My ISCA 2013 - 40th International Symposium on Computer Architecture Keynote

1,958 views

Published on

Keynote speech delivered in Tel Aviv on 25 June 2013.

I had the privilege of being the first speaker at the First Annual Symposium on Computer Architecture in 1973. Over the last 40 years I have worked on PDP-11, VAX, MIPS, Alpha, x86, Itanium, and ARM processors and systems.
Moore’s Law has enabled computer architects to increase the pace of innovation and the development of microprocessors with new instruction sets.
In the 1970s, minicomputers from Digital Equipment Corporation, Data General and Hewlett Packard started to challenge IBM mainframes. The introduction of the 32-bit VAX-11/780 in 1978 was a landmark event. The single chip MicroVAX was introduced in 1985.
The IBM PC was introduced on August 12, 1981, followed by many IBM PC compatible machines from Compaq and others. This led to the tremendous growth of x86 processors from Intel and AMD. Today, the x86 processor dominate the computer industry.
In 1987, the introduction of RISC processors based on Sun’s SPARC architecture spawned the now famous RISC vs CISC debates. RISC processors from MIPS, IBM (Power, Power PC), and HP (PA-RISC) started to gain market share. This forced Digital to first adopt MIPS processors, and later introduce Alpha in 1992.
The RISC supremacy continued until the introduction of the first out of order x86 Pentium Pro processor in 1995, expanding the role of x86 into workstations and servers. The x86 architecture was extended to 64 bits by AMD in the Opteron processor in 2003, forcing Intel to launch its own compatible processor.
Disruptive technologies usually come from below. We have seen users migrate from mainframes to minicomputers to RISC workstations and servers to desktop PCs and PC servers to notebooks and tablets. Volume economics has driven the industry. The next wave will be the technology used in smart phones. With over a billion chips sold annually, this technology will appear in other platforms. Several companies have announced plans for ARM based servers.
Moore’s Law has also enabled computer architects to advance the sophistication of microprocessors. We will review some of the significant milestones leading from the first Intel 4004 to today’s state of the art processors.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,958
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
43
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

