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Mining in India and Drawbacks of Mining

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Mining in india

  1. 1. Mining In India Mining In India
  2. 2. Overview of the Mining Industry in India • The Mining industry in India is a major economic activity which contributes significantly to the economy of India. • The GDP contribution of the mining industry varies from 2.2% to 2.5% only but going by the GDP of the total industrial sector it contributes around 10% to 11%. • Even mining done on small scale contributes 6% to the entire cost of mineral production. • Indian mining industry provides job opportunities to around 700,000 individuals • India is the largest producer of sheet mica, the third largest producer of iron ore and the fifth largest producer of bauxite in the world. • India's metal and mining industry was estimated to be $106.4bn Mining In India
  3. 3. Overview of the Mining Industry in India • The tradition of mining in the region is ancient and underwent modernization alongside the rest of the world as India gained independence in 1947. • The economic reforms of 1991 and the 1993 National Mining Policy further helped the growth of the mining sector. • India's minerals range from both metallic and non-metallic types. • The metallic minerals comprise ferrous and non-ferrous minerals, while the non-metallic minerals comprise mineral fuels, precious stones, among others. • Mining in India depends on over 3,100 mines, out of which over 550 are fuel mines, over 560 are mines for metals, and over 1970 are mines for extraction of non-metals Mining In India
  4. 4. Overview of the Mining Industry in India • Unless controlled by other departments of the Government of India mineral resources of the country are surveyed by the Indian Ministry of Mines, which also regulates the manner in which these resources are used. The ministry oversees the various aspects of industrial mining in the country. Both the Geological Survey of India and the Indian Bureau of Mines are also controlled by the ministry. • Natural gas, petroleum and atomic minerals are exempt from the various activities of the Indian Ministry of Mines. Mining In India
  5. 5. Geographical distribution Mineral Belt Location • North Eastern Peninsular Belt Chota Nagpur plateau and the Orissa plateau covering the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. • Central Belt Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra • Southern Belt Karnataka plateau and Tamil Nadu. • South Western Belt Karnataka and Goa. • North Western Belt Rajasthan and Gujarat along the Aravali Range.Mining In India
  6. 6. Environmental impact of the Mining industry Water Management Land use management Air pollution Greenhouse gases emissions Radiation exposure Mining In India
  7. 7. Water Management • Open-pit mining requires large amounts of water for preparation plants and dust suppression. • To meet this requirement mines acquire (and remove) surface or groundwater supplies from nearby agricultural or domestic users, which reduces the productivity of these operations or halts them. • These water resources (once separated from their original environment) are rarely returned after mining, creating a permanent degradation in agricultural productivity. • Underground mining has a similar effect, due to a lower need for dust-suppression water; however, it still requires sufficient water. Mining In India
  8. 8. Water Management • Groundwater supplies are adversely affected by surface mining. These impacts include drainage of usable water from shallow aquifers; lowering of water levels in adjacent areas and changes in flow direction within aquifers; contamination of usable aquifers below mining operations due to infiltration of poor-quality mine water; and increased infiltration of precipitation on spoil piles. • Where coal is present, increased infiltration may result in – Increased runoff of poor-quality water and erosion from spoil piles – Recharge of poor-quality water to shallow groundwater aquifers – Poor-quality water flow to nearby streams Mining In India
  9. 9. Water Management • This may contaminate both groundwater and nearby streams for long periods. • Deterioration of stream quality results from acid mine drainage, toxic trace elements, high content of dissolved solids in mine drainage water, and increased sediment loads discharged to streams. • When coal surfaces are exposed, pyrite comes in contact with water and air and forms sulfuric acid. As water drains from the mine, the acid moves into the waterways, as long as rain falls on the mine tailings the sulfuric-acid production continues, whether the mine is still operating or not. • Surface waters are rendered unfit for agriculture, human consumption, bathing, or other household uses. Mining In India
  10. 10. Land Use Management Impact to land and surroundings Waste management River water pollution Wildlife Mining In India
  11. 11. Impact to Land and Surroundings • Strip mining severely alters the landscape, which reduces the value of the natural environment in the surrounding land. • When mining is allowed, resident human populations must be resettled off the mine site; economic activities, such as agriculture or hunting and gathering food and medicinal plants are interrupted. • Reclamation of disturbed lands to a land use condition is not equal to the original use. • Mining eliminates existing vegetation, destroys the genetic soil profile, displaces or destroys wildlife and habitat, alters current land uses, and to some extent permanently changes the general topography of the area mined Mining In India
