Diary : A booklet where one keeps their daily record of events and experience.
Diaries can be kept by learners, teachers or participant observers.
Provides A first person account
No rules about keeping diary
Journal : A record of thoughts, feelings, reflections and oservations of the writer.
Focuses on a specific lesson, activity or
5. DOCUMENT COLLECTION
6. FIELD NOTES
Field notes are contemporaneous notes of observations
or conversation taken during the conduct of qualitative
Notes can be time based (every 5 minutes)
7. INTERVIEWS DISCUSSION
The person conducting the interview is called as the «interviewer»
The person who is interviewed is called as «interviewee»
8. 1.«Unstructured interviews» are more like an everyday conversation. They
tend to be more informal, open ended, flexible and free flowing. Questions
are not pre-set, although there are usually certain topics that the researchers
wish to cover.
2.«A semi-structured interview» is a qualitative method of inquiry that
combines a pre-determined set of open questions (questions that
prompt discussion) with the opportunity for the interviewer to explore
particular themes or responses further.
3.«A structured interview,» or a standardised interview is a quantitative
research method commonly used in survey research. The aim of this
approach is to confirm that each interview is offered with exactly the same
questions in the same order.
9. STIMULATED RECALL
It helps to reconstruct the techer’s behaviors and attitudes in the class.
o Videotaped is used
o After the class, videotape should be watched immediately.
10. CLASSROOM DIAGRAMS AND MAPS
Visual representations of how space and movement work
in the classroom.
11. THINK ALOUD
The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are
thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply
responding to questions posed by teachers or other students.
12. SELF REPORT
A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which
respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without
researcher interference. A self-report is any method which involves asking a
participant about their feelings, attitudes, beliefs and so on.
A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining
information from respondents.
• Postal and drop & collect
• Telephone and structured interview
14. A set of criteria ;
I. Piloting the questionnaire is important but difficult
II. The instructions shold be very clear and explicit
III. Questionnaires sholud be anonymous
IV. Avoid using unusual words
V. Number the questionnaire items and pages shouldn’t be a lot and confusing
VI. The appearance and lay out of the questionnaire should be attractive
15. Closed ended
Observation: to establish data concerning what goes on in most
classroom or in a range of classrooms.
17. Real time
Triangulation is often used to indicate that two (or more) techniques are
used in a study in order to check the results.
Using multiple tools of data collection.
We can triangulate our data on three levels:
The level of data sources
The level of data collection or research methods
The level of data analysis or theoritical triangulation