My ISCA 2013 - 40th International Symposium on Computer Architecture Keynote

  1. 1. Dileep Bhandarkar, Ph. D.IEEE Fellow
  2. 2. The Stops Along My Journey 1970: B. Tech, Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 1973: PhD in Electrical Engineering• Carnegie Mellon University• Thesis: Performance Evaluation of Multiprocessor ComputerSystems• 4 years - Texas Instruments• Research on magnetic bubble & CCD memory, FT DRAM• 17 years - Digital Equipment Corporation• Processor Architecture and Performance• 12 years - Intel• Performance, Architecture, Strategic Planning• 5.5 years - Microsoft• Distinguished Engineer, Data Center Hardware Engineering• 5 months and counting – Qualcomm Technologies Inc• VP Technology
  3. 3. Birth of ISCA!
  4. 4. My 15 Minutes of Fame!
  5. 5. IBM 360/67 at CMU in 1970• The S/360-67 operated with a basic internal cycle time of 200nanoseconds and a basic 750 nanosecond magnetic core storage cycle• Dynamic Address Translation (DAT) with support for 24 or 32-bit virtualaddresses using segment and page tables (up to 16 segments eachcontaining up to 256 x 4096 byte pages)Snow White (IBM) and the Seven Dwarfs (RCA, GE, Burroughs,Univac, NCR, Control Data, Honeywell)
  6. 6. IBM 370/168 – circa 1974Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS)Virtual Machine Facility/370 (VM 370)
  7. 7. 1971: 4004 Microprocessor• The 4004 was Intelsfirst microprocessor.This breakthroughinvention powered theBusicom calculatorand paved the way forembeddingintelligence ininanimate objects aswell as the personalcomputer.Introduced November 15, 1971108 KHz, 50 KIPs , 2300 10m transistors
  8. 8. 1971: 1K DRAMIntel® 1103 DRAM Memory Intel delivered the 1103 to 14 ofthe 18 leading computermanufacturers. Since the production costs ofthe 1103 were much lower thanthe costs of a core memory or a1101 the 1103 could establishwithin the market rapidly,became the worlds best sellingmemory chip and was finallyresponsible for theobsolescence of magnetic corememory.
  9. 9. From 2300 to >1Billion TransistorsMoore’s Law video at http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~gupta/hpca9/HPCA-PDFs/Moores_Law_Video_HPCA9.wmv
  10. 10. 1958Integrated Circuit
  11. 11. 1974: 8080 Microprocessor• The 8080 became thebrains of the first personalcomputer--the Altair,allegedly named for adestination of theStarship Enterprise fromthe Star Trek televisionshow. Computerhobbyists could purchasea kit for the Altair for$395. Within months, itsold tens of thousands,creating the first PC backorders in history.
  12. 12. 1978: 8086-8088 Microprocessor• A pivotal sale to IBMsnew personal computerdivision made the 8088the brains of IBMs newhit product--the IBM PC.The 8088s successpropelled Intel into theranks of the Fortune 500,and Fortune magazinenamed the company oneof the "BusinessTriumphs of theSeventies."
  13. 13. DEC PDP-11LSI-11/73
  14. 14. 1977: VAX-11/780 – STAR is Born!
  15. 15. VAX Family: 1977 - 1992October 1977: VAX-11/780October 1980:VAX-11/7501982:VAX-11/7301984: VAX-11/7851984: VAX 86001985: MicroVAX II1986: VAX 88001987:MicroVAX 35001988:VAX 60001989:VAX 90001992:VAX 7000StarCometNebula SuperStarVenusNautilusCalypsoAquariusEvolution of VAX Architecture:• MicroVAX Subset• VAXvector Extensions
  16. 16. 1981: First IBM PCThe IBM Personal Computer ("PC") PC-DOS Operating System Microsoft BASIC programminglanguage, which is built-in andincluded with every PC. Typical system for home use with amemory of 64K bytes, a singlediskette drive and its own display,was priced around $3,000. An expanded system for businesswith color graphics, two diskettedrives, and a printer cost about$4,500.
  17. 17. 1985: Intel386™ Microprocessor• The Intel386™microprocessorfeatured 275,000transistors--more than100 times as many asthe original 4004. Itwas a Intel’s first 32-bit chip.
  18. 18. 1985: MicroVAX-IIThe MicroVAX- I(Seahorse), introduced inOctober 1984, was the firstVAX computers to useVLSI Technology.
  19. 19. RISC vs CISC WARS Sun SPARC MIPS R2000, R3000, R4000, R6000, R10000 PA-RISC IBM Power and Power PC DEC Alpha 21064, 21164, 21264In 1987, the introduction of RISC processors based on Sun’s SPARCarchitecture spawned the now famous RISC vs CISC debates. DECcancelled PRISM in 1988. RISC processors from MIPS, IBM (Power,Power PC), and HP (PA-RISC) started to gain market share. This forcedDigital to adopt MIPS processors in 1989, and later introduce Alpha in1992.
  20. 20. 1988-1992: VAX 6000 SeriesCVAX Rigel NVAX
  21. 21. 1989: VAX 9000 - The Age of AquariusThe Beginning of the End of VAX
