the window through which His rays enter! The “truth”, which is omniscient and omnipotent and omnipresent, does not “belong” to any one! So it is illusory to think that it belongs to some one else who “shows” you and you follow! From another angle, the idea “somebody else” is a relative idea. If we look at ourselves objectively, then we learn to look “me” and “somebody else” as two individuals with no specific preference. There is no good or bad feeling irrespective of about who is learning from whom! This is because the ego of petty self dissolves; as one studies Gita with persistence. So no one is superior or inferior DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 70. 70 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA irrespective of whether he/she learns or teaches. These are only roles the individuals play! From yet another point of view, even the idea; of ancestors and decedents is relative; if we could look at it by going beyond the framework of time. Just as right and left depend on how we stand, similarly past and present lose meaning if we stand beyond the framework of time. Hence the hollow superiority or false inferiority disappears; when; through the study of Gita we learn to see more objectively! Hence, it is also erroneous to think that it “belongs” to your ancestors and you are an inferior descendent to “receive” it from them or other way round that you great because you are teaching it to your descendent. ! “Truth” or “self” is beyond time and it is absurd and baseless to be captive of superiority or inferiority complexes (developed because of petty identity), which come in he way realization of truth! Isn’t it possible to develop pride about our learning blow our trumpet? It is quite likely to be proud in the early stages. But as we come to know that there were, there are and there will be millions of students of Gita learning her! Also, gradually during study we realize that if “I” learn Gita; it is neither a matter of pride (if acclaimed by DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 71. 71 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA people respecting Gita); nor a matter of pity (if ridiculed by people, who look down upon Gita). This is because, from philosophical and therefore realistic point of view, I am not the owner of what all capabilities, which I have; as I have not created them! It is simply a matter of being happy to blossom together! What is the relevance of virtues; described in Gita; today? In Gita, there is a reference to virtues in many places; including 16th and 18th chapters. One of them is “truth”. In everyday practice, there is always a conflict between loyal description of facts (which can either prove stupid and invite difficulties; or wise at produce profits) and concealing or misrepresenting the facts, (which also can engender punishment or yield gains). Hence there is ongoing conflict in every mind about the virtue viz. truth and Gita provides the answer to it. I began to appreciate the ‘true’ meaning of ‘truth’ gradually and distinguish it from “mere narration of apparent facts; even if done with 100%; loyalty and fidelity”. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 72. 72 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA I began to understand that realization of “truth”; is a process and it leads to expression of appropriate behavior, conducive to blossoming of everyone and realization of truth! For this (rising above the criminal lies and gullible truths and living effectively to reach the truth) to happen; there are many precepts which ought to be followed from childhood, but the most important and universally practicable in every condition and situation is NAMASMARAN. What is the meaning of the verse in 6th chapter; (UDDHARET ATMANATMANAM NATMANAM AVASADAYET ATMAIVA HYATMANO BANDHUH ATMAIVA RIPURATMANA) which is very famous? How one is enemy of oneself? I began to understand this; by correlating it with the previous reference to the self. Lord Krishna elucidates the nature of real self to Arjuna in the 2nd and 3rd chapters. He then advises Arjuna in 6th chapter, in this verse; to rescue and uplift the other part of his consciousness (we can call it lower or actually physical or physiological consciousness; without being derogatory) that has been trapped in body systems; feelings and intellectual framework; and obviously; prevent its further bondage. He further states that if you do this; then you would find that that your lower DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 73. 73 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA consciousness is friend of your higher consciousness (you) and if you don’t, then you would find that your lower consciousness is verily the enemy of your higher consciousness (you). The consciousness trapped in body, mind, ego and/or subjectivity is the enemy if not properly negotiated with and mastered or conquered. This consciousness becomes our friend, close friend once negotiated with and conquered, or shall we say brought in harmony with ourselves. This activity of winning part of our own consciousness, without being repulsive or escapist is YOGA. It is said (by those who have achieved this MAHAYOGA), that NAMASMARAN makes this possible. How to accept a bloody war as an opportunity? When I began the study, it used to appear strange that in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna has referred the war as great opportunity. I used to find this strange and not acceptable, because of my erroneous concepts and feelings about the violence. I used to think that war is devilish, vicious, and avoidable and hence should be avoided. Later, I used to partly agree that “this war as opportunity” DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 74. 74 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA but rather reluctantly, because I used to think that Lord Krishna justified this war because it was imposed on them even as he had tried to avert the war through maximum possible negotiations! But now I realize that the upholding of war as an opportunity; refers to the option (which no other living being has) to emancipate the lower consciousness by participating in the war to conquer all physiological conflicts inside and social contradictions; outside! In my view this war of rescuing and emancipating the consciousness trapped in senses is described in HATHAYOGA texts as KUDALINI JAGRUTI. Hence HATHAYOGA practices (described in 6th chapter of Gita and Dnyaneshavari or Jnaneshvari) and intellectual exploration as through the SANKHY YOGA (also described in 2nd chapter of Gita and Jnaneshvari) are perfectly complementary and reach you to the same destination, viz. individual and global blossoming! The heavenly beauty and bounty of Gita is that she takes you beyond petty “love and hate” relationships. She reveals to you; how the love and hatred; in as much as the sense of fear and animosity; are born in your consciousness trapped in your senses and how rescuing the same would free you from all subjectivity and all pettiness. I seem to understand now, that this; if realized by us; can make our personal relationships far more pleasant than one can ever imagine! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 75. 75 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Our relationships can become sublime and can go beyond any distance, any time and even death, through Gita and hence Gita is a super romantic cosmic poetry. Every single step in this direction is more precious than the entire world, even if mountains of drawbacks and oceans of adversities within or outside us; try to drag us back! I have written an article entitled “Worshiping Sex” and unknowingly or not being fully aware, I have highlighted in it; this process of lovingly rescuing “part” of “your consciousness” (making it your friend) from the “physiological prisons”, rather than hating it. I can appreciate now, the feeling of respect and adoring, towards; sexual attraction in the universe; at the root of which, there is motherhood and fatherhood and why it is worshipped as Goddess Kundalini (and various Goddesses); who merges with the true self; when appropriate. Nov 12, 2009 12:10 pm While studying Gita one doubt used to nag me from time to time. Why could not Gita create an ideal society? If we carefully understand the purport of Gita we begin to realize that an individual with a vision of “ideal society” is also a creation of the absolute consciousness DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 76. 76 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA and the people opposing this are also, creation of the same cosmic consciousness. Thus an individual develops intense motivation to change the society for better and make it just, as a result of several biochemical reactions in his/her body, which in turn are result of causes hidden in further past. These activities keep going on irrespective of one’s volition. This means, the objectives or aims of an individual are themselves not “his or hers”! So if the aims or ideals do not belong to you, (they belong to the cosmic consciousness embodied in Gita) then what sense does it make to expect Gita to fulfill those aims or ideals as per your time frame, instead of the cosmic design? Secondly; the universe, if we observe, is never static. It keeps changing. Thus every molecule and atom is undergoing change. Every organism and individual, in terms of body and mind; also is undergoing change. Every society also in terms of its inhabitants; its life style; and its nature; is undergoing change. So how can anybody expect Gita to create “unchangeable ideal society”? In fact, Gita enlightens us with this wisdom and hence acts like sun, illumining the inner space of individuals for DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 77. 77 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA millennia. Gita is like infinite source enlightenment (beyond space and time). From time to time and through ages this enlightenment manifests in appropriate individuals and (through the medium of that person/s); the masses. But as the individual/s and the society are replaced, by next generation, the void is created and the spirit of Gita has to reappear, re-manifest through other individuals! This cycle goes on. It is therefore important to realize that Gita blossoms us individually and globally; but not coercively and arbitrarily or in a regimentalized fashion. Also, Gita spirit keeps reincarnating as and when there is a need (within us and in the society; because there can not be anything like permanently ideal state of an individual body and society) . So Gita teaches us to perform SWADHARMA with full involvement and ecstasy; without expecting anything; especially “a permanently ideal society”. The absolute consciousness or the spirit of Gita is bound to take care of the present and the future from time to time and our pleasant duty (SWADHARMA) is to study, realize and share the enlightenment of Gita with others. The individual and global blossoming are bound to manifest through this enlightenment as the spring comes! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 78. 78 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA There is another reason or explanation; “why Gita can not create ideal society”! The world keeps on changing; beyond our subjective concepts and even if Gita were to change the world; exactly according to our expectation precisely, still we would never be permanently happy because we ourselves are changing individuals! Whatever we expect is also changeable and hence can never give us lasting satisfaction. This is exactly why Gita assures that the enlightenment is bound to re-express itself again and again whenever there is need. So Gita teaches us to not merely enjoy the struggle of life, but she teaches us to enjoy it like a sport, in which we pass on the mantle to the next partner! So it is inappropriate to expect creation of so called ideal society! It is like expecting Sun to provide money! In fact; this is the reason; why we are advised not to expect results as per “our” projections. Can we look up to Gita for a solution in a state of depression? With reference to above understanding of impermanence and realization of the transient nature of existence, of our body, society and the universe; sometimes we tend to get depressed (because of the attachment resulting from DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 79. 79 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA habituation of our body and the environment), by the thought of quitting them! This depression leads to withdrawal from the struggle. All struggles appear meaningless; just as they appeared to Arjuna. But even if we get dragged by this (insurmountable?) feeling of not participating in the life struggles (war!), it won’t be possible for us, because of being in; inescapable physiological and social environment and individual and social consciousness, in which a variety of biochemical, biophysical, physiological and social activities are bound to take place; whether we wish or not! Escape is impossible and involvement in them is inevitable! Hence in 2nd chapter and latter in 18th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to follow SWADHARMA, which extracts the immortal principle beyond time from this passing body and universe! This is like recovering the NET PROFIT from the business of life time! Hence it is also said that don’t worry about tomorrow. Just follow your SWADHARMA; and for exactly identify and realize your SWADHARMA; you can take the help of (as stated in 16th chapter) scriptures and/or from your inner voice; through practice NAMASMARAN as has been advised besides Gita, by most of the saints. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 80. 80 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA That makes study of Gita and sharing it with others a matter of great opportunity and ecstatic privilege, for overcoming depression, which may be generated by Gita herself if we are too ignorant and too weak to digest the wisdom in Gita! But the depression can be surely overcome through the study of Gita herself (and recitation of Vishnusahasranam; and practice of NAMASMARAN), by the realization that; even as our bodies are bound to perish and our society is bound to metamorphose, we have the golden opportunity to practice SWADHARMA and share our convictions (and immortal essence) with others! With reference to verses in some chapters, such as 3rd, 7th, 9th, 14th, 16th, I used to wonder, how inspite of reputation of Gita as the propounder of ultimate truth, there could still be people not following the precepts of Gita, (who would have go through the fate described in Gita)? Why they are not persuaded or converted or changed by Gita? The individuals all over the world; though belong to the same specie Homo sapiens; are different in terms of their constitutions and their environments. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 81. 