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  • 1. EISSN 2277-4955 THE KING WITHOUT FISHES...!!! [CASE ON CRISIS OF KINGFISHER AIRLINES] Prof. Bhavik M. Panchasara Marwadi Education Foundation’s Group of Institutions, RajKot, bhavikpanchasara@gmail.com ABSTRACTIndian Aviation Industry is one of the fastest growing markets in the world. But nowadays it is in the news due todifferent reason. And that is the failure of one of the leading aviation player - Kingfisher Airlines. The airline hasbeen facing financial issues for many years. Till December 2011; Kingfisher Airlines had the second largest sharein Indias domestic air travel market. However due to the severe financial crisis faced by the airline, it has the fifthlargest market share currently. Even the company have no funds to pay the salaries to the employees and is facingseveral other issues like fuel dues; aircraft lease rental dues, service tax dues and bank arrears. This case outlinesthe financial turmoil of the Kingfisher in detail.Keywords: Aviation industry, Kingfisher Airlines, financial turmoil, financial issues, crisis and debt restructuringINTRODUCTION: The airline has been facing financial issues for manyKingfisher Airlines is an airline group based in India. years. Till December 2011; Kingfisher Airlines hadIts head office is The Qube in Andheri (East), the second largest share in Indias domestic air travelMumbai; and Registered Office in UB City, market. However due to the severe financial crisisBangalore. Kingfisher Airlines was established in faced by the airline, it has the fifth largest market2003. It is owned by the Bengaluru based United share currently, only above Go Air. KingfisherBreweries Group. Kingfisher Airlines, through its Airlines is one of the only seven airlines awarded 5-parent company United Breweries Group, has a 50% star rating by Skytrax along with Cathay Pacific,stake in low-cost carrier Kingfisher Red. The airline Qatar Airways, Asiana Airlines, Malaysia Airlines,started commercial operations in 9 May 2005 with a Singapore Airlines, and Hainan Airlines. Kingfisherfleet of four new Airbus A320-200s operating a flight operates 250 daily flights with regional and long-haulfrom Mumbai to Delhi. It started its international international services. In May 2009, Kingfisheroperations on 3 September 2008 by connecting Airlines carried more than 1 million passengers,Bengaluru with London. giving it the highest market share among airlines in India. Kingfisher also owns the Skytrax award for Indias best airline of the year 2011.BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 84
  • 2. EISSN 2277-4955STARTING OF THE CRISES: suffered a loss of over Rs. 1,000 crore for three executive years. By early 2012, the airlineEver since the airline commenced operations in 2005, accumulated the losses of over Rs. 7,000 crore withthe company is reporting the losses. But the situation half of its fleet grounded and several members of itsbecame more horrible after acquiring the Air Deccan staff going on strike. Following table 1 highlightsin 2007. After acquiring the Air Deccan, the company losses of the company since inception: Table 1: Net Reported Losses and debts since inception (Rs. In Crores) Year Mar-11 Mar-10 Mar-09 Mar-08 Jun-07 Jun-06 Mar-05 Loss -1027.4 -1646.22 -1608.83 -188.14 -419.58 -340.55 -16.79 Secured Loans 5,184.53 4,842.43 2,622.52 592.38 716.71 448.16 159.42 Unsecured Loans 1,872.55 3,080.17 3,043.04 342.00 200.00 3.50 125.06DEBT RESTRUCTURING: CRISIS TILL CONTINUE: In the situation of loss and tough financial Debt restructuring also couldn’t change thecondition, the company went for more loans. Table 1 game. By restructuring, company had reduced theshows the portion of secured and unsecured loans interest charges by Rs. 500 crores every year, but duetaken by the company. Due to heavy burden of debt to the high leverage condition and increase in cost,and interest, in November 2010, the company the company started to face the liquidity problem.adopted the way of debt restructuring and under