  22. 22. 1991: ACE Initiative The Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) was defined by an industry consortiumin the early 1990s to be the next generation commodity computing platform, thesuccessor to personal computers based on Intels 32-bit x86 instruction setarchitecture. The consortium was announced on the 9th of April 1991 by MIPS Computer Systems,Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq, Microsoft, and the Santa Cruz Operation. At the time it was widely believed that RISC-based systems would maintain aprice/performance advantage over the x86 systems. The environment standardized on the MIPS architecture and two operating systems:SCO UNIX with Open Desktop and what would become Windows NT (originallynamed OS/2 3.0). The Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) document was produced to give hardware andfirmware specifications for the platform. When the initiative started, MIPS R3000 RISC based systems had substantialperformance advantage over Intel 80486 and original 60 MHz Pentium chips . MIPS R4000 schedule and performance slipped and Intel updated the Pentium designto 90 MHz in the next semiconductor process generation and the MIPS performanceadvantage slipped away.Strategy without Execution is Doomed!R4000
  23. 23. 1993: Intel® Pentium® Processor• The Intel Pentium® processorallowed computers to moreeasily incorporate "real world"data such as speech, sound,handwriting and photographicimages. The Intel Pentiumbrand, mentioned in thecomics and on television talkshows, became a householdword soon after introduction.• 22 March 1993• 66 MHz• 3.1 M transistors• 0.8µ
  24. 24. 1995: Intel® Pentium® ProProcessor• Intel® Pentium® Pro processorwas designed to fuel 32-bitserver and workstationapplications. Each Intel®Pentium Pro processor waspackaged together with asecond speed-enhancingcache memory chip. Thepowerful Pentium® Proprocessor boasts 5.5 milliontransistors.• 1 November 1995• 200 MHz• 0.35µ• 1st x86 to implement out oforder execution.P6The RISC Killer!
  25. 25. Alpha was Too Little Too Late!
  26. 26. A Tale of 2 Chips
  27. 27. 1999: AMD AthlonWon the Race to 1 GHz
  28. 28. 1999: Intel® Pentium® IIIProcessor – 0.18µ• 25 Oct 1999• Integrated 256KB L2cache• 733 MHz• 28 M transistors• First Intelmicroprocessor to hit1 GHz on 8-Mar-2000, a few days afterAMD Athlon!Coppermine
  29. 29. 2001: Intel® Itanium™ Processor• The Itanium™ processor is thefirst in a family of 64-bitproducts from Intel. Designedfor high-end, enterprise-classservers and workstations, theprocessor was built from theground up with an entirely newarchitecture based on IntelsExplicitly Parallel InstructionComputing (EPIC) designtechnology. May 2001• 800 MHz• 25M transistors• 0.18µ• External L3 cacheMercedIT AIN’T PENTIUM !!!
  30. 30. 2003: Intel® Pentium® MProcessor• The first Intel® Pentium® Mprocessor, the Intel® 855 chipsetfamily, and the Intel®PRO/Wireless 2100 networkconnection are the threecomponents of Intel® Centrino™mobile technology. Intel Centrinomobile technology is designedspecifically for portable computing,with built-in wireless LANcapability and breakthroughmobile performance. It enablesextended battery life and thinner,lighter mobile computers.• 12 March 2003• 130 nm• 1.6 GHz• 77 million transistors• 1 MB integrated L2 cacheBaniasThe move away from core frequency begins!
  31. 31. AMD Hammers Intel with AMD64SledgehammerFirst x86 processor with 64 bits and Integrated Memory Controller
  32. 32. 2004: Intel® Pentium® 4Processor – 90 nm• 1MB L2 cache• 64-bit extensionscompatible withAMD64• 120 million transistors• 3+ GHz frequencyPrescott
  33. 33. 2006: Intel’s 1st Monolithic Dual Core• January 2006• Intel® CoreTM DuoProcessor• 90 mm2• 151M transistors• 65 nmYonahThe Core Duo is also famous for being the first Intelprocessor to ever be used in Apple Macintosh Computers
  34. 34. • Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution• Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost• Intel® Advanced Smart Cache• Intel® Smart Memory Access• Intel® Intelligent Power Capability• Intel® 64 Architecture (Not IA-64)Intel® CoreTM Duo Processor90 mm2151M transistorsIntel® CoreTM 2 Duo Processor143 mm2291M transistorsMeromBanias was initiallyplanned as Celeron,but was elevated toMainstream Mobile in2000 as part ofCentrino brand.Tick Tock
  35. 35. 2006: Intel® Core™ Micro-architectureProductsIntel® WideDynamicExecutionIntel®IntelligentPowerCapabilityIntel®AdvancedSmart CacheIntel® SmartMemoryAccessIntel®AdvancedDigital MediaBoostThe Empire Strikes Back!Thanks to Israel Design Center!ServerDesktopMobile14 Stage PipelineProcess:65nmDie size:143 mm2Execution core area:36 mm2Transistor count:291 MExecution coretransistor count:19 M
  36. 36. 4MBL2 CacheCore Core Core Core4MBL2 Cache1066/1333 MHzOctober 2006: The World’s First x86Quad-Core ProcessorClovertownJoined At the Bus
  37. 37. 1MB L2IDual-core2x12MB L3Caches1.72 Billion Transistors (596 mm²)2 WayMulti-threading2006: Itanium 2: First Billion TransistorDual Core Chip (90nm)ArbiterMontecito