81 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Just as sunlight can be troublesome to photophobic (those who can not tolerate the sunlight due lack of melanin pigment in their eyes) individual, Gita can be discomforting and disagreeable to some individuals; due to their peculiarities. Hence just as there can not be a permanently satisfactory ideal society, there cannot be a permanent and universal agreement on Gita. I learnt that even if there is absolute truth in Gita, it can not manifest in every heart, though one can keep sharing it; as a part of one’s SWADHARMA. Individual and global blossoming would keep on manifesting appropriately as and when the time ripens; though not permanently; and though not in exactly the same manner as we anticipated! Is it alright if we share our perceptions without adequate study? There is NO limit to which Gita can be studied. Gita is infinite in every way, even though she contains only 700 verses. Hence there should be no inhibition to share whatever we want to share about Gita. Sharing the spirit of Gita; even while studying; has the advantage that repetition of principles of Gita helps us in developing and strengthening our convictions. Thus apart from introducing the others, or tallying our perceptions with others, or getting the chance to learn from others correct ourselves if necessary it helps us in our own DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 82. 82 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA blossoming. In addition, through sharing the spirit of Gita, we are able to influence the local and global environment and make it friendly for uninterrupted study of Gita and blossoming of individuals and the world. Thus sharing of the spirit of Gita (as per our understanding) is essential and vital, for bravely and wisely defeating the dark anti universe and antihuman forces! What is the essence of the terms used in 7th and 8th chapters? At the end of 7th and beginning of 8th chapter; there is mention about (KSHARA) ADHIBHOOT, (PURUSHA) ADHIDAIVA, and (SWABHAVA) ADHYATMA, (AKSHARA) BRAHMA, ADHIYAJNA (AHAM) and (VISARGA) KARMA. ADHIBHOOT is a perishable aspect of universe including human beings. Individual consciousness or the unchanging vitality is called PURUSHA (In Ayurveda, referring to individual case; this is called CHIKITSA PURUSHA). The essence of the intricate relationships between control systems and the functions and the mechanisms are called SWABHAVA or ADHYATMA. It is “physiology” of DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 83. 83 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA nature (Actually physiology means study of nature if one refers to the word in Greek)! ADHIYAJNA is Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness that illumines everything and everybody. VISARGA is also called KARMA which is nothing else but the appearance (manifestation) and dissolution of universe in the consciousness. This concept is somewhat similar to manifestation and dissolution of our subjective world according to the evolution of our consciousness! AAKSHARA is called BRAHMA. The substratum of or backdrop of eternal consciousness that encompasses from in and out the whole universe, space and time is called AKSHARA (BRAHMA). Thus to him or her, whose consciousness merges with absolute consciousness, the whole universe appears to be but a reflection! This explanation pertains to holistic conceptualization of individual and universal existence. The semantics vary from different schools of thought. Hence my interpretation may not be exact like mathematical calculations. But the essence is that; one, who learns about his trans-temporal essence; and relationship with the fleeting body, society, universe and a variety of physical, chemical and psychobiological activities; learns to “free the lower self” through SWADHARMA and in DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 84. 84 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA turn, helps others to attain the same freedom and blossom to culminate in absolute light. Can promoting Gita come in the way of one’s progress? Promoting or sharing per se, do not come in the way of progress. In fact they can boost our motivation and strengthen our determination and tenacity to study and progress. But; inadvertent, impatient and desperate efforts (and not just sharing) to teach (in spite of having not assimilated our perceptions of Gita) others; are often of imposing nature; and boring to the brim to those who are not interested! This is because we are deficient in our perceptions and/or because those; whom we are trying to teach; are not merely thoroughly stuck in, but are also proud of their petty pursuits. Hence many times our efforts are met with deceptive appreciation; or adverse remarks and even humiliation or insults. Hence it is said in Gita (18th chapter) that do not teach Gita (out of your obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or with any other petty purpose); to disinterested and dubious individuals. However such unpleasant experiences; are not uncommon; because usually one who studies Gita feels DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 85. 85 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA the urge to share it with others…rather urgently! But from such experiences; if we learn our mistake and study with double enthusiasm and commitment, then nothing comes in the way of progress. That cosmic consciousness takes care of our (as well as global) progress and blossoming! Hence; many all time great authors like Adya Shankaracharya and Dnyaneshvar wrote their invaluable commentaries on Gita for the benefit of world, they did so in full concurrence with cosmic consciousness ((not out of obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or any other petty purpose). Moreover they did not impose it on any specific individual or section of people. Hence their contribution is (and should be) adored world over. What is the purport of 9th chapter? In 9th chapter Lord Krishna briefly explains how He (His cosmic consciousness) manifested and absorbed the universe from time to time. He further clarifies that those whose constitutions and especially neuroendocrine systems are NOT integrated, have no inclination to devote themselves with innate feelings to Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness). They are handicapped in this sense. They can not enjoy the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 86. 86 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA invigorating charm of deepest and selfless love! They may pursue petty goals and may achieve them successfully if time is favorable; and lose in such pursuits; when time is unfavorable but suffer in both cases due to pettiness. However, those who get the taste of Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness) fall in His love. They live in full consonance and care of the absolute truth. They do not get harassed or entangled by petty problems. In 9th chapter Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna that all those who worship different deities (out of ignorance and for personal gains) also reach him, in the course of time. He asks Arjuna therefore to unite with his higher consciousness i.e. Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness); rather than getting dragged into petty pursuits. The verse towards the end; in 9th chapter referring to women, VAISHYA and SHUDRA may give impression that it is derogatory to these groups. But that is not so. There are subtle physiological differences amongst different people and males and females; due to variations in hormones, sex hormones, neuro hormones, predominance of right or left brain, other aspects neurological development, influences of conditioning (causing differences in memory, linguistic skills, mathematical skills, capacity to visualize, capacity to DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 87. 87 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA discern notes of music, ability to read in between the lines, thinking non sequentially, aggressiveness, submissiveness, calculative capacity, skills in handicrafts, analysis and so on). These differences do not indicate inequality (in exploitative spirit) but merely differences. Lord Krishna says these qualities indicate aptitude and proficiency in a particular field; but every possible quality has access to the spirit and benevolence of Gita. While writing this, I came across sudden financial difficulties. The recovery agents from bank came home and discussed the matter. All the philosophy seemed to be redundant and useless. Everything seemed to revolve around money. I seemed to be a helpless creature, worse than someone knowing nothing about Gita. I developed pity for myself. But within few minutes, the grace of Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness) engulfed my consciousness and made me realize that this incident itself (and such innumerable incidents) is “a miniaturized version of war in Gita” and has to be participated triumphantly and conquered! I realized that writing on Gita; has to be coupled with actual mastery over and detachment from dragging impact of feelings of self respect, family relations, financial risks and public reputation and even life! That is the spirit of Gita! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 88. 88 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA I got back overcame my disturbance and decided to write; come what may! I realized that; being unshakable and dignified in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the essence of Gita; irrespective of anything and everything; is SWADHARMA for me (and possibly for everyone). Thus it would be clear that; I am continuing to learn and follow SWADHARMA; every new moment! I have also begun to realize that this quality of being firmly positioned in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the precise purport of Gita; is extremely useful for blossoming individual and universe especially if acquired by people involved in leadership of different types and management in different fields. Nov 12, 2009, 8:45 pm In the 4th chapter, 9th chapter, and 10th chapter Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that irrespective of any vices and/ or sins the individual gets freed; through devotion for Him. He also says this in 18th chapter. How to reconcile this assurance with the notion that good deeds yield good results and bad deeds yield bad results? Is it not contradictory? Does it not contradict the expectation of justice in society? I used to really get perplexed by such statements in many other hymns also. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 89. 89 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA But now it appears, that what ever is visible; is only superficial and hence partial truth and not necessarily a complete one. So condemning some one as criminal can be fallacious. Similarly the connection with Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness may not be apparent. Hence even if an individual appears to be a sinner or a criminal, he could get emancipated instantly through his connection (which may not be apparent); with cosmic consciousness. If we appreciate this, then it would actually help our legal system to evolve; from callous, irrelevant and lopsided and unjust pedantic arrogance; to enlightened holistic perspective and structuring of laws and their administration; closer to natural justice! In individual life this is important as it can take away the burden of being judgmental; about ourselves and others; from our head and reduces the nuisance of our ignorance to others! It is necessary however to also appreciate that Gita certainly does not undermine the role of ethics and decency required in healthy intrapersonal and social harmony and dynamics. This is because; the concept of good deeds and bad deeds pertains to what we do for individual and global blossoming, especially when we are not in apposition to understand or realize cosmic consciousness. Hence the commandments, decrees or DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 90. 90 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA precepts are formed and flow through the generations in the form of traditions and conventions, customs. , understand the intricacies of philosophy. It should be clear why Gita elaborates on good deeds and bad deeds in 16th, 17th and 18th chapters besides in 9th also and advocates all, but especially those who can not comprehend the cosmic dynamics, and hence doubts; to follow these precepts! These precepts play a vital role in individual and social harmony. The essence of the two apparently contradictory statements becomes clear, through NAMASMARAN. At the end of 9th chapter; Arjuna (and we) probably becomes conversant with the life struggle and how to focus on the absolute truth common to individual existence and the universe. Why is the purpose of narration and showing the cosmic nature in 10th and 11th chapters respectively? But since Lord Krishna has described SWADHARMA through 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th chapters; and one’s position in cosmic dynamics and the cosmic consciousness in 7th and 8th chapters, and since in 9th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to devote to Him (cosmic consciousness); Arjuna has a question about Lord Krishna’s cosmic nature; and how to worship or devote this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 91. 91 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA 10th and 11th chapters depict of this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna elaborates how He is the root cause or seed of the seen, unseen, and conscious, subconscious and unconscious universe. He further assures that He enlightens the seekers of truth; who are completely consumed and hence keep interacting intensely about the truth i.e. Lord Krishna; in ecstasy! Lord Krishna then describes various components of universe, which broaden and expand one’s vision, paradigm and perspective to become as objective as possible. In 11th chapter, there is actually VISHVARUPADARSHANA. This means Arjuna is given special eyesight on the basis of his preparation in 10th chapter, and actually shown the infinite nature of Lord Krishna. Obviously; this “seeing” is not actual seeing by visual system, but through opening up of the consciousness of Arjuna. This is why Arjuna “sees” the future fate of warriors. This vision is mind boggling! Arjuna is afraid of this sight because this requires disappearance of the subjectivity which is like death itself! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 92. 92 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Arjuna therefore requests Lord Krishna to appear in front of him as a human body. This is a very important point of transition from focusing and worshipping the cosmic formless reality to focusing on the human form of the Lord, which is relatively easier because you can allow the subjectivity to gradually disappear. This is the reason and basis; of why most of the saints and scriptures like Shrimad Bhagavatam advice common men to worship God in form and practice NAMASMARAN, which is the subtlest non visual, non olfactory, non gustatory (in short non sensory) form of the Lord! It (NAMAMSMARAN) transsensory or suprasensory and hence; when practiced by an individual; can at best; be barely “heard” by his inner sense of hearing, which is quite unlike the “hearing” of sounds produced outside. Nov 13, 2009, 10:00 am In 11th chapter Lord Krishna endows Arjuna with “objective vision” or extrasensory vision; by lifting him from his subjective realm and perspective. Arjuna “sees” or actually experiences the cosmic consciousness. This “vision” or actual experience of objective reality is unfathomable in every sense, because of our yet undissolved subjective existence! For the same reason it DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 93. 