  12. 12. Impact to Land and Surroundings • Dust degrades air quality in the immediate area, has an adverse impact on vegetative life, and constitutes health and safety hazards for mine workers and nearby residents. • In case of mountaintop removal, tops are removed from mountains or hills to expose minerals underneath. The soil and rock removed is deposited in nearby valleys, hollows and depressions, resulting in blocked and contaminated waterways • Soil disturbance and associated compaction result in conditions conducive to erosion. Soil removal from the area to be surface- mined alters or destroys many natural soil characteristics, and reduces its biodiversity and productivity for agriculture. Soil structure may be disturbed by pulverization or aggregate breakdown. Mining In India
  13. 13. Waste Management and River Water Pollution • In the low-coal-content areas waste forms Spoil tip- a pile built of accumulated spoil the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining. • Mining can have adverse effects on surrounding surface and ground water if protective measures are not taken. The result can be unnaturally high concentrations of some chemicals, such as arsenic, sulfuric acid, and mercury over a significant area of surface or subsurface. • Large amounts of water produced from mine drainage, mine cooling, aqueous extraction and other mining processes increases the potential for these chemicals to contaminate ground and surface water Mining In India
  14. 14. Wildlife • The most direct effect on wildlife is destruction or displacement of species in areas of excavation and spoil piling. • Pit and spoil areas are not capable of providing food and cover for most species of wildlife. Mobile wildlife species like game animals, birds, and predators leave these areas. • More sedentary animals like invertebrates, reptiles, burrowing rodents and small mammals may be destroyed. • The community of microorganisms and nutrient-cycling processes are upset by movement, storage, and redistribution of soil. • Degradation of aquatic habitats is a major impact by surface mining, and may be apparent many miles from a mining site. Mining In India
  15. 15. Wildlife • The effects of sediment on aquatic wildlife vary with the species and the amount of contamination. High sediment levels can kill fish directly, bury spawning beds, reduce light transmission, alter temperature gradients, fill in pools, spread stream flows over wider, shallower areas, and reduce production of aquatic organisms used as food by other species. These changes destroy the habitat of valued species, and may enhance habitat for less-desirable species. • The presence of acid-forming materials exposed as a result of surface mining can affect wildlife by eliminating habitat and by causing direct destruction of some species. Mining In India
  16. 16. Air Pollution Air emissions Mercury emissions Annual excess deaths Mining In India
  17. 17. Air Emissions and Mercury Emissions • Most of the Mining Industry releases approximately 20 toxic- release chemicals, including arsenic, lead, mercury, nickel, vanadium, beryllium, cadmiu m, barium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, zinc, selenium and radium, which are dangerous if released into the environment. • Methylmercury, a toxic compound which harms both wildlife and people who consume freshwater fish. Mining In India
  18. 18. Greenhouse gases emission and Radiation exposure • The combustion of coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. • Coal also contains low levels of uranium, thorium, and other naturally occurring radioactive isotopes whose release into the environment may lead to radioactive contamination. Coal plants emit radiation in the form of radioactive fly ash which is inhaled and ingested by neighbours, and incorporated into crops. Mining In India
  19. 19. Indian Background • India has a predominantly agrarian population dependent on land and forests for its sustenance and livelihood, socially, culturally and economically. • Rural and tribal women are the primary actors in agriculture, collection of forest produce, in livestock management apart from nurturing their families. • It has been accepted as an undisputed fact that women, rural and tribal, have a very intimate and symbiotic relationship with the ecology around them as they are untenably linked to the natural resources Mining In India
  20. 20. Mining in India • Mining has been a focal industry in all the Five Year Plans of the country and it could not be perceived as anything but ‘development’ in demanding people’s forfeiture of their lands for ‘national prosperity’ • Most minerals and mining operations are found in forest regions, which are also the habitat for tribal communities. • Starting from rat hole mining, small legal and illegal mining, to large-scale mining mostly by the public sector and since the 90’s by the private sector’s participation, there are a wide range of problems and conflicts in relation to mining. • The problems of local communities, displaced or affected by mining have had far reaching consequences. Mining In India
