Research Methodology: Syllabus Design and Introduction


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Research Methodology in Humanities, especially, in English literary studies is important to the aspirants of M.Phil, Ph.D. or to the research scholars/teachers who wish to apply for minor or major research projects to UGC or similar funding agencies. This presentation gives an outline of model syllabus for such courses. It also presents some views of Richard Altick and John Fenstermaker from 'The Art of Literary Research'.

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  • Thank u sir! This presentation is really helpful for the us ,as a beginner of the research work.Thanks to share with us ,such a informative presentation.
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Research Methodology: Syllabus Design and Introduction

  1. 1. Research Methodology Syllabus Design & Introduction
  2. 2. Objectives • To prepare students for quality research and publication. • To orient towards the importance of research in the field of humanities. • To inspire for writing research papers for seminars, conferences and research journals. • To practice the technicalities of research and writing articles/dissertations/thesis
  3. 3. Unit Detailed Syllabus Teaching Hours Marks Weightage 1 Importance of Research – MLA Handbook 7th Ed. 18 Hours 20 18 Hours 20 18 Hours 20 18 Hours 20 18 Hours 20 Research and Writing, Plagiarism and Academic Integrity, The Format of Research Proposal, Documentation: Preparing the List of Works Cited, Citing Sources, Guides to Writing 2 Writing skills for Academic Purpose - Liz Hamp-Lyons & Ben Heasley. Difference between Academic and non-Academic Writing, The Mechanics of Writing. 3 The Art of Literary Research – Richard Altick and Fenstermaker. Voation of Research Scholar, The Spirit of Scholarship, Textual Study, The Search for Origins, Cultivating a Sense of the Past, Finding Materials, Libraries, The Philosophy of Composition, The Scholar’s Life. 4 The Handbook To Literary Research by W. R. Owens & Delia Da Sousa Correa. Tools and Techniques of Literary Research: Using Online and Print Resources, Textual Scholarship and Book History, Issues and Approaches in Literary Research, Planning and Completing a Research Project, References 5 Research Proposal (UGC – MRP) and Research Articles (for publication in journals) How to apply for UGC MRP? How to write research article and get it published?
  4. 4. The Philosophy behind Literary Research • The Art of Literary Research – Richard Altick and John Fenstermaker – The purposes, methods, and pleasures of research in Literatures. – Scholar’s vocation – The spirit of Scholarship – The Scholar’s Life
  5. 5. The Praxis • Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, practiced, embodied, or realized. • "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Paper – Seventh Edition.
  6. 6. What Is MLA Style? • All fields of research agree on the need to document scholarly borrowings, but documentation conventions vary because of the different needs of scholarly disciplines. MLA style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. Generally simpler and more concise than other styles, MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. • MLA style has been widely adopted by schools, academic departments, and instructors for over half a century. The association's guidelines are also used by over 1,100 scholarly and literary journals, newsletters, and magazines and by many university and commercial presses. The MLA's guidelines are followed throughout North America and in Brazil, China, India, Japan, Taiwan, and other countries around the world. •
  7. 7. Important Stages of Research • Scope of Research – philosophical argument • The Literature Review – process of writing research article/dissertation – Click here to view presentation • Citation – acknowledge the source, avoid plagiarism
  8. 8. Some quotes from ALR • Genuine scholarship is one of the highest successes which our race can achieve. – E. M. Forster Aspects of the Novel (New York, 1927) 22. • Life is continuous process of finding the holes and plugging them and making as few new ones as possible. – Sir William Haley…
  9. 9. Vocation of Research Scholar • What is the vocation of a scholar? • Difference between Critic, Researcher and Scholar? • What are the chief qualities of mind and temperament that go to make up a successful and happy scholar? • Difference between Researcher and Scholar. – Critic and scholar – George Whalley: ‘No true scholar can lack critical acumen; and the scholar’s eye is rather like the poet’s… pg 2
  10. 10. Vocation of Research Scholar • Literature is the product of human being’s imagination and intellect – study of author – Sainte-Beuve – like the tree, like the fruit… (pg 3) • No writer writes in vacuum. • A book has both antecedents and a history of its own. (pg 3,4) – T.S. Eliot. • LR – devoted to the enlightenment of criticism.
  11. 11. Vocation of Research Scholar • Literary history – literature is an eloquent artistic document – autobiography of the race’s soul. (pg. 5) • The reconstruction and interpretation of our literary past has its own dignity. (pg. 5) • LR – immeasurable and intensely real personal satisfaction.
  12. 12. Vocation of Research Scholar • Pg. 12 – second last para – ‘… given a fair degree of imagination, originality of approach, solidity of learning, and the wish and the will to see works of literary art and their creators from new perspectives, everyone called to the profession will discover amply rewarding projects’. • Publish or perish (pg. 13)
  13. 13. Vocation of Research Scholar • What are the chief qualities of mind and temperament that go to make up a successful and happy scholar? • Law and Journalism • Principles of evidence and resourcefulness. • Organizational skill – ability to put facts together in a pattern.