93 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA is frightening. It is like moving with supersonic or superphotic (faster than the speed of light) speed. Arjuna experienced something similar to (but more complex than) high speed centrifugation or high speed revolutions creating destabilizing vertigo upsetting all body and mind systems. Arjuna went beyond time and sense of time seemed to have lost. He actually “saw” the panorama spread over ages and millennia. He saw generations after generations getting dissolved in that consciousness. He “saw” the seekers of truth worshipping that consciousness and the ignorant oblivious of Him; being afraid and running from Him! Arjuna realized that Lord Krishna; the human form in front of him is actually cosmic consciousness pervading him and his consciousness in and out and from all sides. He felt stunned by this unparallel experience of omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent God. He was overwhelmed by the experience of what is implied by the terms unborn, immortal and infinite! He realized what is meant by the origin of universe and the destination of the universe. He sensed what consciousness beyond consciousness is; and origin and culmination of all spiritual, intellectual and emotional endeavors in literature, art and science; practiced by human civilizations, knowingly and unknowingly in the pursuit of the “truth”; are! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 94. 94 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Since this experience is similar to that of getting burst or exploded from within; it is destabilizing and shattering, even though it is thrilling and exciting in ultimate sense! Arjuna therefore while getting saturated and suffocated, urged Lord Krishna to reappear in human form! This is precisely the point of idol worship; actually this word idol worship is very superficial and narrow and does not convey the spirit. It is aptly called MURTIPOOJA. The cosmic consciousness is brought in human or other form and then worshipped. This practical and simple way of connecting with the cosmic consciousness has been welcomed by billions of people for millennia. The saints; as alluded to; earlier; have further made it simple by practicing NAMASMARAN and preaching it and thereby made the enlightenment accessible; to billions of people for generations gone; and generations to come! Lord Krishna reappears in His human form (still as a murti of a deity with four hands, so as to distinguish Him as different from ordinary human being) and explains to Arjuna that it is possible to not merely, know and reach Him, but actually merge with Him; through devout love with absolute fidelity and loyalty. In my view Lord Krishna implies here; that this unconditioned and devout DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 95. 95 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA love is the culmination and pinnacle of all penance and efforts (such as PRANAYAM, ASANA and others). This is YOGA of YOGA or YOGA attained through YOGA or MAHAYOGA! At the end of 11th chapter; Lord Krishna asserts that SWADHARMA i.e. every moment lived in His consciousness or remembrance; characterized by inimitable and sublime love for everyone in the universe; which signifies supreme form of universal unity; certainly takes an individual and hence billions of individuals to His supreme abode! In 12th chapter, Arjuna, like any genius (after “seeing” “cosmic formless form” and “deity form” of Lord Krishna); probably realizes the necessity to confirm (for the benefit of billions) the Lord’s opinion about the nature of worship, and hence requests Lord Krishna to explain the question, “which type of devout love; amongst the two viz. that for formless cosmic consciousness; and that for a specific form (idol, murti or NAMA); is preferable and conducive to individual and global blossoming?” Lord Krishna explains that it is quite difficult to remain focused on “formless cosmic consciousness”, (though those who can do this; and have supreme love for DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 96. 96 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA everyone in the universe; reach Him); hence worshipping Him in some form, (because it is not practicable for a common man to comprehend, remember and realize every moment the the self realization or the realization cosmic consciousness and its application in day to day life) and also by doing every activity in His remembrance (and offering Him, because everything actually belongs to Him) is desirable. He further advises Arjuna (and every one in the universe) that even if this also may be found difficult; one should persist on it. Because, through consistent and persistent efforts, the individuals reach Him and blossom step by step from conceptualization and practice; to enlightenment; to composed or integrated mental state; to detachment for every result (the fleeting gains and losses); to absolute all enlivening, all empowering and all enlightening peace! Lord Krishna briefly describes the great characteristics of such an individual (and hence the society) and assures Arjuna that following this path is like drinking the sap of immortality and being one with the eternal source of love that emanates through generations after generations! What is the relevance of the description of KSHETRA KSHETRAJNA etc. in 13th chapter? Lord Krishna probably thought that Arjuna (and many others like him who are like limbic system, autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, endocrine system etc. associated with instinctual and emotional; and conscious and subconscious behavior and hence) is DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 97. 97 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA not yet tuned to this kind of enlightenment. In other words the enlightenment did not yet seep down and did not yet percolate into the bones and into every cell! In such situation it became necessary to explain the purport from different angle, in still somewhat different language, and with different semantics. Thus in 13th chapter Lord Krishna explains the meaning of KSHETRA, KSHETRAJNA, JNANA and JNEYA, which mean body with all its systems, knower, knowledge and object of knowledge; respectively. All this is explained in scriptures such as BRAHMASUTRAS elaborated by rishis, which revolve around, spring from and culminate in Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness. PRUTHVI, which broadly means all particles, AAPA, which broadly means all liquids, TEJA, which broadly means the fire principle, VAAYU, which broadly means all energy and AAKASHA which broadly means space are called PANCHA (five) MAHABHUTAS. BUDDHI, AVYAKTA and AHANKAR constitute the subtler aspects of human beings such as intelligence, unapparent forces and the subjective schema (of one’s own and the universe) forming conceptual framework. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 98. 98 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA These eight embodying various instincts and emotions constitute KSHETRA. The knower of this KSHETRA is KSHETRAJNA i.e. cosmic consciousness i.e. LORD KRISHNA. It has to be conceived that this consciousness when restricted or limited to KSHETRA i.e. human body and associated phenomena, constitutes the KSHETRAJNA in that respect. JNANA is knowledge; which is not merely information collected by an individual but enlightenment through study of ADHYATMA i.e. holistic physiology or study of intricacies of the dynamics of nature (KSHETRA); and consequent intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical behavior of an individual! JNEYA is object of knowledge; which in ultimate respect is only one; final reality; viz. BRAHMA. It is without beginning and end. It is neither true nor false. Here true and false refer to concept of “is” and “is not”. “Is” and “Is not” are plausible only with reference to space and time in view of the three dimensional nature of everything and its durability! Hence it is beyond “is” and “is not”! It is conceived as: It has countless hands, eyes, ears, mouths and so on. It is said to encompass everything; space, time and all individual consciousnesses. It incorporates all sensory DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 99. 99 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA perceptions and beyond it all! It is beyond all describable attributes as it is beyond the language of quality (words) and quantity (numbers). It is detached as well as attached and it is beyond all qualities and yet experiences the qualities! It is present inside and outside of everything and it is static as well as dynamic. It is extremely subtle and hence beyond perception and is infinitely away as well as in vicinity. It is beyond all light and all darkness, which are functions of visual systems! It is the knowledge as well as object of knowledge and ever present in the core heart of every one. All these qualities are described to reinforce the super concept; of cosmic consciousness. The BRAHMA or PURUSHA and PRAKRUTI are said to be free of beginning and end. PURUSHA can be conceived as consciousness and as the root of every expression or manifestation, which act as fields and rest all with beginning and end and changes; constitute contingent aspects viz. the GUNAS. Understanding these concepts helps an individual to identify himself/herself as being increasingly closer and closer or being in common with the cosmic consciousness and begins to see the happenings in the universe and individual life as products of PRAKRUTI and GUNAS. This is progressive liberation. This liberation becomes DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 100. 100 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA possible because the individual sees that cosmic consciousness is like immortal, eternal space that is essential component for everything that happens in universe but neither participates in the activities nor gets influenced by them and it is like Sun, which illumines the universe without actually “going” to the nooks and corner and without actually “becoming” part of those places. What is the importance of the description of GUNAS etc in the 14th chapter to the blossoming of mankind? Lord Krishna then describes the “applied” aspects of the holistic physiology viz. the implications of the contingent GUNAS; in human life (with undoubted impact on the universe) in 14th chapter. Nov 14, 2009, 10:10 am Gita is the nucleus of conceptual and actual world unity and harmony. When I was more immature than what I am today, I could not appreciate the benevolence of Gita for the universe. Those days, I preferred to read Maxim Gorky’s “Mother” in preference to Gita for the blind children. The “Mother” and leftist literature in general; analyze the global problems DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 101. 101 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA in a rational way and take you a step forward in breaking the shackles of individualistic pettiness. Hence they are not counterproductive or retrogressive, but they should be transcended by studying Gita. Gita imparts the vision of universal unity and harmony. Gita frees or liberates everyone with various characteristics, attitudes, beliefs and endeavors! Far more important is the enlightenment in respect of death and immortality in one’s life that demystified n Gita. Gita gives this freeing knowledge everyone and guides, to actually realize it and merge with cosmic consciousness. But this holistic perspective makes Gita somewhat ambiguous (for most people) and vulnerable to attacks from fascists, fundamentalists, and extremists and overall those people; who are trapped in bigotry of one kind or another. But the spirit of Gita is bound to be triumphant in her role for ages to come; as she has been in the past! Lord Krishna reiterates; that every thing in universe including the GUNAS; such as SATVA, RAJA and TAMA result from the cosmic consciousness. This may be considered to be a kind transduction or transformation of the consciousness into energy that mobilizes the matter according to the characteristics of the matter (which also develop from consciousness). From the interplay of consciousness, time, space, energy DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 102. 102 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA and matter the world appears as it does; which in turn is due to our consciousness veiled by our physiological and subjective perceptions! Making it simplified; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA indicate different characteristics of every thing such as being nearer, in between and away from absolute consciousness! SATVA therefore is a quality that blossoms knowledge and activities conducive to freedom i.e. reach the cosmic consciousness, RAJA multiplies intensity of feelings and the activities born out of subjective concepts and pursuits; and TAMA enhances decomposition, degeneration and downfall in the abyss of darkness of ignorance. Gita is global, because you can see people with varying preponderance of; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA all over the world; contributing to; blossoming, day to day working and mutilation of the world respectively. Following account can make this point clearer. Thus: TAMA constitutes ignorance, indolence, slumber, irrationality, irresponsibility, fanaticism, viciousness and so on; RAJA constitutes restless study and collection of information, dynamism (usually out of petty pursuits), rational and analytical thinking without synthetic or holistic perspective, being vigilant and/or anxious, DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 103. 103 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA discipline, readiness to study the point of view of others and analyze according to one’s own conceptual framework and attitude conducive to liberal individualistic progress (which generally come to loggerheads in the course of time) and SATAV constitutes buoyant serenity of mind, agility and swiftness in over all behavior, focused attentiveness, rationality complemented with holistic approach, natural awareness of SWADHARMA; the culmination of universally benevolent “discipline”; generosity and loving attitude towards all variety of perspectives as originating from one; and perspective conducive to holistic progress that ensures progressive complementarity and sublime harmony. However, GUNAS generally bind people in some kind of subjectivity and hence the natural blossoming invariably leads to freedom from the influence (not absence of) and/ or veils of every GUNA. This is highly idealistic state, but resides in every heart though one may be oblivious to it! Thus in one sense spirit of Gita resides in every heart; (though some may be unaware of it); and governs the dynamics of human behavior! As majority becomes aware of this invaluable treasure of enlightenment and empowerment in their hearts (through practices such as NAMSMARAN), the spiritual renaissance would DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 104. 