Language  acquisition  2007
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Language acquisition 2007






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Language  acquisition  2007 Language acquisition 2007 Presentation Transcript

  • Language Acquisition Betül Gök Yasemin Aydın Dilek Göçer
  • What is language acquisition? *The process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language.
  • Language acquisition has some basic requirements; Children require interaction with language-users Particular language-using environment Physical capability of sending&receiving sound signals.
  • INPUT  Human infants are helped in their language acquisition by older children&adults in home environment who provide input for the child.  The speech style adopted by someone who spend a lot of time interacting with a baby is called caregiver speech.
  • Features of caregiver speech;  Frequent use of questions  Using exaggerated intonation  Extra loudness  Slower tempo with longer pauses
  • Some examples from Turkey; -hanimiş annesinin kuzusu? -senin o buynuşunu yeyim ben -uçak geliyor aç ağzını bakıyım -babası ne almış oğluşuna araba mı almış? -düştü mü kızım hop etti bebeğim hop etti
  • The acquisition schedule  All normal children develop language roughly at the same time.  The language acquisition schedule has the same basis as the development of motor skills.
  • Cooing&Babbling  Cooing is described as the earliest use of speech-like sounds.  0-2 months:Reflexive crying, vegetative sounds (coughs, sneezes), Sounds reflecting their physical state.  2-5 months : Cooing and laughter. Early consonants develop, sounds from the back of throat, laughs and giggles form (to the enjoyment of parents).  4-6 months :Vocal play, babbling gets more adult-like, range and pitch play,, bilabial trills are common (raspberries).  6-12 months :Reduplicated babbling ex: mamama, pitch control develops, ability to sound out some consonants and vowels.  9-18 months :Non-reduplicative babbling, varying of consonants and vowels.
  • First Language Acquisition The one-word stage  can begin to utter recognizable words  phonemes that resemble words or simple phrases  Children’s first words typically employ the same consonants children favor in the late stages of babbling: stops [p, t, k, b, d, g], nasals [m, n], and glides [y, w], and often use consonant-vowel syllable structure. The most preferred first vowel is a low back [a].  Ba-ba, ma-ma sounds
  • The two-word stage  develop more complex phrases  a more complete thought than in the previous stage.  ‘anne mama, baba gitti, su ver’, ‘kötü kedi’  'Baby chair' could mean... Possession: 'this is baby's chair' Request/command: 'put baby in chair' Statement: 'baby is in the chair'
  • Telegraphic speech  the child’s analytical skills enhance  their ability to form complete sentences emerges.  Roughly age two  Multiple-word  ‘ deniz çay sevdi’, ‘ anne odada uyuyor’  their vocabulary increases at a rate of as many as 10 words per week.
  • The acquisition process  Roughly 4 year old child  Repeat what they heard in a different versions  Adopt lots of vocabulary from the speech they hear  Do not correct the child
  • Developing Morphology  2,5 years old – telegraphic speech forms  Inflectional morphemes  First – ing form  Next – plural s (overgeneralization)  Possessive inflection –’s  Different forms of the verb ‘to be’  First regular past tense forms  Later irregular past tense forms  The regular –s marker on third person singular present tense verbs
  • Turkish Children  Plural (çoğul eki –lar, -ler ) is begin to use at 20-23 months. ( arabalar , bebekler etc. )  Children understand the pronouns at 2.5 years old and use them at 3 years old (beni , bana , seni , sana , senin ) (benim arabam, senin oyuncağın )
  • Developing Syntax  In the formation of questions and the use of negatives,  There are three stages  1. stage ( 18-26 months)  2. stage ( 22-30 months)  3. stage ( 24-40 months)
  • Forming questions  The child’s first stage has two procedures.  Simply add Wh form ( Where, Who)  Rise in intonation  In the second stage, more complex expressions  In the third stage , the required movement of auxiliary ( Can I have.. )
  • Examples Stage 1  Where Momy ?  Where horse go ? Sit chair ? Stage 2  Why you smiling ? See my doggie? Stage 3  Can I have ?  Why kitty can’t ( It doesn’t spread to all Wh questions automatically)
  • Examples from Turkish  15-17 months ‘ne’ ( mu ne ? )  18-20 months ‘nerede’ (neyde abba?)  23-24 months ‘niye’ (niye vermiyorsun?)  ‘hangi’ (hangi abba? )  25-30 months ‘mi-ne zaman’  INTONATION  Child : Simiti kim aldı ?  Mother : Simiti dayın aldı.  Child : Dayı mı aldı ?  Mother : Evet , dayın kendi aldı simiti.  Child : Kendiiiii ???
  • Forming negatives  Stage 1 : putting no or not at the beginning (No sit here , no teddy bear)  In the second stage , the additional negative forms don’t and can’t appear ,with no or not ( He no bite you I don’t want it)  Third stage : incorporation of other auxiliary forms ( didn’t , won’t )  Children operate their own rules by forming negatives Adult correction is useless.
  • Examples from Turkish  Anne yok / baba yok  Oyun şimdi değil  Turkish children use – me and –ma at 24. months ( gitme , oynama etc. )
  • Developing Semantics  Overextension  Followed by a gradual process of narrowing down the application of each term as more words are learned.  Lexical relations ( animal-dog-poodle)  Antonymous relations are acquired quite late.
  • Examples from Turkish  A child says ‘Bak baba , araba’ (pointing out a bike ) – overextension  A child pointing out a horse and says ‘dog’