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History and development of computer

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Which could at the time that 50 years later, the world would be profoundly strange to these machines is so small and formed are presented

Which could at the time that 50 years later, the world would be profoundly strange to these machines is so small and formed are presented

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  • 1. What’s the details of the development history of computer1 Purpose of DocumentThis document is a preliminary observation in "architecture and parallel processing machines, the" possibilityComputer Telecom (IT) and Engineering Master of Communicating Systems (ISIC) of ENST Bretagne. Its purposeis to make the scene of the module through a historical perspective of scientific computing.By providing a relatively large iconography that we chose to focus on the time of the pioneers of computer andtheir amazing machines, so the study period ended in the early 50s. At this point, in fact, most of the majorconcepts that have made the computer machine banal, if unusually complex are made today and asked to provetheir relevance. Thus, the paths that have led to the emergence of these concepts, we focus here. We also work forthese men and women who speak to the computer Battery For Sony VGP-BPS13/Q , like any other science, firstand foremost a human adventure.Which could at the time that 50 years later, the world would be profoundly strange to these machines is so smalland formed are presented ... essential (!?)?.The reader will find at the end of this document are several other items offered this time in the history ofcomputing, but also the pursuit of adventure, including the last microprocesseur.Soulignons that many items listedin this document Minke are from the paper Jack "The historical evolution of the computer in the 1950s"[Minke-98].Development of two computers, an increase of pre-warBefore reporting the facts to ponder a moment on the singular position of IT in the world of science through overJuris Hartmanis, director of IT at the National Science Foundation: "During a science is in its most general, toexplain and understand, even predict the world in which we operate, the computer Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery isdedicated to the automatic processing of information. Instead in order to understand the existing situation, tounderstand it, to avoid artifacts "Play" to do with it investigation. This research led to think of computers toanalyze the newest theories and new conceptual tools and equipment to build and manage the potential complexityof the ever-expanding. "2.1 The ehistoire prLong before the number of computers. A great invention, the number that is difficult to find the source.We find traces of the Sumerians around 4000 BC. The number that is still many secrets of the ultimate intellectualproperty that lends itself to manipulation. Thus, the Babylonian abacus, invented a kind of abacus is, about 3000BC This machine still in use in parts of Russia and China. The figures we are now known as Arabic numerals, itseems, never used by the Arabs. They come from India wrote a book on arithmetic in 1200 BC. This book wasmade in Arabic and in this way arrived in Europe, where he was eventually translated into Latin. In Europe thefigures have taken the form they are today.If the number is the raw material of computer HP Pavilion dv7 battery science, is the basic tool in mathematicallogic. We find the seeds first with Aristotle in 330 BC by his work with the title Organon. Euclid invented the sametime, we, the first non-trivial algorithm. This was the calculation of the gcd of two integers. The concept of thealgorithm 2 is recognized as essential in the formation and development of infomatique. The term comes from thetranslation algorithm (Algorismus) Latin name a Persian mathematician, Muhammad al-Khowarizmi, brought in aform to express what decimal arithmetic operations in the 9 pr siecle.2.2 computer emic (17i and 19i na na case ECLEER)These two centuries were particularly fruitful in inventions, whether the creation of robots or the development ofmathematical logic. The combination of these two components, the subsequent emergence of the computer.Remember that the audience is not really a discipline as the mid-20th century with the advent of the first computer
  • 2. to be identified on electronic technology. Remember, at that time, what are the characteristics that hp pavilion dv4battery have a machine for the title of the claim Jack Minke computer:Its first manipulate information in discrete form (as opposed to analog counterpart).Second, it must be real arithmetic and not easy to sustain the memory of the user (the rules that at least the chart).Third, it must be able to handle relatively complex, without any user intervention.Fourth, it must point to the data provided by the user and not to information that could be taken duringconstruction.Given the diversity of work that invented two centuries, we list the most important form chronologique.2.2.1 remarkable works 17i th 1623 Wilhelm Schickard, if ECLEER (Württemberg), professor of astronomy,Hebrew and Development "to calculate the clock". It was a 6-digit machine is based on a transmission. Thegearbox was used, as is done later in the odometer, a tower rouei rouei + 1 by a step forward, turn each stepcorresponding A1 = 10. The machine was this addition and subtraction of a bell shows a possible overflow. It willalso help deal is installed on the multiplication and division, the user in Napier with the three best bands in Francethe machine, calculating machine of Blaise Pascal known, called the Pascaline.Based on the principle of similar programs such as Schickard, but with a restraint system a little more difficult, it isoften regarded as the first calculating machine2.2.2 Wed major advanced 19i th at ECLEERA period of 150 years without significant progress following the work of Leibniz. It is from 1800, that things canbe reactivated as a technological point of view with the Jacquard machine, for example, with the theoretical workof Charles Babbage, in particular.Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, inspired by the ideas of Basile Bouchon, Falcon, and Breton, has developed hiscraft. It controls the weave pattern of punched cards in a string. With this machine for the first time the term of theprogram rialise-mate as a sequence of simple commands on a remote computer is encrypted. However, it was heldin 1725 which was to automate the use of a strip of perforated caps for the Dell Latitude E6400Battery manufacture of ornaments.1820-1840 During this period, Charles Babbage, English mathematician who contributed greatly to thedevelopment of information technology. Many of his works, there may be two main projects of the calculator. Oneof them was called "The Difference Engine", it is only partly built with the help of Joseph Clement 1832.Il was amachine that specializes in solving difference equations [memo-1]. It was recorded and completed in 80 years ofarchives by a team of the Science Museum in London. This implementation demonstrates the validity of theBabbage. He proposed later proposed a universal computing machine, it activates the automatic sequencing as"analytical engine".Only part of the machine was finally built in 1871In the same year Babbage died. In this project, Charles Babbage invented the concepts very innovative: He tookthe idea of external program coded Jacquard punch cards consists of machine instructions. But he decided todiversify the interest in sequencing: repeat statement, jump back and continue in the program. He associated thesepossibilities, the concept of conditional branching, which later formed the basis of our modern computers.Babbage produisitaussi many algorithms for solving various problems. ThisThe work was edited and the care of Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, published ina book entitled "Outline of the analytical engine" [Katz 97].Dedicated to the memory of the original contribution that the language was Ada, Countess. However, the mostinnovative ideas proposed by Babbage is forgotten and had the advantage of designing the computer that will be inthe years 1930-1940 Luc rediscovered.1854 George Boole publishes "An investigation of the laws of thought"
  • 3. [Boole-54] describes a system for symbolic reasons and logic to formalize. Today it is commonly known asBoolean algebra. This work has had a significant influence on the development of modern computers, as theyswitch on an electronic-based (ie two-state). The Boolean algebra, a theoretical framework for understanding thebehavior of such circuits. Booles work has also Gerhard, published in Frege concluded1879 foundation of a work in a complete form of propositional logic.1890 The Department of Census of the United States will hold the machine by Herman Hollerith built for the datacatalog. This machine is called "Electronic System Tab" sorted data previously entered on punched cards toprogrammable criteria.It is right on the detection of the presence or absence of holes on the card. This system worked successfully andHollerith founded his company in 1895 ", the Tabulating Machine Company," which was later in the year 1924, thename of IBM Corporation.2.2.3 A look at whats new in T el ecom during this period1838 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. He was the first telegram from Washington to Baltimore in 1842 tosend.1867 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.1895 Marconi sends the first message of electromagnetic waves.Av 2.3 the parents of todays computers (1900-1950)The first three decades of the 20th century century, no significant progress in the modern computer Battery DELLLatitude E6410 , when it merged with the invention of the vacuum tube (vacuum tube, see Figure 6) by John A.Fleming in 1904. This technology (for details see [Barbour 00]) was first used in radio transmission systems, whilethe prototype computer that will arise in the 30 and 40, is still largely based on technology electro-mechanical.The 30 years have seen significant advances in the theoretical concept of predictability, which marks the return keyto British researchers Alan Turing.À the open question at the beginning of the century, David Hilbert: "There is ageneral method to access the decidability Usually, every mathematical problem? "Investigations of Alan Turingwould have an abstract machine to reproduce the human mind can imagine. Starting from the premise that thehuman brain is about the internal states and the number of states, finally, he drew on the machine paper is builtconsists of an entrance to the processing unit of the drive unit in / out reading and writing symbols on a strip ofinfinite length. These symbols may correspond to data such as orders that are executed by the unit treatment. Heestablished a formal mathematical skills and logical thinking of his machine and found that the answer to Hilbertsconjecture HP 484170-001 Battery was negative (for a detailed description of the problem and the Turing machine,see [Ch-99]).Turing was an important contribution to the theoretical foundations of computer science, but he also thought a lotabout the design of computers. So he proposed a set of principles, which are then very relevant in this area.These include the idea of taking instructions and data on the same physical media, the idea as a table withinstructions that the Action Plan defines each match. We are here, not far from the concept of micro-programming,which will be formalized later byWilkes (discussed below). Turing also worked a lot on the cryptography and a valuable intelligence during theSecond World War.Besides these theoretical considerations, many projects have flourished in the mid-computer 30 in Germany,England and the United States. This type of project is then multiplied by the outbreak of war. In fact, when themilitary were convinced of the contribution of the computer, especially the calculation of ballistics for theencryption of the message or the development of nuclear weapons, these economists saw no commercial future ofthe computer Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery. This hypothesis has remained long enough after the end of the war. Wewill review major projects until the end The work of Konrad Zuse in Germany