that The company had no funds in hand and it created thetotal 18 leading lenders, those have landed total Rs. following payment problems.8,000 crores, agreed to cut interest rates and convertpart of loans to equity. As per the contract, lenders DELAYED SALARY:have converted Rs. 650 crores debt into preferenceshares which will be converted into equity when the Kingfisher Airline has staff strength of 6,000company lists the on the Luxembourg Stock and spends 58 crore on salaries a month. AccordingExchange by selling global depositary receipts to the first quarter financial results, it has 173.66(GDR). Shares will be converted into ordinary equity crore under the employees cost head, which hasat the price at which the GDRs are sold to investors. increased from 163.40 crore during the sameBesides the 1,400 crore debt which will be quarter last year. Kingfisher Airlines delayed salariesconverted into preference shares, another 800 crore of its employees in August 2011, and for four monthsdebt has been converted into redeemable shares for in succession from October 2011 to January 2012.12 years. Due to debt restructuring, the company able Kingfisher also defaulted on paying the Taxto down the average interest rate to 11% and to save Deducted at Source from the employee income to theRs. 500 crores every year in interest cost. tax department.BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 85
  • 3. EISSN 2277-4955FUEL DUES: denied that it missed the payments. GECAS had filed a complaint with DGCA saying Kingfisher In the past several years, Kingfisher airlines had defaulted on rentals for four A320 aircraft,had trouble paying their fuel bills. Due non-payment, and sought repossession of the planes. In Janseveral Kingfishers vendors had filed winding up 2009, The Karnataka High Court rejectedpetition with the High Court. As on Nov 2011, petition by Kingfisher Airlines to restrainwinding up petition of seven creditors was pending GECAS from taking any step to deregister andbefore the Bangalore High Court. In the past repossess the 04 aircraft in dispute. As a result,Lufthansa Technik & Bharat Petroleum Corporation Kingfisher had to return the A320 aircraft toLimited (BPCL) had also filed winding up petition GECAS.against Kingfisher Airlines. Here are some cases:  DVB: In Jul 2010, DVB Aviation Finance Asia HPCL: In Jul 2011, Hindustan Petroleum Ltd (a lessor from Singapore), sued Kingfisher Corporation Limited (HPCL) stopped the fuel Airlines for lease rental default. Case was filed in (ATF) supplies for about two hours to Kingfisher a UK court on Jul 16, 2010 after Kingfisher did airlines owing to the non-payment of dues. not pay for three month lease rental for A320 Situation was later resolved. aircraft it leased from DVB. BPCL: Bharat Petroleum Corporation in 2009 had filed a case against Kingfisher airlines for AAI REPORTS: non-payment of dues. High court in an order said that the entire amount 245 crore had to be paid Kingfisher received a notice from the by Nov 2010 and the airline paid it in Airports Authority of India on February 2012 instalments. regarding accumulated dues of 255.06 crore. The airline was operating on a cash and carry basis for theAIRCRAFT LEASE RENTAL DUES: last six months, with daily payments amounting to 0.8 crore. Since 2008, it has been reported thatKingfisher Airlines has been unable to pay the SERVICE TAX:aircraft lease rentals on time. Due to that, theKingfisher Airlines has grounded 15 out of 66 aircraft On 9 December 2011, S.K. Goel, chairman,in its fleet as it was unable to meet the maintenance Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC)and overhaul expenses. Here are the some major announced that CBEC is considering legal actionissues with: against Kingfisher for not paying service tax. As on 10th Jan 2012, Kingfisher Airlines has service tax GECAS: In Nov 2008, GE Commercial Aviation arrears of 70 crore. The Ministry of Finance has Services threatened to repossess 04 leased planes given a concession to Kingfisher and instructed them in lieu of default. Kingfisher Airlines initially to pay the dues by 31st Mar 2012. In Jan 2012,BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 87