  21. 21. Status and Literacy rate of Women in India • The gender divide and exploitation of women in India has a history of female infanticide, dowry deaths, unequal wages, high levels of illiteracy and mortality, caste-based discrimination and other social evils. • The literacy rate for total Indian population is about 52.75% for male and 32.17% for female • The literacy levels among Scheduled Caste women is a mere 19% and for Scheduled Tribe women is 14.50% • In the mineral rich states female literacy is abysmally poor – 3.46%, 6.88%, 8.29% and 11.75% for Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand respectively. Mining In India
  22. 22. A Pie Chart representing the literacy rate in India Mining In India Men, 52.75% Women, 32.17%
  23. 23. Impact of Mining to Locals in Economic terms • With the given background of women’s status, one can easily surmise the condition of women displaced and affected by mining. • In India, people displaced by various projects, is estimated to be 50 million and of these, approximately 10 million have been displaced by mining projects alone. • Seventy five percent of people displaced have not yet received any form of compensation or rehabilitation. Mining In India
  24. 24. Impact of Mining on Locals and Women • With regard to land, women have no legal rights over lands or natural resources. The Land Acquisition Act of India is draconian and obsolete and gives over-riding powers to the state to encroach onto people’s lands for any ‘public purpose’ including mining. • The country to this day does not have any Relief & Rehabilitation policy as a constitutional safeguard for people. • While the local communities are not consulted for take over of their lands for any projects, the women are the last to be informed and neither are their consent or objections ever taken into account. • Whenever villages have been displaced or affected, women have been forced out of their land based work and pushed into menial and marginalised forms of labour as maids and servants, as construction labourers or into prostitution, which are highly unorganised and socially humiliating. Mining In India
  25. 25. Impact of Mining on Locals and Women • While traditional livelihood systems based on land gave them an important role in agriculture, collection of forest produce, management of livestock and related activities, the immediate offshoot of mining has been a total destruction of this role for women both from land-owning communities and agricultural labourers. • Women displaced by mining, have lost the rights to cultivate their traditional crops, and forests being cut down for mining, they are unable to collect forest produce for consumption or for sale. • Only access to health care for women, which is the forest rich in medicinal plants, is destroyed leaving them without this important natural support system. • A large part of the miners wages are spent on medical expenses as companies do not pay for this, and as a result, they are caught in a vicious web of indebtedness dragging the whole family into bonded labour. The situation of miners in Rajasthan is a classic example of this situation. • Women in search of jobs fall into situations where there is seasonal migration leading to work insecurity, breaking up of family relations and exposing them to various social hazards. Mining In India
  26. 26. Impact of Mining on Women • It has always been the men who received any form of rehabilitation either in cash or as employment which has led to complete ‘idleness’ in the economic sphere for women while they wait the whole day long, for their men to return from the mine-pits. • When some of the men received employment, the women were forced to manage the land, and agricultural activities on their own. In such situations, their drudgery has increased, and has led to situations of share-cropping and gradually to mortgaging of land. • Women from land-owning communities have been forced into wage labour, which is a socially and economically humiliating shift. • Women are also forced into petty trades or other businesses but the social taboos of participation in these sectors, their lack of literacy or skills, exposes them to further exploitation in these trades. Mining In India
  27. 27. Impact of Mining on Women • Displaced tribal communities who never received any form of compensation or rehabilitation, have migrated to bordering states in search of land and forests. A very clear example is the migration of tribals from Orissa to the neighbouring state of Andhra Pradesh where the Khonds had to occupy lands high up on the hills or encroach forest lands at the risk of being ‘criminals’ in the eyes of law. • They have cut down vast stretches of forest for survival and face the harassment of the forest department every year and are accused of practicing ‘unsustainable’ agriculture. Mining In India