104 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA manifest in every nook and corner of the world. The hallmark of such spiritual revolution would simply be; the awareness of this treasure in their hearts; rest all would follow! What is the significance of the symbolic description of ASHVATTHA tree? In 15th chapter, there is an analogy of ASHVATTHA tree to describe the universe and universal consciousness on the one hand; and the individual and individual consciousness on the other, thereby highlighting the unity between the two. One is tempted to assume this as identical with anatomy of the central nervous system, which is vital in individual life. But this symbolic description is simultaneously applicable to individual (anatomy and physiological observations) and the universe. (It appears that is also applicable to every particle and species of life in universe). From human anatomical and physiological point of view; human brain is the seat of consciousness. It is at the top, forming the root or seed of consciousness; the branches in the form nerve fibers spread up and down into plexuses and peripheral nerves and billions of receptors; (the nature of which corresponds according to Gita, to the causative deeds of the individual in the past, and the individual DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 105. 105 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA enjoys or suffers more or less exactly according to the inputs (determined by the past deeds) from these nerve fibers and their receptors! In fact the whole body results from the past deeds! Indeed the consciousness gets trapped in these sense organs and the person becomes bonded and suffers to a greater or lesser extent!! The human being becomes free after returning of his consciousness from the periphery to the center or the root! This is analogous to cosmic consciousness; that also gets in some way “trapped” in the universe; and returns towards his origin at the time when the universe gets dissolved back into its roots!! In other words Gita beautifully shows the commonality between the individual blossoming with universal blossoming. In other words this may be called reorienting and reestablishing oneself in one’s own position! This may also be called returning to one’s own self! This consciousness reachable by an individual is the same as universal consciousness that illumines the entire universe. One can always say that this is a poetic imagination, which DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 106. 106 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA it is; but in the sense that it transcends the subjective reasoning! Gita is beyond human (whether poetic or scientific) imagination. Anyone however, can verify the spirit of Gita for himself or herself (and inevitably with the world, because the light of Gita cannot remain restricted to one’s subjective or petty self!)! Is it not unnatural or unphysiological to consider the physiological qualities; as 6 (SHAD) enemies (RIPUS)? In 16th chapter there is description of qualities conducive to downfall of a person (getting increasingly distanced from and oblivious of one’s true self i.e. cosmic consciousness) and essentially correspond to the preponderance of RAJA and TAMA described in the 14th chapter. The way to overcome these influences of negative forces called ASURI forces; is SWADHARMA and step by step victory over the KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA. The rejection of scriptures by an individual is usually out of impulsiveness arising from the slavery of KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA, (desire, agitation on not getting the desired and addiction) which are three enemies of an individual; because they trap one’s consciousness and drag away from the true self of an individual. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 107. 107 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Many times I used to feel that KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA are all natural, physiological and normal. Gita teachings are antinatural. But now I realize that my standards of “natural, physiological and normal” were mediocre and born out of intellectual lethargy and slowness. I now understand that physiological is not a static term. Hence what is physiological in immature state would be pathological in mature state. What is physiological in primitive state would be pathological in evolved state. But having considered the differences in many environmental conditions the scriptures written thousands of years ago, in one part of the world; may not be exactly applicable in another part of the world and in present situation. Hence the emphasis is given by Gita on focusing on devout love (SHRADDHA) for cosmic consciousness! This essence is reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions and in terms of remembering the cosmic consciousness through repetition of a name of God NAMASMARAN, or OMKAR according to that tradition or religion What role is played by food (AHAR), yoga techniques and penance (YAJNA, TAPA and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 108. 108 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA DANA), committed conviction (SHRADDHA) etc.; described in 17th chapter (apart from 4th and 6th also)? In 17th chapter there is explanation about three types of, (salient aspects of behavior) for the benefit of an individual in search of truth! The sketchy description gives broad guidance about principles of behavior useful in individual and global blossoming and global policy making! In essence, the SHRADHA and consequent endeavors are differentiated according to the GUNAS. SATVA type worship divinity, RAJA type worship affluence, magic and even devilish forces and TAMA type worship evil spirits and dead bodies. SATVA type eat the food conducive to inner blossoming and enlightenment (usually fresh, sweet and empowering fortitude), RAJA type eat food conducive to multiply the vigor and indiscriminate desires (usually spicy and hot, including some types of non-vegetarian food) followed by ill effects, and TAMA type like stale, fermented, rotten, stinking (e.g. some types of cheese and fish) leading to further ignorance, or dullness. SATVA perform YAJNA a procedure to invoke cosmic consciousness for satisfaction, RAJA type for petty DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 109. 109 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA pursuits and socio-political gains for prestige and acclaim and TAMA type do it (for even worse purposes) and without adhering to the procedure, and without any interest, concern and expenditure! The purity, decency, humility of body and conduct, with respect to deity, teachers and enlightened individuals is called SHAREER TAPA. The appropriate and benevolent dialogue and study of the nature is called VANGMAYA (related to intelligence and speech) TAPA. The observance of abstinence from speech (unnecessary talk, gossip or any kind of impulsive expressions), on the one hand and experience of noble feeling and the expression of this noble feeling and selfless love; is called MANAS TAPA. Out of these; TAPA without any petty expectations is called SATVIKA, with expectations of socio-political or some other gains is called RAJAS and with fanatic endeavors with malafied intentions of harming the others is called TAMAS TAPA. DANA i.e. donations (cash, or kind) are also categorized. Thus when given selflessly as a part of SWADHARMA it is SATVIK, given with discomfort due to excessive love for money, with intentions to extract excessive benefits is RAJAS and when given at wrong place, to wrong person (obviously with ill intentions) it is called TAMAS. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 110. 110 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA At the end it is summarized (endorsed and reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions) that every activity should begin and end in thankful remembrance of the name of God (called NAMASMARAN or OMKAR) symbolizing cosmic consciousness (from Whom everything is born)! It is also clarified that; if intelligence, emotions, instincts and body are not integrated and not focused in totality (SHRADDHA) on cosmic consciousness, then the process of blossoming and enlightenment is jeopardized. It is essential to appreciate that Gita cares for and nurtures the universes! Therefore there is a consideration about why people behave in away they may not like! The physiological impulses when uncontrollable (KAMA) blur the consciousness and antinatural behavior results as explained in 3rd chapter! Hence we find chaos and indiscriminate violence towards self and others. These people involved in these antinatural and antihuman activities; may not heed and follow Gita as they are not in a position to listen and understand. But it is for the leaders to understand and follow. They should create an environment conducive to better control of the unabated physiological urges, which can be destructive to individuals and the societies. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 111. 111 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA The guidance about food (AHAR) and various techniques (VIHAR) described in 4th,, 6th and also in 17th chapter may also not be accessible to all in the present situation. But this guidance is also meant for those who understand and lead the societies; world over. They have to design plans and policies to make such food available which would blossom individual and social consciousness. The guidance about confusion (SAMMOHA), doubt (SAMSHAYA) or lack of committed conviction (ASHRADDHA) in 3rd 4th, 7th, 9th, 16th, 17th and 18th chapters may appear harsh, as there is warning that if we get trapped and carried away by these qualities, then we would cause our own as well as others’ downfall. But this disease of confusion, doubt and committed conviction creates a chasm between our lower consciusness and us and gets reflected in individual and social life, all over the world, and hence must be diagnosed and warned about! But one must remember that Gita not only diagnoses but also provides the solution and a definite assurance that if we focus on our own highest consciousness i.e. our true self; then we all from all over the world would certainly be freed from all the miseries. In 18th chapter many points from previous chapters are repeated and emphasized again in a kind of useful summary. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 112. 112 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Thus terms such as SANYASA, TYAGA, JNANA, KARMA, KARTA, KARANAS, ADHISHTHAN, KARTA, KARAN, CHESHTA, DAIVA, JNANA, JNEYAM, PARIJNATA, KARANAM, KARMA, KARTA, BUDDHI, DHRITI, SUKHAM, BRAHMANA, KASHATRIYA, VAISHYA, and SHUDRA are explained. What I understand and deduce, from these is as follows. SANYASA is giving up all activities of personal desires. SANYASA is invariably associated with dedication to cosmic consciousness. SANYASA is associated with responsibility of the whole world, not just one’s family. SANYASI is not the same as an inert and indolent creature incapable of earning. He is not a popper or a beggar. So besides renunciation, union with cosmic consciousness (YOGA) is inseparable from SANYASA. TYAGA is giving up all results or fruits of actions. According to Gita, the activities prescribed in scriptures for common welfare should be performed without ulterior motives or expectations. This is especially true today, when petty selfishness is dividing the world, individualism is isolating the individuals and fanaticism in one form or the other is perpetuating viciousness and destruction. It may be clear that SANYASA, TYAGA DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 113. 113 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA and YOGA are not separate from; but actually the most essential aspects of mainstream life. NIYATA KARMA means all activities included in daily and seasonal or calendar routine for universal welfare. If an individual abandons them because of petty distractions or because of indolence, then it is called TAMAS TYAGA. Abandoning the activities out of fear of bodily discomfort (loss of money) is called RAJAS TYAGA and does not lead to individual and global blossoming. Thus forsaking the fruits and performing actions (SWADHARMA) is called SATVIKA TYAGA. Thus a person following SWADHARMA does not give value or importance to the nature of the work and hence is free of confusion and doubts. Every activity has some components viz. ADHISHTHANA the space or area or field of activity, KARTA the individual consciousness operating, KARAN the means, CHESHTA the actual dynamics and DAIVA, which means the unseen environmental forces influencing the outcome. JNANA, JNEYAM and PARIJNATA (knowledge, object of knowledge and knower respectively) are the control mechanisms bringing about actions e.g. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 114. 114 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA neurophysiological controls and KARAN, KARMA KARTA (means or tools, action proper and doer) constitute the actual components of actions. JNANA is classified as TAMASIK (fanatic and blind), RAJASIK (rational and analytical but sectarian) and SATVIK (unifying and holistic). KARMA also is SATVIK (selfless SWADHARMA), RAJAS (actions performed vehemently with individualistic pursuits) and TAMAS (work begun without thought or conscience and sense of proportion; and usually to harm oneself or the others). KARTA (doer) is also SATVIK (selfless, humble, buoyant, enthusiastic and steadfast and courageous irrespective of success or failures because of strength of conviction), RAJAS (motivated by vested interests and hence harboring ulterior motives and violent and vacillating in excitement and depression) and TAMAS (ignorant, unskilled, dull, crooked, vicious, cynical, melancholic and lethargic). BUDDHI (wisdom) also is SATVIK (discerns desirable and undesirable and freedom and bondage), RAJAS (cannot discern and hence misinterprets desirable and undesirable) and TAMAS (blunderous and disastrous in every respect). DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 115. 115 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA DHRITI (fortitude) also is SATVIK (composed and integrated in every respect and focused completely on cosmic consciousness), RAJAS (involved in various activities for petty gains) and TAMAS (full of slumber, nightmares, and bouts of sadness and arrogance and shackling the individual in everyway). SUKHAM (happiness) also is SATVIK (initially unpleasant but subsequently benevolent), RAJAS (initially pleasant due to indulgence in objects of pleasure but latter precipitating misery due to loss of those objects or due to their ill effects) and TAMAS (one which creates slumber, perversion, bondage and destruction). BRAHMANA, KSHATRIYA, VAISHYA and SHUDRA constitute different aptitudes and constitutions, suitable for intellectual and enlightening activities, leadership and brave military activity, trading, rearing cattle and farming; and patient and sustained provision of services; requiring different skills respectively. SWADHARMA i.e. act with complete dedication and selfless involvement for individual and global blossoming (through guidance from scriptures or from inner voice through NAMSMARAN) helps us return towards our root i.e. cosmic consciousness, even if our aptitude and skills may appear to be inferior to those of others!! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 116. 116 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Lord Krishna explains that following SWADHARMA is itself the ultimate reward in life and everything else is born out of ignorance and/or pettiness and hence counterproductive i.e. taking us away from our root! In the last few verses He asks Arjuna repeatedly to focus on the true self i.e. cosmic consciousness and not get distracted by any other subjective ideological, methodological or superstitious considerations (SARVA DHARMAN PARITYAJYA) and assures; in fact pledges that He would liberate Arjuna of all bondages (PAPA)! Arjuna understands and agrees to follow Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness in the struggle of life! Sanjay, the narrator, in the ecstasy of having heard this dialogue and remembered the stunningly glorious persona of Lord Krishna; declares his opinion that union of individual consciousness (Arjuna) and cosmic consciousness (Krishna) is itself the ultimate victory in every possible way. ADDENDA NOVEMBER 25, 2009 03:00 PM DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 117. 