  38. 38. 2008: Performance Race Gets SeriousWith Quad CoreIntel finally integrates Memory ControllerIntel NehalemAMD Barcelona
  39. 39. Six Cores2009: AMD Istanbul 2010: Intel Westmere
  40. 40. 1.0µm 0.8µm 0.6µm 0.35µm 0.25µm 0.18µm 0.13µm 90nm 65nmMoore’s Law Enables Microprocessor AdvancesSource: IntelIntel 486™ProcessorPentium®ProcessorPentium® II/IIIProcessorPentium® 4ProcessorIntel® CoreTM DuoProcessorIntel® CoreTM 2 DuoProcessorChatting with Gordon Moorehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzxpO0N5Amc
  41. 41. Data Centers at Microsoft
  42. 42. Disruptions Come from Below!MainframesMinicomputersRISC SystemsDesktop PCsNotebooksSmart PhonesVolumePerformance
  43. 43. Era of Small Cores Intel Atom AMD Bobcat ARM
  44. 44. The Smart Phone EraIs Redefining Computing
  45. 45. Smartphones are changing consumer behaviorResult of immediacy, portability, and connectedness70+%Can’t leave the homewithout it~80%Play games on theirphones~90%Use their phonesto search andshop~80%Use phones tonavigate~60%Access their Facebooksitevia mobile phone1BAccess socialnetworks via mobile~1/3Watch movies ontheir device~80%Take pictures withmobile device insteadof traditional cameraSources: Facebook, Jan. ’13; SA, Apr.’12; 2012Snapdragon Consumer Survey;TIME Mobility Poll, in cooperation withQUALCOMM, Aug. ’12
  46. 46. Q4 2011Q3 2013Qualcomm Processor PortfolioQ2 2012DualCoreDualCoreFirst 1GHzSingle CoreSingleCoreQ1 2013Quad CoreDual Kraits• Quad Core A5CPUs• Adreno GPU• LPDDR2• DSDS and DSDA• 720p capture andplayback• Up to 8Megapixelcamera• Dual “Krait” CPUs• Adreno GPU• 28nm process• Faster memory• Industry leadingmodem• IntegratedConnectivity• GPSQuad CoreNewest Quad Core• Quad Core A7CPUs• Adreno GPU• TDSCDMA, HSPA+• DSDS and DSDA• 1080p capture andplayback• Up to 13 megapixelcameraQuadCore
  47. 47. 48Memory Scheduling & QoSEvolving the System ArchitectureShared Physical MemoryIO Coherent System CacheEmerging Compute ClusterMultimedia FabricFabric & Memory ControllerSystem FabricLPDDR3 LPDDR3KraitCPUAdrenoGPUKraitCPUKraitCPUKraitCPUMMUMMUs2MB L2Misc.ConnectivityModemMemory Management UnitsCameraMMUDisplayMMUJPEGMMUVideoMMUOtherMMUHexagonDSPMMUSnapdragon 800
  48. 48. 49A new era: mobile drives growth andinnovation in computingDeviceshipmentsSemiconductorrevenues2012 2017PCs~6X>2XPCs Mobile devices$68B$90B$51B$56B20122016Source: Smartphones units: Gartner, Mar-13; Tablet units: Avg of Gartner, Mar-13 & SA, Apr-13; PC units (desktop +portable): Avg of Gartner, Mar-13 & IDC, Feb13; Semiconductor revenue: Gartner, Dec. ’12; Mobile devices includemobile phones and tablets.
  49. 49. Learn to wear Many Hats!“Don’t be encumbered by past history, go off and do something wonderful.”
  50. 50. Shalom!
  51. 51.  I had the privilege of being the first speaker at the First Annual Symposium on ComputerArchitecture in 1973. Over the last 40 years I have worked on PDP-11, VAX, MIPS, Alpha, x86, Itanium,and ARM processors and systems. Moore’s Law has enabled computer architects to increase the pace of innovation and the developmentof microprocessors with new instruction sets. In the 1970s, minicomputers from Digital Equipment Corporation, Data General and Hewlett Packardstarted to challenge IBM mainframes. The introduction of the 32-bit VAX-11/780 in 1978 was alandmark event. The single chip MicroVAX was introduced in 1985. The IBM PC was introduced on August 12, 1981, followed by many IBM PC compatible machines fromCompaq and others. This led to the tremendous growth of x86 processors from Intel and AMD.Today, the x86 processor dominate the computer industry. In 1987, the introduction of RISC processors based on Sun’s SPARC architecture spawned the nowfamous RISC vs CISC debates. RISC processors from MIPS, IBM (Power, Power PC), and HP (PA-RISC) started to gain market share. This forced Digital to first adopt MIPS processors, and laterintroduce Alpha in 1992. The RISC supremacy continued until the introduction of the first out of order x86 Pentium Proprocessor in 1995, expanding the role of x86 into workstations and servers. The x86 architecture wasextended to 64 bits by AMD in the Opteron processor in 2003, forcing Intel to launch its owncompatible processor. Disruptive technologies usually come from below. We have seen users migrate from mainframes tominicomputers to RISC workstations and servers to desktop PCs and PC servers to notebooks andtablets. Volume economics has driven the industry. The next wave will be the technology used insmart phones. With over a billion chips sold annually, this technology will appear in other platforms.Several companies have announced plans for ARM based servers. Moore’s Law has also enabled computer architects to advance the sophistication of microprocessors.We will review some of the significant milestones leading from the first Intel 4004 to today’s state ofthe art processors.Abstract

×