Data collection

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  • 2. 1.DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Journals Diaries Document Collection Field Notes Interview Discussion Stimulated Recall Classroom Diagrams and Maps Think Aloud Self Report Questionnare Observation 2. TRIANGULATION
  • 3. DIARIES Diary : A booklet where one keeps their daily record of events and experience. Diaries can be kept by learners, teachers or participant observers.  Provides A first person account  Private documents  No rules about keeping diary
  • 4. JOURNALS Journal : A record of thoughts, feelings, reflections and oservations of the writer.  Public documents  Focuses on a specific lesson, activity or student
  • 6. FIELD NOTES  Field notes are contemporaneous notes of observations or conversation taken during the conduct of qualitative research.  Notes can be time based (every 5 minutes)
  • 7. INTERVIEWS DISCUSSION  The person conducting the interview is called as the «interviewer»  The person who is interviewed is called as «interviewee»
  • 8. 1.«Unstructured interviews» are more like an everyday conversation. They tend to be more informal, open ended, flexible and free flowing. Questions are not pre-set, although there are usually certain topics that the researchers wish to cover. 2.«A semi-structured interview» is a qualitative method of inquiry that combines a pre-determined set of open questions (questions that prompt discussion) with the opportunity for the interviewer to explore particular themes or responses further. 3.«A structured interview,» or a standardised interview is a quantitative research method commonly used in survey research. The aim of this approach is to confirm that each interview is offered with exactly the same questions in the same order.
  • 9. STIMULATED RECALL It helps to reconstruct the techer’s behaviors and attitudes in the class. o Videotaped is used o After the class, videotape should be watched immediately.
  • 10. CLASSROOM DIAGRAMS AND MAPS Visual representations of how space and movement work in the classroom.
  • 11. THINK ALOUD The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students.
  • 12. SELF REPORT A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference. A self-report is any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on.
  • 13. QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. Self administered questionnaires • Postal and drop & collect Interviewer administered questionaires • Telephone and structured interview
  • 14. A set of criteria ; I. Piloting the questionnaire is important but difficult II. The instructions shold be very clear and explicit III. Questionnaires sholud be anonymous IV. Avoid using unusual words V. Number the questionnaire items and pages shouldn’t be a lot and confusing VI. The appearance and lay out of the questionnaire should be attractive Closed ended question format Open question format
  • 15. Closed ended Open ended
  • 16. OBSERVATION Observation: to establish data concerning what goes on in most classroom or in a range of classrooms.
  • 17. Real time Audio taping Transcription Videotaping
  • 18. TRIANGULATION Triangulation is often used to indicate that two (or more) techniques are used in a study in order to check the results.  Using multiple tools of data collection. We can triangulate our data on three levels:  The level of data sources  The level of data collection or research methods  The level of data analysis or theoritical triangulation
  • 19. Data triangulation Theoretical Triangulation Investigator triangulation Methodological Triangulation