117 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA As I had mentioned earlier, for it is suitable to keep on writing on Gita as and when it appears in mind, rather than mechanically sticking to the sequence of chapters. Hence after, I have “finished” writing on the content of 18 chapters, now I am again starting to add the addenda! In chapter 3, Lord Krishna expresses His concern about the common people, who follow the reputed individuals in the society! Even as this is grossly true; this is an obvious statement. In addition to this obvious meaning, Lord Krishna appears to imply that; in any system; the control mechanisms or the regulating centers or the higher centers are followed by rest of the component parts. This is true for the whole universe, society and the human body also. In other words; the higher self of an individual has the responsibility to behave in tune with the cosmic consciousness so that rest of the consciousness trapped in the body systems also can follow the suite. Similarly, the position of the leaders in the different fields in society is that of the higher centers in the human body. They must follow SWADHARMA so that the whole society gets guidance and lives in order, unity and harmony. If the leaders misbehave, then the society is bound to perish. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 118. 118 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA This applies to human body also. If the higher centers in the human body get deranged then the whole body would go in disarray. What is KARMAMUKTI or BANDHAMUKTI? I seem to understand that this is nothing else but the freedom of our consciousness from the shackling influence of biophysical, biochemical and physiological activities. This is possible through linking with the cosmic consciousness, by anchoring to the name of that cosmic consciousness called NAMA and remembering the NAMA (called NAMASMARAN) is focusing on and getting linked and gradually merged with the cosmic consciousness! In Gita Lord Krishna is the cosmic consciousness. NOVEMBER 26, 2009, 09:45 AM How can TYGA be superior to DHYNA? In 12th chapter there is verse, in which there is a clarification about the culmination; of study into knowledge or wisdom, of wisdom into composure of mind (DHYANA), of DHYANA into KARMAPHALATYAGA i.e. detachment from the results of actions; and of KARMAPHALATYAGA into peace. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 119. 119 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA I used to wonder; how simple detachment from results or fruits of actions could be superior stage just penultimate to peace i.e. superior to DHYANA or contemplation of cosmic consciousness or true self! The detachment appeared simple and pertaining to mundane individual experience. Moreover, simply getting detached from one result of one action; could not appear to endow permanent peace, because one could perform innumerable actions and each time the question of detachment would arise. It is clear however, now, that the detachment has far deeper and cosmic meaning. If and when I realize that that I am a part of cosmic consciousness and KARMA is actually the manifestation of the universe, then I realize that detachment is actually not from personal actions, but from the universal action of the cosmic consciousness! Secondly the detachment is not from one or another action, but it is from all possible actions of individual consciousness including all subjective realm such intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical feelings and actions. It also includes all the physiological, biochemical and biophysical actions going no in one’s body or rather being! Last but not the least; it includes peaceful and loving renunciation of everything subjective in nature and even the body at the end! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 120. 120 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Once this meaning becomes clear, it becomes clear how DHYNA culminates into KARMAPHALATYAGA and how KARMAPHALATYAGA culminates into or sublimates into peace! KARMAPHALATYAGA here is really the MUKTI or liberation and it is but appropriate that it is associated with peace. Can the all benevolent Lord punish? In 16th chapter, there are verses, indicating the fruit of hating the cosmic consciousness (Lord Krishna) in terms of going into abysmal births and miserable end (GATI). The meaning of these verses appeared to indicate the consequences of one’s actions and somewhat punitive nature of the Lord! This appeared in contrast to the kind and benevolent nature of Lord, (P.86), so much emphasized by many saints. This appeared inexplicable, when one pondered over the verses in 6th and 9th chapters stating that even a sinner of worst kind gets liberation and in verse 18th chapter; stating that ISHAVR resides in every heart and governs and mobilized the living beings. Now it appears that the verses in 16th chapter relate to the ego of a person who separates him/her from the cosmic consciousness and hence makes one arrogant and hate his or her own connection with the cosmic self! In such a condition, the Lord probably implies that he or she would keep on reverberating in his or her own separated and DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 121. 121 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA hence painful, miserable and helpless state. If you experience the might of the shackling ego, you would agree with this! However, after coming into contact with Gita and getting immersed in Gita; he or she would begin to reorient himself or herself with the true self or cosmic consciousness and peace. This also you would agree if and when you experience! NOVEMBER 26, 2009, 02:00 PM What is equanimity? In 9th chapter, Lord says that for him every one is equal and He neither loves nor hates (in a personal manner) any one. This used be rather perplexing, on the background that He says that He would punish those who hate Him! Moreover it appeared absurd to equate good and bad people! I now understand that even as Lord can see the unity of the universe and the universe being present in Him and He being present in every heart, we do not experience this divinity residing in every heart, because we do not see it in our own heart! Hence due our personal biases and subjectivity we see individuals (including ourselves) as DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 122. 122 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA good, bad, simple, shrewd, cunning, crooked, vicious, vindictive, gullible, healthy, sick, happy, miserable etc. Gita implies that it is natural for everyone to evolve in this realization (because the Lord resides in every heart); which the Lord shares with Arjuna. All the means described n Gita (such as NAMASMARAN and many others not directly and elaborately described in Gita) take us to this realization. How are SANYASA and YOGA interrelated? In 5th chapter, it is said that SANYASA is not possible without YOGA (SANYASASTU MAHABAHO DUKKHAMAPTUM AYOGATAH…). This implies that SANYASA and associated peace devoid of vacillations is possible if the is loving bond (YOGA) is preserved. Renunciation with contempt or hatred is not true SANYASA and not associated with peace! If you have subtle dislike for you spouse and you decide to separate, then that is not SANYASA in true sense or renunciation in true sense! It is merely a reaction of hatred! Conversely, YOGA in true sense is bond of love with absolutely no expectations. YOGA is being free from i.e. renouncing every possible subjective consideration! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 123. 123 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA If you like your spouse so much that you cannot bear the thought of his/her separation, then or you expect something from him/her then bond of love is not YOGA or objective impersonal love! Thus; hatred and subjective attachment; are responsible for mean, petty, prejudiced, inappropriate, unjust and suicidal or socially harmful actions; which are followed by perversion and/or bondage and suffering! This holds true for every kind of subjective hatred and love. Lord teaches us that renouncing per se is not true sacrifice with objective perspective i.e. SANYASA and getting possessed per se; is not objective love or YOGA. In the course of evolution you rise above this kind of hatred or subjective attachment. You learn and realize the rhythm of life. You learn to enjoy the supreme love and supreme sacrifice objectively. Thus SANYASA is rising above all the subjective framework and getting freed from it; and YOGA is the absence of resentment and presence of loving fulfillment (without any expectations) while you are rising! Further; it becomes clear, that just as SANYASA i.e. true renunciation; is impossible without YOGA i.e. bond of objective love, similarly; the YOGA the bond of objective DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 124. 124 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA love is not possible without SANYASA i.e. renouncing all ideas, ideals, ambitions, aims, objectives and other preoccupations; born out of subjective framework of mind! In other words, rising into objectivity is truly a self (subjective) less (detachment and SANYASA) and truly loving (union with the cosmic self i.e. objective love, or YOGA) act! It has been repeatedly said that NAMASMARAN can help in this! What is importance of SATVA GUNA with references to 6th, 7th and 9th chapters? is said in 6th chapter that self control (moderation) helps an individual to attain YOGA. But in 6th, 7th and 9th chapters it is also said that those who worship me can attain me irrespective of their conduct. I think it refers to the fact that in general SATVA GUNA is near to revelation of truth. But that is not always apparent and perceptible to common man’s eye. Hence it is also said that Lord’s devotee instantly becomes one with Lord as stated in 9th and 11th chapters!! This statement of Gita is particularly validated by the behavior of AVALIYAS, who are nonconformist DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 125. 125 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA realized souls such as Satam Maharaj, Gajanan Maharaj etc. NOVEMBER 27, 2009, 3:45 PM Was Arjuna was actually right in renouncing the war as he stated at the end of the 1st chapter itself, that he was ready to die without offering any resistance rather than participating in the war for the sake of winning the kingdom? Apparently I was also in two minds when I read first chapter. But in the course of time I realized that Arjuna was kind and loving but getting derailed from his duty towards himself and the society. I also realized that those justified and upheld the view point of Arjuna were themselves in the dilemma of identifying the enemy and fighting it! This is also because of gross misconception about AHIMSA. In my experience, when you are not sure about the identity of the enemy; you are not convinced about fighting! In short Arjuna had not identified his true self and hence he had not identified the true enemy and hence was reluctant to enter and participate in the war! With the practice of NAMASMARAN; the nature of the enemy becomes clear and you begin to enjoy DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 126. 126 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA participating in the war with enemy inside and outside as a matter of privilege of SWADHARMA! How can we reconcile the idea of KARMAPHALATYAGA and getting TYAGA PHALA? It is true that in 18th chapter there is reference to not getting TYAGA PHALA by RAJASA TYAGA! Here the Lord refers to the fruit or PHALA which liberates us from all kinds of expectations! Hence this TYAGA PHALA is quite different or in fact quite opposite of KARMAPHALA which leads to bondage! NOVEMBER 28, 2009, 7:30 AM Are there 9 doors (NAVADWRA)? In 5th chapter there is reference to 9 doors of the body. This concept is well known. But is this true for females? It has to be noted, that in females there are 2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 nostrils, 1 mouth, 1 urinary opening 1 anal opening (9) doors but there is also 1 more door and that is genital opening viz. vagina, making 10 ‘doors’ to female body. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 127. 127 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA I feel that questioning an authority is not insulting the authority, but showing confidence that you would be heard, attended to and responded to; properly. Not raising doubts is like being closed and already prejudiced that if you question; the authority would feel offended, insulted and or may not be able to answer! This point is minor one; with respect to anatomy, but initially I was feeling inhibited to raise it, because of the popular contention that scriptures should never be doubted. Later I realized that by raising doubts; we do not reduce the importance of Gita; but show that inspite of doubts in terms of minutia, the essence of Gita takes us from our subjective frame of mind; to the objective and cosmic consciousness! How to deal with our instincts? One point from 2nd chapter is about the description of the deterioration (DHYAYATO VISHAYAN….) of an individual due to entrapment in the dragging instinctual forces. I feel that as the feeling of attraction about opposite sex is natural, hatred of it is not advocated in Gita. What is highlighted is; how by focusing exclusively on the innate core of one’s self e.g. through NAMASMARAN, one experiences the sublimation of most desires; especially the sexual desire into sublime and respectful love! Hatred DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 128. 128 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA about or slavery of instincts; such as sexual attraction; are not conducive to individual and global blossoming! They can not give warmth of romance or any other bond involved in different relationships. On the contrary, when we evolve from within; we do not hate the opposite sex. We do not become bitter. We experience and enjoy the sublime attraction in opposite sex and not obscene carnal cravings. This is probably the basis of worshipping feminine and masculine principles in the nature, i.e. Goddess and God and not merely (male) god by males and (female) goddess by females! This holds true for all other instincts and desires and that is exactly what is; the hallmark of the imminent global culture. I feel this point is extremely important for a person like me, who is often afraid of a state of desirelessness, which is dreadfully similar to total void or actually death. Hence I reiterate that in the course of evolution our subjective desires sublimate or culminate into cosmic or objective desire/s and do not vanish. They vanish only as subjective or petty preoccupations or obsessions. They vanish as fanatic and exploitative compulsions. Thus Gita makes us free and not hollow or empty! This is what makes us fearless and buoyant! This positive content of Gita is extremely reassuring and rejuvenating. It ensures emergence of objective, cosmic and immortal love in the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 129. 