  14. 14. Vocation of Research Scholar • Ideal researcher must ‘love’ literature for its own sake – as an art. • Insatiable readers – the habit acquired earlier the better. (pg. 15) • Intellectual sympathy – Helen Vandler… (Pg. 16) • A vivid sense of history – (pg. 16). • Scientific approach and LR (pg. 17) • Substance and spirit of such extra literary training gives advantage.
  15. 15. Vocation of Research Scholar • No margin of error is allowed. (pg 18) • Logan Pearsall Smith – ‘The test of vocation is the love of the drudgery it involves…’ • With all these, ‘a creative imagination’… pg. 18.
  16. 16. Vocation of Research Scholar • Researcher and scholar: • “Learning without wisdom is a load of books on an ass’s back.” • One can be a researcher, full of knowledge, without also being a scholar. • Researcher is the means, scholarship the end. • Research is an occupation, scholarship is a habit of mind and a way of life. • Scholars are more than researchers, for while they may be gifted in the discovery and assessment of facts, they are, besides, persons of broad and luminous learning.
  17. 17. Interpretation is the lifeblood of research • John Livingston Lowes: “Humane scholarship… moves and must move within two worlds at once – the world of scientific method and the world, in whatever degree, of creative art. The postulates of the two are radically different. And our exquisitely difficult task is to conform at once to the stipulations of each without infringing on those of the other. The path of least resistance is to follow one and let the other go. Research, which is the primary instrument of science, is felt to be the easier and it is also the more alluring. I too have heard the Sirens sing, and I know whereof I speak. And so we tend to become enamored of the methods, and at times to forget the end; to allow, in a word, the fascination of the means to distract us from the very object for which they are employed. And that end is, in the broadest sense of the word, interpretation – the interpretation, in the light of all that our researches can reveal, of the literature which is our professional concern.” (Pg. 21)
  18. 18. The Scholar’s Life • Pg. 247: Literary scholars never cease being scholar. • Responsibilities remote from pursuit of knowledge. • … scholars cannot suppress that portion of their consciousness that insists on asking questions about literary matters and seeking answers. • 24X7 bookish excitement!!!
  19. 19. The Scholar’s Life • Professionalized literary scholarship - down the century it has become a highly organized and sophisticated intellectual discipline. • The ‘golden age’ when research dominated English studies – 1920s to 1960s – ‘New Criticism’ – Cleanth Brooks, J.C. Ransom, Allen Tate > Northrop Frye > Structuralism.
  20. 20. The Scholar’s Life • Some historians and critics – early formative decades has not lost breath of learning and intellectual rigor. • Wayne Booth – regret formal aspect of literary texts – ‘isolated from the influences of ethics, politics, history, logic, dialectic, and even grammar.’
  21. 21. The Scholar’s Life • Such opposing views – broadened the traditional canon to embrace numerous kinds of writing, gender, ethnic oriented works. • The scope of English studies now also includes writing theory and pedagogy. • The meanings of ‘meaning’ have been drastically redefined. • The immortals of the profession would scarcely recognize the profession of English studies they helped found and develop.
  22. 22. The Scholar’s Life • The study of literature remains at base an intensely private pursuit. • No one ever entered the profession burning with a single-minded ambition to read papers in seminars – or – printing papers in learned journals. • It has sharper satisfaction – enabled them to do what they wanted to.
  23. 23. The Scholar’s Life • Numerous Perquisite in research: • Lifelong company of books and good human companionship. (pg 250) • Pleasure of travel, frequent encounter with delightful and helpful people. • In scholarship there is no prejudice born of national origin, creed, colour or social class – we live in truest democracy of all, the democracy of the intellect. (pg 250)
  24. 24. The Scholar’s Life • Code of manners and ethics: (pg 251) – the proposition at heart is – “we are working together for the benefit of society, not for private aggrandizement.” – Scientists and inventors have their patents, but in humane learning all knowledge is in the public domain. – Property rights should be respected. – More energetic scholar should be allowed to mine it deeper – spirit of scholarship.
  25. 25. The Scholar’s Life • Two principles: (pg 252) – Let others know what you are working on – Keep up with what others are doing – not only in your field but in others as well.
  26. 26. The Scholar’s Life • Difference of opinion – it will always be, it should be. • Scholarly competence not distributed evenly – so lapses in judgment & imperfections may call for comment. • Otherwise literary study would stagnate. • But debate and correction should be conducted with dignity and courtesy. (pg. 253)
  27. 27. The Scholar’s Life • Humanities in perennial crisis – (pg253-255) – Achievements have unreal value – futile – add nothing to the sum of human wisdom or happiness. – Our fault – – What can be done? (last para – 254-55)
  28. 28. Thank you • Must Read Books for Research Methodology in Language and Literature: – Writing skills for Academic Purpose - Liz Hamp-Lyons & Ben Heasley. CUP. – The Art of Literary Research – Richard Altick and Fenstermaker. W.W. Norton. 1963-1993 – The Handbook To Literary Research by W. R. Owens & Delia Da Sousa Correa. Routledge. 2010. – The Scholar-Critic: An Introduction to Literary Research By Frederick Wilse Bateson. Routledge, 1972. – MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 2009. Seventh edition. New Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press with Permission from Modern Language Association of America.