  • 4. EISSN 2277-4955Kingfisher paid 20 crore towards its dues for operational by February 20. With this, KingfishersDecember 2011 and part of the arrears. market share clearly dropped to 11.3%. The cancellation of the flights was accompanied by aBANK ARREARS: 13.5% drop in the stocks of the company on 20 February 2012. The CEO of the airlines, Sanjay Kingfisher Airlines had not paid some Agarwal was summoned by the Directorate Generalbankers (Lenders) as per the Debt Recast Package of Civil Aviation to explain the disruptions of the(DRP) with lending banks. Till the end of Dec 2011, operations.the arrears were estimated to be 260 crore to 280 The State Bank of India, which is the leadcrore. Lenders hence had told Kingfisher Airlines to lender to Kingfisher airlines said that they would notclear its dues before they can release any more money consider giving any more loans to Kingfisher unlesssought by the Airline. Ravi Nedungadi, chief and until it comes up with a new equity by itself.financial officer of UB Group however said that the Political activists also claimed that bailing or helpingarrears were 180 crore. State Bank of India (SBI) on a private airline would lead to problems within the5th Jan 2012 declared Kingfisher Airlines a NPA. Government. By February 27, Kingfisher operatedSBI is largest creditor and the leader of the only above 150 out of its 400 flights and only 28consortium of banks in the DRP (Debt Recast aircraft were functional. Reuters reported that ifPackage) and has an exposure of 1,457.78 crore. Kingfisher were to shutdown, it would be the biggestThus, by Feb 2012, Kingfisher has been declared failure in the History of Indian Aviation. It wasNPA by following banks: announced that the direct flights to the smaller airports of Jaipur, Thiruvananthapuram, Nagpur and State Bank of India also to Hyderabads Rajiv Gandhi International Bank of Baroda Airport were all shut down and only one/two-stop Punjab National Bank flights from its main hubs of Delhi and Mumbai IDBI would operate. Central bank of India In response to a situation as bad as Bank of India bankruptcy, Vijay Mallya announced that he had Corporation Bank organized funds to pay all the employees overdue salaries. With bank accounts frozen and huge debtsTHE CRISIS CONTINUE: due, it is unknown so as from where he arranged the money. But he apologized to his workers and said During late February, 2012, Kingfisher that he would pay them immediately. By this time,Airlines started to sink into a fresh crisis. Several kingfisher had accumulated losses of 444 croreflights were cancelled and aircraft were grounded. during the third quarter of the fiscal year 2011-12.The airline shut down most international short-hauloperations and also temporarily closed bookings. Outof the 64 aircraft, only 22 were known to beBAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 88
  • 5. EISSN 2277-4955FROZEN BANK ACCOUNTS: Government has refused for bailing and all the lenders and bankers have no more trust. The On March 3, 2012, The Central Board of employees are also not able to tolerate the salaryExcise & Customs of India froze many more crisis and the slipping market share leads the moreKingfisher accounts as it was unable to pay all the difficulties.dues as per schedule. Kingfisher was meant to pay Promoter Vijay Malya has to decide the way1 crore per working day. Aviation minister Ajit Singh ahead. Whether is it possible to save the company?warned the airline about the temporary suspension of There are very few alternatives. As per the previousthe license until the crisis was sorted out. He news, Etihad Airways was interested in investing inannounced that the rest of the airlines fleet would be Kingfisher by providing equity in exchange for agrounded and all flights cancelled until the crisis stake in the airline. Also involved in the talks was thecame to an end. This would be only one step