129 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA feeble, fragile and frail body that we have! This is how we realize our immortality; and that of; the self realized seers; of the past! How to reconcile the utopia of better world? When I was charged with the idea of a better world, I used feel totally upset, disturbed, agitated and at times disheartened and depressed by any argument opposite to it or negating it! Hence initially Gita used to depress me tremendously because except the last verse of Gita, there is not even an indirect indication or assurance of a better world in Gita. On the contrary she seemed to be revolving around the life and death and individual emancipation. To accept that you have to follow your SWADHARMA and not expect a global change was extremely painful and appeared to be irrational, unrealistic, pessimistic, deterministic, fatalistic and so disheartening and depressing. Now; even when it is becoming clear that it was the cosmic consciousness that manifested in the conceptual form of the goal of global blossoming (though; partially and/or ambiguously; due to the constitutional limitations); in my mind; it has been painful to give up that utopia of global DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 130. 130 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA wellbeing, because, without it; the life has appeared meaningless, purposeless, hopeless and dead! I have felt impotent and helpless by the philosophy of detachment! Gradually I have started realizing that this is not the message of Gita! In stead; Gita reassures that my core is immortal and that it is one with the spirit of Gita and hence, would keep on manifesting from time to time through this individual or that. Thus Gita gives full stop to the fear of dying without accomplishing my dream and assures that the global blossoming though not exactly as per my specification; would continue from time to time and )! Gita teaches us that, the world would continue to have resurgence of cosmic consciousness and enlightenment and the necessary and appropriate rectification! Hence Gita teaches that I have; the freedom and privilege to practice; the SWADHARMA with total involvement, which ensures moment to moment ecstasy, that does not depend on fruit! The universe is going to continue with its characteristics and this enlightenment springing from Gita; would also keep resurfacing from time to time through generations! I am learning to free myself from the visible changes (which are never permanent and hence deceptive) of individual and global blossoming. I am beginning to understand and experience my role, without unrealistic optimism or pessimism due the inner DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 131. 131 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA assurance of eternal continuity and periodic manifestation of universal consciousness (and my spirit)! SWADHARMA is neither a utopia that aims at visible changes in the conditions of the people, nor is it shackled by the pursuits; restricted to (visible benefits) in the individual conditions! Neither it is pessimistic nor is it optimistic. It is unconditionally victorious! I have realized that even though I could once get elated; by the idea of “working for the others” or “serving the mankind”, I could never get the fulfillment or peace in it, which I have started experiencing, these days. This is the reason I have shifted from Marxism and other philosophies and ideologies (as I understood) to the core of Marxism and all of them (again as I understood)! Gita teaches us; to go to our own core and also that of the cosmos! Gita is immortal and hence she is going to keep enlightening generations after generations and hence there is no aim of or a mission of “permanent” or “defined” or “specifically envisaged” global welfare! What global or local changes would ensue; would be pleasing but impermanent and changing; and would essentially be the by product of the practice of SWADHARMA by individuals like me from the every corner of world; and from millennia to millennia. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 132. 132 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA However this was not as easy as it sounds. The SATVA, RAJA and TAMA keep on interfering with the realization of SWADHARMA; thus making the process tardy, difficult and full of tribulations; probably designed for one’s chastisement! November 28, 2009, 12:55 PM Do we really care for Gita? I just realized that today; it is Gita Jayanti. I had read about government ban on many animal shows on road, in circus and celebrations of NAGPANCHAMI in Battis Shirala. Yesterday I read that 200 000 animals were to be slaughtered in Deonar slaughter house. The study of Gita can engender proper policy on animal slaughter. Mere worship of Gita or mere hatred of Gita are not only sterile but come in the way of individual and global blossoming through SWADHARMA. What is the meaning of NIRASHI? At this point of time I want to discuss the word NIRASHI used in 3rd and 4th chapters. The word NIRASHI and UDAS are used in philosophical literature pretty often and more often than not have given me the impression of depression and frustration. I always DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 133. 133 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA wondered then, how and why Gita is considered to be one of the best counselors. In fact, I have experienced getting frustrated, depressed or ultimately helpless and indifferent; umpteen numbers of times; with respect to many government policies and happenings in the society! I guess; frustration, helplessness, depression and indifference and melancholy are not uncommon. The clarification that emerged in my mind is; the words NIRASHI, UDAS and possibly others with similar connotations, do not mean getting frustrated. They do not mean “giving up” or remaining “indifferent”! They simply mean that you may not get the same results as envisaged by you. Do not get vacillated and perturbed in that event. Do not get disturbed. Do not get disheartened. Do not get depressed. Do not lose hope. Remember that the results depend on several factors and not necessarily on your subjective liking or preferences. Hence they do not indicate your incompetence. Not only one; but even several failures per se; do not indicate your incompetence. So do not judge and humiliate yourself from your failures. Just try to keep on getting closer to your SWADHARMA (by continuous rectification of your perspective and behavior; thus bringing more and more accuracy in it, which is said to be made easier by practice of NAMASMARAN). DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 134. 134 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Alternatively; Gita also teaches us that even if you get so called tangible success, do not get enamored. Because success also depends on several factors! It does not indicate (merely) your competence! Do not get excited and lose your sense of proportion; as you may become arrogant and indiscrete in terms of what is benevolent and what is harmful to you and society. Further; being unrealistic, you may get distanced from your true self and get degenerated and decomposed! Essence of Gita; realized in this way; keeps me far more buoyant and triumphant in spirit; than what it otherwise used to be. In recent days; I am learning from Gita; that when our aim or target is not convincing to our innate core (i.e. in variance with SWADHARMA), then our performance is also unsatisfactory, painful, miserable and/or socially harmful. Thus I was not convinced about the sectarian non-holistic curriculum of the MBBS and MD and hence I was not fully satisfied with my own performance in learning as well as teaching! In addition; my resilience and tenacity to achieve a particular goal in my learning and teaching career also were not fully satisfactory to me! I think this is true for any person and in any business, profession or duty. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 135. 135 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA When the targets, goals, laws and regulations are not convincing, (in variance from SWADHARMA), then performance and the involvement in any field become unsatisfactory! As and when I am convinced about my actions to the core, i.e. identify my SWADHARMA, my enthusiasm, buoyancy, resilience, tenacity, perseverance, forbearance, courage and dedication and overall application also multiply! I begin to get ecstasy in every small thing I do and my life becomes a source of unending vitality! This brings charm and sweetness to all relationships, including family, relatives, friends, peers, colleagues and so on, because my patience, consideration, and flexibility also multiply! My brittleness, fragility, impatience, obstinacy, whims, fancies, adamancy, uncertainty, doubts, diffidence; all begin to dwindle and make me more active, freer and happier, for increasingly longer intervals of time! November 28, 2009, 07:30 pm Gita teaches us to carry on our activities without getting trapped in the results. How to reconcile various activities going on with specific objective? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 136. 136 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In 4th chapter and latter in 7th, 17th and 18th chapters there is reference to activities performed with intentions i.e. expectations of returns. Gita does not condemn them, but guides us on the path of evolving further and performing actions decreasing subjective intentions or expectations in tune with the cosmic will through e.g. NAMASMARAN! I have begun to understand that just as I went through different stages of development; it could also be true with other people. I must not expect a simultaneous, uniform and regimentalized change! I must understand and be considerate about the changing activities with varying interests; depending upon the age and stage of development of the people as has been the case with me! I should not condemn people or should not get disheartened because there is no change! Rather I should provide (according to my capacity) assurance and solution, in the form of perspective, policies, plans and implementation conducive to individual and global blossoming! In fact from this point of view, it is important to realize from time to time the importance of the accessories (food, sleep, residence, company etc) helpful in merging with cosmic will! In other words; just as we can not overlook or undermine the importance of different needs, during our physical development; similarly even in the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 137. 137 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA process of reaching the final stage of merging with cosmic consciousness; we have to utilize and respect the skills, techniques and specializations such as those described in Vedic Karmas! This is why Gita in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 17th and 18th chapters advises us not to quit the activities but to evolve from the activities of personal interest and perform SWADHARMA! Thus everything that helps to focus and get connected with the cosmic consciousness must be done and not despised. If we are atheist, iconoclast, nonconformist, (usually because of inadequate study and petty ego, fanatic adamancy and lethargy) then we may suffer from periodic depression, which can be overcome through study of Gita and practice of NAMASMARAN! This became especially clearer when I read the excellent translation and explanation of Shri Sukta by Pundit Shripad Shastri Kinjavadekar. I realized that the practice of SUKTAS, STOTRAS, ARATIS, and BHAJANS and so on; helps in overcoming imminent depression, fragility and fickle mindedness, which keep piling up subconsciously. I seem to appreciate deeply that the inspiring, energizing, encouraging, rejuvenating and revitalizing guidance about performing all activities supporting and nurturing the “ecstatic and freeing involvement in the SWADHARMA, conducive to individual and global DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 138. 138 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA blossoming”; is the greatest source of superlife in Gita, Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN! November 30, 2009, 08:08 AM Initially when I was studying, I thought in the 2nd chapter itself there is sufficient clarification about SWADHARMA; and hence where is the need for further doubt and subsequent explanation about SANYASA and KARMA and TYAGA? Isn’t it redundant? It is true that in the beginning of the 3rd and 18th chapters there is repetition of doubt regarding SANYASA and KARMA and TYAGA. But the ideas of SANYASA, KARMA and TYAGA are subtle and hence can be confusing when it comes to actual practice. This is because Gita perspective is expression of cosmic consciusness. It encompasses the cosmos, society and the individual consciousness and individuals. The processes of transcending (SANYASA and TYAGA) and involving or participating (KARMA), which are apparently contradictory are basically complementary and uniquely and excellently reconciled in Gita. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 139. 139 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA This becomes clearer as one keeps on practicing NAMASMARAN. These processes are related to blossoming and sustaining! When one blossoms; the past form is given up and new form is adopted, but the life processes within; go on in continuity in a sustained manner. SANYASA is growth and YOGA is the continued life! It becomes clearer and clearer in an ongoing manner as one keeps on studying and contemplating on Gita and practicing NAMSMARAN. This highlights the previously discussed point of rising above without hating or trapped by the physiological characteristics in the nature, society and the body and consciousness encompassing them. This understanding or realization also resolves the confusion about KAMYA KARMA, NITYA KARMA, and NAIMITTIK KARMA and so on. It is clarified that giving up KAMYA KARMA is SANYASA. This has different implications in terms of external appearances, but the purport is universal. Thus SANYASA would mean renouncing the profitable activities, which are at variance with the SWADHARMA. Thus at different stages of life individual renounces certain activities starting right from suckling of milk. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 140. 140 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Similarly a brahmin (actually it is pronounced as BRAHMANA) does not indulge in the activities of KSHATRIYA (martial activities involved in protection and safety of the society) or VAISHYA (trading) activities. This is a kind of SANYASA. Moreover, just as a ripened fruit drops from the tree and is eaten by animals or man, in the same way, in old age the individual renounces direct administrative involvement while continuing with the essence of activities conducive to individual and global blossoming. TYAGA meant giving up the KARMA PHALA i.e. fruits, gains or results of the activity. This is associated with the word detachment, which does not convey the vital and vibrant spirit of KARMAPHALA TYAGA. It does not convey the innate meaning of implying growth and coming out of; subjective or personal considerations, which nurture individualistic forces manifesting in jealousy, envy, hatred, arrogance, depression followed by rat race, petty competitions, jealousy, other crimes and social decomposition! TYAGA has a positive element of getting rid of what is harmful or inappropriate, while being focused on what is maximally benevolent! December 1, 2009, 12:20 pm Why can one dislike Gita? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 141. 141 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Long back, when I used to be charged with physical needs, passions, emotions, thoughts and ideas, I used to feel agitated with the thought of similar plight of the people! The social circumstances appeared extremely dark, stark and annoying. The change, the revolution appeared to be the only purpose of life, even as the exact program of action and/or the blue print of the revolution were far from ready! The frenzy of all these complex feelings used to be so much, that any proponent of Gita, used to appear as unconcerned about peoples’ true needs, unbothered about real issues such as poverty, injustice; and hence antisocial, hypocrite, parasitic etc or at best; stupid or gullible! The restlessness within; used to be so much that it used to propel me towards addressing every problem that appeared in the news paper or on TV, apart from those in my own personal life. As a result, I used get engrossed in relevant physical work, emotional expression in poetry, intellectual analysis, discussions, public speeches, writing articles and books etc, which appeared to be the preferred ways of self assertion and solution to the problems! Withdrawal from such activities was suffocating, unbearable and killing! Gita appeared to me a despicable escapism from the problems and the activities; which I thought were DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 142. 142 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA “important and urgent”! Gita discourses appeared to make the people facing problems; as well as the preachers; parasitic and paranoid! It appeared to make them dependent and helpless. It appeared to dissuade them from accepting the challenges in personal and social life and facing them victoriously! The fervor of my mind would never get calmed by the thought of Gita; though many a times I appreciated the honesty and selflessness of the individuals advocating it. Apart from this dislike, one of the common excuses that I used to find in studying Gita was the apparent irrelevance of the study in terms of daily livelihood. Moreover the study seemed to hinder the day to day work and disturbed the preoccupied mind. In fact it created a kind of tug of war in the mind! Now I realize that this was because of my untrained erroneous cognition (perception), affect (feelings) and conation (response). Thus I misconceived the dimension of the challenges, felt tense and restless and responded rather erratically, leading to further exaggeration of problems in mind! This is called distress cycle. When you are in such distressed state; you can not handle even small problems and hence study of Gita, which starts with the problems encompassing the cosmic, social, family and personal dimensions simultaneously; becomes a painful affair! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 143. 143 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is like a state of severe indigestion, in which you are averse to eat anything and especially heavy food stuff that is difficult to digest! Another reason that caused repulsion towards Gita was, there were several tempting distractions, which seemed to offer pleasure, solace, relief and consolation. Moreover these distractions such as movies, TV shows, parties, gossip and socialization of different types did not require any active efforts on the part of your brain and heart. Study of Gita being demanding acute attention and focused concentration has always been an uphill task! Actually this was the reason, when I used to find the expressions of ecstasy and joy; by Sanjay in the last 5 verses in 18th chapter, quite contradictory and disagreeable! Later in the course of reading Gita and about Gita, in books such as the biography of Shri Brahmachaitanya Gondavlekar Maharaj, by Prof. K.V. Belsare; and through my experiences with a variety of activities of service and social struggle for justice; I began to get intellectually convinced that Gita can evolve and transform an individual in terms of his/her perspective, vision, intellectual framework, emotions and instincts; and evolve him/her into objective or cosmic consciousness. I thought this; if happens in every walk of life; then it could usher in; individual and global blossoming, DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 144. 144 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA appropriate to that period, because; it could actualize globally benevolent perspective and policies! Now I realize that practice of NAMASMARAN, right from childhood, and teaching of Gita in every nursery, school, college and even professional college, would evolve the student of Gita, who would share the same joy and ecstasy that Sanjay expressed in the last five verses! I don’t want to generalize this and give any guarantee abut this, but this is my experience! It is my experience that once Gita enters in the system, the movies, dramas, TV shows and other activities can be enjoyed or avoided; without getting overwhelmed or disturbed respectively. Gita provides the ultimate and invincible satisfaction coupled with vigor, buoyancy, fearlessness and benevolence encompassing universe! Many times I used to feel disturbed because there were friends; who disliked Gita as mediocre; merely because Gita as very recent; only about 1000 years old! I did not quite understand how a book or a scripture could be judged on the basis of when it was written! But somehow and somewhere these comments tended to dishearten and discourage me or at least thwart my enthusiasm in studying Gita. Many would say that Upanishads are really enlightening and Gita constitutes only citations from the Upanishads. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 145. 145 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA These people obviously were ignorant about Upanishads as well as Gita, but may be because of my weakness; their comments could often sabotage my interest, dedication, efforts, concentration, commitment and involvement in the study! There were others; who used to praise Gita (without reading it) and boast that Gita is very old! I could not derive any inspiration from this either; because I could not agree to judge a book from its age! In fact one could argue that inspite of being so old the book does not have significant impact on the world civilization in view of the stark global reality we witness! Some dislike Gita because, “Gita is not written by one individual but by many people over centuries and further; Gita could not have been written on the battlefield at all, because no sane person would spend time in discussion, in such a situation of war! In fact this fact itself makes the Gita quite absurd”! Such dislike from people who have been cut off from their roots, ancestors, history and most importantly their true self; due to petty, individualistic ideas and fanatic beliefs, could reduce one’s reverence for the book and hence the enthusiasm in studying it. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 146. 146 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita is studied with reverence. I also studied Gita because of the reverence she enjoys from billions of people and for millennia! Some people laugh at reverence and think that it is irrational! But that is wrong! Reverence is not superstition! Reverence adds to one’s interest, commitment, focus, motivation and involvement! Reverence for Gita makes it easy to absorb the vital wisdom from Gita! After, I studied Gita inspite of such criticism and insulting talks, for some time, I also felt there could be some truth in the argument that Gita is written by not but many people, in view of somewhat conflicting concepts finding place in her! But, Gita, whether written or sung or addressed by; a particular person, one person, many persons, by a person in chariot to another in the chariot on the battleground, a person in his living room to another person, is only relevant to those; who are academic historians or those involved in divisive politics with some vested interests. For me; as I kept studying (and realizing the content of Gita); it was immaterial in view of the content of Gita and its scope and potentials for individual and global blossoming! It is silly for a student of Gita to dwell on such issues and waste time, rather than dedicating to the study of Gita so as to grasp and realize the core of Gita! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 147. 147 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Some used to ask, “What is the basis to prove that Gita can lead to global blossoming? Study of Gita does not seem to do anything, if compared to for instance; scientific research or socio-political manipulations! It does not seem to work and produce results; even comparable to those produced by relatively simple agricultural activities or other handicrafts!” If I say that Gita evolves us into objective or cosmic consciousness or imparts global perspective, then the argument is, “Can you prove the cause and effect relationship?” The answer obviously is, “No! I can not prove that Gita evolves us into objective or cosmic consciousness or imparts global perspective”, because many of those who study Gita can disprove my contention!! Looking back; I realize that my opinions changed due to the influence of factors beyond my comprehension constituting the “field”, cosmic consciousness or God that encompasses and influences not merely “me” but everything; including the people in the universe! Whether the people in the world would also change and begin to get associated with Gita, also therefore be determined by the same “field” and hence I need not feel restless about whether people accept the importance of Gita or not! But if I say so, then next argument would be; “What is the DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 148. 148 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA proof for existence of such a field”? Obviously; I have no proof! Another argument is; Gita has no influence on individual or social life; and studying Gita is wastage of time! One may feel that Gita has benevolent role, because of erroneously attributing the good changes in him or her to the study of Gita! Actually it could be the other way round; the good change leads him or her to admire Gita! This argument also, can not be refuted. What can be said is that cosmic consciousness or objective bliss is somehow associated with Gita. But even this can not be proved. Neither can I show that some one is linked through Gita to cosmic consciousness; nor can I prove that those; who are not studying Gita; are dissociated from cosmic consciusness or objective bliss! But having gone through the experience of all this, I am convinced beyond doubt that Gita is a transtemporal, transintellectual, transnational, transcultural and universally benevolent manifestation of cosmic consciousness, irrespective of whether, written or narrated or sung by one person, many persons, on battleground or in a living room & at given time or over a period of centuries! Further, I would like to add that studying GITA, & VISHNUSAHASRANAM and NAMASMARAN; is a DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 149. 149 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA life time golden opportunity or golden gate to cosmic consciousness provided by the cosmic consciousness Himself! Even so, the study of Gita and the experience associated with it; are essentially personal and beyond linguistic communication, beyond a certain point! One may or may not believe in them; and may or may not provisionally accept, study, experiment out and decide; their validity or otherwise! No one; including me; should feel that he/she can, (because no one can); oblige them; by studying or harm them by insulting! No one can elate them by praising and sadden them by maligning! Hence it said, in verse in 6th chapter, which implies that those who would study and realize the immortal cosmic consciousness would actually get the same in reciprocation (from the cosmic consciousness)! It appears however, that it is time that a vast majority of the world; would get freedom from the shackling conflicts generated from fulfillment or otherwise; of their physical needs, instincts, feelings, arguments, flights of imaginations, infatuations and restlessness; and get the privilege of being associated with the essence of Gita, NAMASMARAN, Vishnusahasranam, objective bliss, cosmic consciousness, globally beneficial perspective and policies and their implementation; irrespective of the nature of cause and effect relationship (which also incidentally; is a product of human intellectual framework!)! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 150. 150 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA In 4th chapter the importance of SHRADDHA is stressed. I used to feel that SHRADDHA is same as; or at least similar to; blind belief, thoughtless trust, superstition or unreasonable and unfounded devotion, with petty and mean ulterior motives. At times I used feel that SHRADDHA is; merely being emotionally attached or devoted to a particular God, doctor etc, with some hope against hope! Hence I thought SHRADDHA is opposed to thorough, critical and honest analysis! What is SHRADDHA? During my study of Gita, Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran I realized that SHRADDHA is absolutely different. SHRADDHA is totally selfless and unprejudiced approach or attitude! Thus it is a serious and sincere commitment for some study or a task! It is being honest, integrated and committed and nothing else. It does not in any way, opposed to analysis; even if be ruthless and unending! Now I am convinced that the appreciation of the spirit of Gita is extremely difficult; as mentioned in 7th chapter, especially; without SHRADDHA! SHRADDHA is absolutely essential for learning the purport of Gita, as ASHRADDHA, which means casual, prejudiced, and petty and/or selfish approach; usually associated with cynicism DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 151. 151 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA and contempt; is a major hurdle in learning Gita! ASHRADDHA makes the understanding or realization of Gita impossible, as implied in 4th and 9th chapters. December 1, 2009, 05:50 am What can deter us from SWADHARMA? Even as I was trying to integrate my concepts, feelings, passions and my practice, and share it with others; one of my near dear ones; often kept saying that there won’t be any change in the world and hence all efforts in that direction are in vain! His comments would come suddenly during the peak of discussion and give a jolt, as if some one splashed his vomits on you. Whether that individual gets convinced or not; at least I am happy to have gradually realized that a body cell and body work cooperatively to make life possible. If a cell were not to work in this way, the body would cease to live and the cell also would die. We live because of this cooperation. MOHA is ignorance of this which is suicidal. I have to understand that I eat every day and keep on eating, without questioning, but when it comes to getting engaged in SWADHARMA; I start giving excuses! This is MOHA; DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 152. 