Mario Made Me Do It

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Mario Made Me Do It

  1. 1. MARIO MADE ME DO IT VIDEO GAME VIOLENCE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
  2. 2. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE
  3. 3. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE <ul><li>Warranted first report on 60 minutes about psychological effects of video game violence </li></ul><ul><li>Caused the first ever organized protest over a video game </li></ul>
  4. 4. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE
  5. 5. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE
  6. 6. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE <ul><li>Mortal Kombat could be considered the dawn of the modern violence in video games debate </li></ul><ul><li>Led to formation of ESRB </li></ul>
  7. 7. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE <ul><li>1999 – Columbine school shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Both young men involved were avid fans of the PC game Doom </li></ul><ul><li>iD software amongst group of video game companies sued over shootings </li></ul>
  8. 8. A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE <ul><li>Many other video game controversies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Theft Auto inspired shooting in Tennessee (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto street racers and Need for Speed (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian killing of internet video game rival (2008) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. BUT WHAT ARE PEOPLE WORRIED ABOUT <ul><li>“ confused the game with reality” </li></ul><ul><li>“ murder simulator” </li></ul><ul><li>Desensitization </li></ul><ul><li>All terms imply violence in videogames produces sociopathic behaviour </li></ul>
  10. 10. GETTING AGGRESSIVE <ul><li>Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations : A Test of the General Aggression Model </li></ul><ul><li>Craig A. Anderson and Brad Bushman </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE GENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL
  12. 12. THE EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Participants played either a violent or non-violent video game. </li></ul><ul><li>Then they read ambiguous stories about potential interpersonal conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Asked what the main character would do, say, think, and feel as the story continued. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MEASURING THE AGGRESSION <ul><li>Jane had worked hard all day long cleaning her apartment. She was tired but decided to reward herself with a meal in one of the restaurants down the street. Upon entering the restaurant, Jane decided upon a Caesar salad, French onion soup, and filet mignon. Some 15 minutes later, a waiter came around to take her order. Time slowly passed and Jane was getting hungrier and hungrier. Finally, about 45 minutes after her order had been taken, Jane was about to leave when she saw the waiter approaching with her food. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens next? </li></ul>
  14. 14. AGGRESSIVE RESPONSES <ul><li>Do/Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat and refuse to pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punch the waiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I hope this isn’t your real job!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What did you have to do, butcher a cow?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steal the silverware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Keep the food. I’m gone!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dump the food on the waiter’s head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swear at the manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I wish I had him as my waiter!” (pointing to another waiter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Did you have to go to France to get the French onion soup?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was contemplating whether this floral centerpiece was edible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She calls the restaurant and orders four steaks to pick up by a different name </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. RESULTS
  16. 16. THE REBUTTAL <ul><li>The Good, The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher John Ferguson </li></ul>
  17. 17. WHAT IS META - ANALYSIS <ul><li>A statistical study based on the results of several studies that address a related research hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Measures effect size: the strength of the relationship between two variables </li></ul>
  18. 18. THE GOOD AND THE BAD <ul><li>Study showed that increase in aggressive thoughts cannot be statistically linked to increase in aggressive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between playing violent video games and increased visuospatial cognition </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE POINT OF IT ALL <ul><li>Violent video games MAY increase aggressive thoughts in people </li></ul><ul><li>Violent video games HAVE NOT been shown to increase aggressive behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Violent video games can have positive effects </li></ul>
  20. 20. WELL THEN SHOULD WE BE WORRIED <ul><li>Studies are flawed </li></ul><ul><li>No demarcation between the real-world reactions and play </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation does not imply causation </li></ul><ul><li>“ The absence of evidence is not necessarily the evidence of absence” </li></ul>
  21. 21. CRITICIZING THE MEDIA <ul><li>98.7% of adolescents play video games to some degree </li></ul><ul><li>Youth violent crime rate is at a 30 year low </li></ul><ul><li>Is behaviour with such high prevalence useful in explaining behaviour with low prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps violent video games only have a positive effect </li></ul>
  22. 22. MORE CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>What about the effect on special populations (children, people with pre-existing mental disorders…) </li></ul><ul><li>Can violent video games mediate violent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>How will this change as games evolve ? </li></ul>
  23. 23. CONCLUSION <ul><li>People studying and commenting on this topic lack experience with the medium </li></ul><ul><li>What does the presence/absence of a link between video game and real-world violence mean ? </li></ul>

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