from International Airlines Group, owner of British flagpermanently closing the airline. carrier British Airways and Spanish flag carrier Iberia. But the question is the permission byIATA SUSPENSION: Government. So at present there is very tough situation for Vijay Malya and for the company. Will On March 7, 2012 IATA suspended ticket new fiscal year bring any solution for the company?sales of Kingfisher airlines citing non-payment of Let’s wait and watch.dues as the primary reason, and they said that salesservices will only be restored once Kingfisher settles QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION:ICH (IATA Clearing House) account. IATA alsoimmediately directed all travel agents to stop booking 1. Is the Problem of Kingfisher Airlines Industrytickets for Kingfisher. This would affect Kingfishers Specific or Company Specific?business by around 30%. Kingfisher claimed that 2. What is the Impact of High Level of Debt on thefrozen bank accounts was the main cause of being operating performance of company?unable to pay the IATA, and the airline started 3. Should Government bailout Kingfisher Airlines?making alternate arrangements for the sale of tickets. 4. According to you, what are the possible ways forSoon it became difficult for the airline to follow the the company to overcome this situation?much smaller schedule that it earlier released as evenmore pilots began to go on strike. TEACHING NOTESUNCERTAINTY AHEAD: 1. The purpose of the case is to make the students aware about the situation of financial crisis in After analysing the entire scenario, there are any organisation.strong possibilities of more difficult situation in the 2. The issues involved in the case are about thelast month of fiscal year 2011-12. The company is in financial turmoil and its effects on the businessdilemma of finding help, but from where? and market share of the company.BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 89
  • 6. EISSN 2277-49553. The case would be first given for individual other factors related to the aviation industry in reading for 15 min and then for 15 min the case detail. can be discussed in groups of 4-5 students. 6. Cross reference can be made taking into account4. The case can be taught along with the concepts the strategies used by the local, national and like ways to overcome the crisis and surviving international players to capture the slipping strategies required to save the organisation market of the falling organisation. keeping in mind the possible different options available. REFERENCES:5. The students can come prepared with topics of prevailing crisis in Indian aviation industry andhttp://www.flykingfisher.com/media- http://profit.ndtv.com/News/Article/aai-warns-center/press-releases/kingfisher-airlines- kingfisher-airlines-to-settle-dues-297284announcement.aspx http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2http://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/kingfisher- 010-09-26/news/27585421_1_cash-and-carry-airlines-q3-loss-widens-033419822.html mode-bpcl-shttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Kingfi chairman-kingfisher-airlinessher.../12258986.cms http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india- business/Kingfisher-may-have-to-weather-pilot-http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2 storm-next/articleshow/12214372.cms011-12-08/news/30490358_1_pilots-industrial-action-kingfisher airlines Annexure 1: Market share of Kingfisher Airlines as on January 2012 in the domestic Aviation Airline/Company % Share Jet Airways (Including Jet Lite) 28.8% Indigo 20.8% Air India 17.1% Spice Jet 16.3% Kingfisher 11.3% Go Air 5.8% Source: http://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/kingfisher-airlines-q3-loss-widens-033419822.htmlBAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 90