152 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA addressed in Gita; and which is a universal problem, not only that of the person criticizing, and which is at the root of all other problems! Another argument against SWADHARMA is that even if we try our best the maladies are bound to recur. Why waste time and energy in it? I don’t realize that I keep on doing things, such as taking bath, even when I know that I am bound to get dirty again and need to repeat it. I don’t give excuse; that I am going to get dirty again, to avoid bath. But I keep giving excuses that nothing is going to change permanently in the world and hence it is stupid and in vain to make efforts! This is MOHA and makes me tubular, short sighted and petty. It makes me timid and inert. It keeps me separated from my true self and hence from the society. This is why the contradiction between ‘me’ and ‘society’ is born and perpetuated. I have begun to understand that just as we sleep at night and start working in morning and just as during spring the gardens blossom, similarly at opportune times people work for global blossoming, even if the blossom is bound to end at some time and followed by summer. The ego of an individual hides the fact that trillions of activities going on in the trillions of body cells and in the innumerable molecules, atoms and subatomic particles; DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 153. 153 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA and trillions of activities going on for trillions of years in the universe are not done by an individual! He is a part of them! When spring comes he will have to blossom even if be for a specified time! Hence Arjuna is given to understand that irrespective of what he feels, he would be engaged in his work just as the flower has no choice but to bloom during spring! This is said in 18th chapter (YADAHANKARAMASHRITYA ….NA YOTSYA…, SWABHAVJEN KAUNTEYA…). How is Gita, related to struggles against exploitation, slavery, chaos and foreign rule? Gita has given the answer in 14th chapter, in very precise manner. Thus a person, a society, a nation, the world and even the entire universe; either perish or blossom; in accordance with the proportion of; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA, present in them. When SATVA predominates many begin to blossom and when TAMA predominates many begin to perish. The conditions in the society reflect the proportion of SATVA, RAJA, and TAMA! From the point of view of Indians, blacks and other Asians the root of slavery has to seen in the preponderance of TAMA in the world and growth capitalism, individualism and imperialism in the growth of TAMA and RAJA. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 154. 154 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita has given the solution of focusing on cosmic consciousness through e.g. NAMASMARAN, thereby increasing SATVA and going even further! What is the meaning of KARMA and AKARMA? In 4th chapter, there is a verse (KARMANI AKARMA YAH PASHYET….) indicating that one who sees action in inaction and inaction in action is the intelligent and accomplished yogi. Thus pure and cosmic consciousness never does anything in the routine sense of that word. He does not perform any action! But He is responsible for the whole universe! This is seeing KARMA in AKARMA! Conversely, all that we do is like a part of the engine. We are not drivers of the engine. It is a fallacy to feel that we are driving. Hence when we realize that we are not doers, then “our” action becomes null and void and then it is called as seeing AKARMA in KARMA! What is the importance of social opinion? I have mentioned (Pages 4 and 5) what I felt about argument in favor of war, in 2nd chapter, (Akeertin cha pi bhootani….Bhayat ranat uparatam…..Awacchya DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 155. 155 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA vadanscha bahoon…..), in which the point of possible social indignation is used to ‘incite’ Arjuna to participate in war. But now I see there is another dimension to this argument. The social opinion is a double edged weapon. It is extremely harmful if we get sheared apart from our true self, but it is extremely useful if we get pulled out of our basal or carnal instincts and/or petty ego! Society is like our mother. It nurtures us in every way. It is important that we do not malign it and attribute the responsibility of our miseries on it, by knowingly or unknowingly concealing our weakness. Can simplicity of Gita come in the way of people studying her? If we are in sinking frame of mind, we need something bombastic or dramatic for elevation, hence the words of Gita appear too simple to convey much content and they do not impress us. We need something dramatic and/or melodramatic; when we in depression! In fact due to depression; we start doubting the importance of Gita because of simplicity! Instead of going ahead with study, we only keep wondering how and why Gita could enjoy such a coveted position and reign supremacy in world literature! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 156. 156 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA What is BUDDHIYOGA? There is reference to BUDDHIYOGA in 2nd chapter (Eshatebhihitasankhye buddhiryoge twimam shrunu … and Buddhiyukto jahateeha …..), 6th chapter (Tatra tam buddisanyoga…labhate paurvadehikam…), 10th chapter (Tesham nittyabhiyuktanam bhajatam preetipurvakam …dadami buddhiyogam tam…) and 18th chapter (Chetasa sarva karmani mayi sanyastama matparah budhiyogam upashritya macchitah satatam bhava). In 18th chapter, there is classification of BUDDHI into three varieties viz. SATVIK, RAJASIK AND TMASIK (Pravruttin cha nivruttin cha …., Yaya dharma adharman cha …and Adharma it yah manyate tamasavruta…). There is also a reference to BUDDHIGAMYA happiness; in 6th chapter (Sukham attyantikam yadyat buddhigrahyam atindriyam …). Usually BUDDHI is associated with intelligence constituting analysis, correlation, synthesis, imagination, memory, etc. But a student of computers would agree that these are not the most important aspects of intelligence. Their role can be accomplished by computer reasonably well or sometimes even better. The most important aspect of BUDDHI is decision making! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 157. 157 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA BUDDHI is stated as ATINDRIYA (chapter 6). This means that it is beyond the sensations. A student of physiology knows that sensation is a function subcortical structures and BUDDHI, which is a function of cerebral cortex is reasonably free from and beyond the control of sensations or the sensory input. BUDDHI has two sides. One associated with all the body systems and the other with cosmic consciousness. BUDDHIYOGA is a union of all the three, viz. cosmic consciousness, cerebral cortical intelligence and the rest of the systems of the body. NAMASMARAN is a selfless (free from any subjective considerations) cerebral cortical activity. It breaks all the short circuiting tendencies arising out of sensory, hormonal, neuroendocrinal and autonomic inputs, resulting into inappropriate perceptions (cognition), feelings (affect) and responses (conation). NAMASMARAN leads to formation of a thoroughfare that links (YOGA) all the body systems with the cosmic consciousness through BUDDHI i.e. cerebral cortex. This thoroughfare then leads to qualitative leap forward, i.e. conscious evolutionary transformation in (sensation of) stimulus, homeostasis and response in physiology; cognition, affect and conation in psychology; and perception, feelings and behavior in philosophy, sociology, ethics etc; or simply in life! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 158. 158 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA BUDDHIYOGA embodies this transformation. This is associated with STHITAPRAJANA or STHITAPDNYA state. This state is associated with gathering and passage of stimuli from cosmos to cosmic consciousness (cosmic perceptions), feelings encompassing the cosmos (cosmic feelings) and responses reaching out to cosmos (cosmic responses). Thus this state is a state; where subjectivity becomes a mere vestige! BUDDHIYOGA is a process of attaining; or actually the state of STHITAPRADNYA, where: ephemeral and individualistic physical, instinctual, emotional and even intellectual activities and pleasures born out of individual subjectivity; are evolved or transformed into immortal and cosmic physical, instinctual, emotional and intellectual activities and pleasures born out of cosmic objectivity. In one word; this is SUPERLIVING! All that I have shared so far, and this concept of BUDDHIYOGA and SUPERLIVING may or not be believed; and may or not be verified through the study and practice of Gita, DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 159. 159 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Vishnusahasranam and NAMASMARAN; depending on how one perceives this life time golden opportunity! December 7, 2009 01:30 PM How to reconcile the thought that you are the creator of your destiny; and the 5 determinants of success described in 18th chapter? This thought that you are the creator of your destiny or you can shape your destiny; has implicitly appeared in 6th chapter (UDDHARET ….). But this verse is meant to remind us that there is cosmic consciousness in us and we have the golden opportunity to merge with Him. This requires rescuing the lower consciusness or lower self from the prisons of subjectivity formed by physical senses, instincts, emotions, thoughts, and imaginations and so on. The universal way to do this is NAMASMARAN, apart from various techniques of meditation and worship. DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 160. 160 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA It is to be understood that you are the creator of your destiny, when you invoke the cosmic consciusness (creator of universe) within and; unite with Him. When cosmic consciousness incarnates and gets personified, He is the creator of His destiny, in as much as He is creator of the destiny of billions and for millennia. But if we look at ourselves as individuals with our subjectivity, then we are only products of the environment and actions of others! Thus ADHISHTHANA, KARTA, KARAN, CHESHTA and DAIVA (18th chapter) and in other words, PRAKRUTI and GUNAS (Prakrute kriyamani…; and Tatvavittu mahabaho ….gunah gunehu vartante…; 3rd chapter) shape our destiny. If we are able to see this dynamics in every individual of imprisonment, growth, freedom and blossoming, then it becomes clear that both statements do not contradict and in fact complement each other. December 18, 2009, 07:25 am What is the purport of the verse Nashto mohah … in 18th chapter? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 161. 161 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Gita embodies the intimate dialogue or heart to heart communication between the cosmic consciousness personified and a very brave and also knowledgeable, intelligent, sensitive and conscientious individual; or in other words our own individual consciusness and the cosmic consciusness! Even as the description of legions, war, yoga postures, pranayama, surrender, devotion etc. can confuse a sincere student of Gita; gradually it becomes clear that Gita simultaneously deals with individual, family, ethics, society and cosmos. She prepares us (like a disciplinarian but extremely well meaning and loving and also enlightened mother) and empowers us to intellectually and latter emotionally, instinctually and physically conquer everything (Which could be tempting, alluring, attracting, enticing but deceptive and shackling) that comes in the way self realization and individual and global blossoming! Hence Gita is called BHAVADWISHINEE. The war in Gita thus is with MAYA (BHAVASAGAR); in terms of not negating or destroying her but conquering her by going to her root! In nutshell; our subjective sensory (lovable) but deceptive perceptions, our relatives, our society, everything changing in the universe have to be DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 162. 162 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA conquered in terms of reaching their core i.e. our true self! This is why; the essence of Gita encompasses individual, family, social, global and cosmic space, time, life and consciousness. I am convinced that the universal, easiest and the best way to realize this essence; is NAMASMARAN, (preached by many saints and visionaries; but especially by Shri Brahmachaitanya Gondavalekar Maharaj) which is actually a VICTORIOUS CULMINATION OF THE ESSENCE OF BHAGAVAD GITA. December 22, 2009, 01:30 pm With reference to the statement implying “even the worst sinner” would get emancipated; in 4th, 9th, 10th and 18th chapters (p.86); a question still persists: Is it not true that such forgiveness would demoralize the well behaved and righteous individuals? Besides; in personal life, isn’t there a kind of condescending attitude in forgiveness? DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 163. 163 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA Firstly; Gita declares that even the greatest sinner can be emancipated. She does not say that “It is good to be a sinner!” Secondly, this declaration is to avert the dangerous guilt complex; that leads to self imposed ban on improvement and on attempt for emancipation. Thirdly Gita is an expression of objective consciousness. Hence she is devoid of personal vindictiveness involved in punishing and personal favoritism involved in justifying a crime. Gita is cosmic solution provider! She offers the eternal solution of cosmic blossoming to everyone, though the benefits would depend on the state of evolution of the recipient! In personal life; while practicing NAMASMARAN and studying Gita one begins to observe the inner world; to an increasingly greater extent as compared to the outside apparent world and notice the potentials of the worst possible crimes in the world; dormant inside! As a result, there is initially guilt complex for all the heinous traits inside; and also for being DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 164. 164 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA judgmental, and either vindictive (punitive) or supportive towards the crimes of others! At this juncture one realizes the need for forgiveness; devoid of vindictive and hence destructive punishment and full in corrective measures. I begin to realize that the only way, I could forgive myself in this sense; is by practicing NAMASMARAN, which is never destructive and always corrective! Moreover this would also absolve me from being vindictive or supportive to others’ crimes; and help me to help them; because through NAMASMARAN I would get linked with the megaprocess of universal blossoming that would help one and all! This way; NAMASMARAN helps me forgive myself and forgive others! NAMASMARAN also reveals to us supportive and corrective measures which may be required for our own and/or social blossoming and harmony, in the form of corrective behavioral modifications called PRAYASHCHITTA! DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR
  • 165. 165 STUDY OF BHAGAVAD GITA This revelation through NAMASMARAN; helps us reconcile apparently contradictory statements in Bhagavad Gita about criminals; and also in transcending the dilemma of vindictiveness and justification! SARVE BHAVANTU SUKHINAH LET ALL OF US BE HAPPY THROUGH EMPOWERMENT DR. SHRINIWAS JANARDAN KASHALIKAR