  28. 28. Women as a Mine Labour • Where displaced women were absorbed into mining related activities, it is mostly in the small private or unorganized sector where women are the first to be retrenched, have no work safety measures, are susceptible to serious health hazards which also affects their reproductive health, and are exposed to sexual exploitation. • The large-scale mines, which are shifting to technology dependence, have no scope for women’s participation as they are illiterate, lack technical skills and face cultural prejudices. Where women formed 30-40% of the workforce in mining, they have been reduced to less than 12% and in the coal sector alone, to 5%. Schemes like VRS have been thrust upon women so as to retrench them first. • While the largescale mining has no space for women, the small-scale sector absorbs them only as contract or bonded labour under highly exploitative conditions. Wages are always less than those for men, they do not get a paid holiday even one day in a week or during pregnancy or childbirth, no work equipment is provided, there are no toilets or work facilities. The women are exposed to the exploitation, physical and sexual, of the mine-owners, contractors and other men. They have to walk back miles to return to their villages and are vulnerable to assault on the way. Mining In India
  29. 29. Women as a Mine Labour • The women suffer from several occupational illnesses right from respiratory problems, silicosis, tuberculosis, leukaemia, arthritis, to reproductive problems. They work with toxic and hazardous substances without any safety. • Whereas women could take their infants to the fields or to the forest earlier, women working in mines have to leave their children behind at homes, unattended. If they do manage to take the children, they have to expose them to high levels of dust and noise pollution, are susceptible to accidents due to blasting or falling into mine pits Mining In India
  30. 30. Violence Against Women in Mining Area’s • The most hard-hitting reality of a mining town is the predominant existence of violence against women – violence by the men within the community, by men from outside who are truck drivers, traders, migrant miners and others, by company hired mafia, staff, visitors, by the politicians, and most of all by the state machinery. • It is a well known fact that in the coal mining belt, for instance, the nexus between the coal mafia, mining companies, political parties and government machinery is too close for any comfort of the communities. Prostitution, trafficking and other forms of abuses on women are actively promoted by all these collective forces making it impossible for women to get any justice. Mining In India
  31. 31. Violence Against Women in Mining Area’s • The social and behavioural deviance in mining towns as a result of mixed and external populations invading culturally cohesive communities where companies have done precious little to contain these trends has thrown women into totally inhibiting situations. • Besides, the fact that the state has no earnestness to pursue issues of atrocities on women has only encouraged mining companies and mining societies to abuse women with wantonness. • The truth is also that the companies have neither the sensitivity nor the remedies to prevent such shifts in social patterns towards women. What is however, most alarming, is the growing corporate violence against women in communities protesting for their rights in mining regions or fighting against entry of mining companies into their villages. • With the support of the state machinery, mining companies are using brutal methods of suppressing people’s protests where women are also not spared. The incidence of police firing, killings, false criminal cases and harassment of communities especially on women has in gloriously increased. There have been instances where women have been locked up in police custody even when they have infants to nurse. Mining In India
  32. 32. Conclusion In traditional societies, nature is not put up for sale or negotiation. Neither are women negotiable commodities. The theories of economics start from respect for nature and the interdependence of man and nature. It is based on balancing man’s (and women’s) needs with ecological sustainability, which is the primary principle of extracting natural resources. In today’s situation of economics, the mining industry and governments have grossly violated this principle. Economics starts with over extraction of one natural resource (minerals) at the cost of other resources for the sustainability of the industry and not of communities. It starts with the assumptions that development requires compromising on social justice, especially when it comes to women. Most of the countries which have allowed their lands to be exploited for minerals have some of the worst indices of human development Mining In India
  33. 33. Conclusion They also have the worst indices of gender justice. From a gender perspective, what does mining have to offer women - atrocities, violence, degradation of social and economic status, depriving them of any decent livelihood and which makes them powerless compared to their traditional systems, however modest. The MMSD report of IIED in its section on women, admits the widespread negative impacts of mining on women and offers only solutions like ‘naturalising’ mining societies, by which they mean that mining companies should encourage miners to live with their families in the mining towns. It urges women to participate in community programmes of the mining companies. However, for the women from the communities in India a few bags of seeds, a few packets of medicines, a training programme on micro-credit or an awareness camp on health are no compensation to what they have lost for mining or what future mining has to offer to them. Therefore, they have an important challenge to pose – can a gender audit be carried out in mining regions and prove how sustainable mining is to women? Mining In India
  34. 34. Mining In India
  35. 35. Thank You Mining In India