  • 7. EISSN 2277-4955 Annexure 2: Price Movement and Performance Charts of Kingfisher Airlines Annexure 3: Index Comparison and Ownership Pattern of Kingfisher AirlinesSource:http://www.bseindia.com/bseplus/StockReach/AdvanceStockReach.aspx?scripcode=532747 Annexure 4: Comparative Balance Sheet of Kingfisher Airlines [Rs. In crores]Sources Of Funds Mar 11 Mar 10 Mar 09 Mar 08 Jun 07 Jun 06 Mar’05Total Share Capital 1,050.88 362.91 362.91 135.80 135.47 98.18 16.20Equity Share Capital 497.78 265.91 265.91 135.80 135.47 98.18 16.20Share Appl. Money 2.95 7.48 8.11 10.09 0.00 0.00 0.00Pref. Share Capital 553.10 97.00 97.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Reserves -4,005.02 -4,268.84 -2,496.36 52.99 249.23 125.95 -2.54Net worth -2,951.19 -3,898.45 -2,125.34 198.88 384.70 224.13 13.66BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 85
  • 8. EISSN 2277-4955Secured Loans 5,184.53 4,842.43 2,622.52 592.38 716.71 448.16 159.42Unsecured Loans 1,872.55 3,080.17 3,043.04 342.00 200.00 3.50 125.06Total Debt 7,057.08 7,922.60 5,665.56 934.38 916.71 451.66 284.48Total Liabilities 4,105.89 4,024.15 3,540.22 1,133.26 1,301.41 657.79 298.14Application Of FundsGross Block 2,254.26 2,048.14 1,891.80 322.33 340.77 247.33 55.25Less: Accum. Dep. 682.37 493.62 316.29 43.55 33.74 16.40 4.52Net Block 1,571.89 1,554.52 1,575.51 278.78 307.03 230.93 50.73Capital WIP 673.35 980.61 1,630.95 346.25 357.62 286.53 153.09Investments 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.00 0.41 0.41 0.45Inventories 187.65 164.88 147.25 48.64 61.62 57.26 36.40Sundry Debtors 440.53 322.49 229.84 27.16 35.24 13.06 8.27Cash & Bank Bal. 88.18 50.91 49.41 5.84 422.05 181.17 47.08Total CA 716.36 538.28 426.50 81.64 518.91 251.49 91.75Loans & Adv. 5,380.19 4,604.31 3,640.42 832.49 149.77 232.03 47.28FDs 164.18 155.56 122.45 274.29 395.00 75.31 35.85CA, Loans & Adv. 6,260.73 5,298.15 4,189.37 1,188.42 1,063.68 558.83 174.88Current Liabilities 4,463.86 3,908.03 3,814.63 687.31 449.15 434.05 108.77Provisions 62.11 46.77 45.55 9.52 6.94 5.93 1.07Total CL & Prov. 4,525.97 3,954.80 3,860.18 696.83 456.09 439.98 109.84Net Current Assets 1,734.76 1,343.35 329.19 491.59 607.59 118.85 65.04Misc. Expenses 125.84 145.64 4.51 16.64 28.75 39.08 28.83Total Assets 4,105.89 4,024.17 3,540.21 1,133.26 1,301.40 675.80 298.14Source:http://www.moneycontrol.com/financials/kingfisherairlines/balancesheet/KA02#KA02 Annexure 5: Comparative P&L A/c of Kingfisher Airlines [Rs. In crores]Income Mar 11 Mar 10 Mar 09 Mar 08 Jun 07 Jun’06 Mar’05Net Sales 6,233.38 5,067.92 5,269.17 1,456.28 1,800.21 1285.42 305.55Other Income 81.58 -333.30 598.90 113.62 342.10 59.64 14.73Total Income 6,314.96 4,734.62 5,868.07 1,569.90 2,142.31 1345.06 320.28ExpenditureRaw Materials 56.69 40.89 51.19 43.79 45.94 36.73 5.77Power & Fuel Cost 2,274.03 1,802.99 2,602.62 889.30 979.50 625.45 92.98Employee Cost 680.54 689.38 825.42 244.96 247.72 163.04 31.76Other Manu. Exp. 1,192.80 1,108.82 1,112.85 408.21 617.56 425.48 104.78Sell. & Admn Exp. 997.34 996.85 1,062.74 180.39 146.78 114.38 29.13BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 86
  • 9. EISSN 2277-4955Misc. Exp. 87.94 108.58 167.55 14.81 25.11 33.78 9.85Total Expenses 5,289.34 4,747.51 5,822.37 1,781.46 2,062.61 1398.86 274.27PBDIT 1,025.62 -12.89 45.70 -211.56 79.70 -53.80 46.01Interest 2,340.32 2,245.59 2,029.33 434.44 466.05 250.72 55.33PBDT -1,314.70 -2,258.48 -1,983.63 -646.00 -386.35 -304.52 -9.32Depreciation 203.02 162.80 133.20 18.28 17.67 13.34 3.06Other Written Off 38.01 54.49 38.39 18.31 26.25 18.94 5.73Profit Before Tax -1,555.73 -2,475.77 -2,155.22 -682.59 -430.27 -336.80 -18.11Extra-ordinary items 72.99 31.28 0.00 -0.97 14.09 0.00 -2.74Tax -455.35 -700.00 -546.38 -494.45 3.40 3.75 -1.32Reported Net Profit -1,027.40 -1,647.22 -1,608.83 -188.14 -419.58 -340.55 -16.79Per share data (annualised)Shares in issue (lakhs) 4,977.79 2,659.09 2,659.09 1,357.99 1,354.70 981.82 31.06EPS (Rs) -20.64 -61.95 -60.50 -13.85 -30.97 -34.69 -54.05Equity Dividend (%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Book Value (Rs) -70.46 -150.54 -83.88 13.90 28.40 22.83 43.96Source: http://www.moneycontrol.com/financials/kingfisherairlines/profit-loss/KA02#KA02BAUDDHIK VOLUME 3, NO.-1, JAN-APRIL-2012 87