  • 4. In 1934, Konrad Zuse plans [Rojas-97], a digital computer, the "Z1" to build. First idea: Give the decimalrepresentation for a binary representation of the machine. This arrangement eliminates the need for mechanicalgears for a delicate mechanical affordable. Second idea: To work effectively, a computer HP Pavilion DV6battery must have a memory when the treatment is available quickly and as directly as possible. It ends in 1937and reach an entirely mechanical memory with a capacity of 16 words of 24 bits. The following year he completedhis Z1 machine holds an entirely mechanical. The instructions were recorded on a strip of paper.Only in a second time, Zuse saw the advantage of being married to one technology to relay the pipes and valvesare derived. However, it did not have the technical means to implement them.He designed his machine Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery and Z2, the conservation of mechanical memory, whichbecame operational in 1939. It ultimately results in a fully automatic electromechanical relays, the first of its kind,with the end of 1941 Z3. This machine uses the memory for the 1400 relay, 600 600 for the arithmetic unit andalso for their control. His latest creation, the Z4, survived the war and later became the basis for the introduction ofscientific calculators by the expansion of the companys work computers Siemens.2.3.2, England, which took placein the 30 and 40 in England, closely associated with World War II. A major objective is to develop "break"messages encrypted by the Germans with their machine "Enigma" (see Figure 9) in the early 30s.The first machine that was using decoding performed in 1938. It was called "bombs" It was purely mechanical.A team of specialists in cryptology was formed in London in the late 30s, one of them was Alan Turing other. Itmade significant improvements to the machine. Built in 1943, a new machine, this time on the technology ofvacuum tubes was carried out by the team. It was called "Colossus." She used no less than 1500 pipes and wasclocked by a clock at 5 kHz. His call was not decipher the overall calculation. Even the very rustic andprogramming was done by the riders. This machine has been exposed contributed to intercept secret messages ofthe German army. Alan Turing played a significant role there, especially in the decryption algorithm. He has alsopublished a groundbreaking study on a new machine, "Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)", a random accessmemory instead of conventional memory access sequence.2.3.3 Improvements in the U.S.The development of digital computers in the United States began in 1937. Several organizations have been invarious projects, including the University of Iowa, Harvard University and Bell Telephone Laboratories involved.Later, the Moore School at the University of Pennsylvania, was involved in his hand.E University of Iowa, 1937-1939 John Atanasoff developed a prototype computer based mainly on the technologyof electron tubes. This was the "ABC" for "Atanasoff-Berry Computer (see Figure 11), it was calling its calculationpublished in its complete version in 1942 it was possible to pipe 300 and its properties were quite revolutionary forits time ..:Binary arithmetic, in parallel with ALU -Electron tubes;- Coefficient of memory-based functions with automatic refresh;- Main memory of the rotation of the drum;- Input / output on punched cards.However, these treatment options in quantitative terms has remained low, mainly due to equipment large enough.The "career" of the CBA was relatively short and therefore not pursued this John Atanasoff voie.Universit eHarvard Mark I Draft Howard Aiken had also determined the calculation. This project was taken Aiken some ideasproposed by Babbage (who was perhaps his only spiritual heritage with Zuse). He managed to get support fromIBM for the project, which ends in 1944 as the IBM Automatic finishing second Sony VGP-BPS21Battery controlled calculator. It should be calculated on the navigation charts. Well be made on the basis of aninnovative technology for forwarding feature was to use the statements of three areas: the operation code, the
  • 5. source operand address and address for storing results. However, he had 6 seconds to perform a multiplication of23 digits.Aiken is in contrast to IBM after the project was funded by the Navy, which led to the Mark II prototype. For therecord, it was reported that it was Grace Murray Hopper, the machine programmer, Mark-II, we first use of "bug"as the cause of the failure of a computer. But at the time it was not an artifact of the Bell Telephone Laboratories inthe laboratory, Bell Telephone had managed to gather some great scientists such as Claude Shannon and GeorgeStibitz. In part by theoretical work on the first and second relay designed with the phone in a binary adder used inBoolean algebra.Continuing in this direction, Stibitz with colleagues and Williams Andrews in 1939, is working to develop acomputer with complex numbers ", the complex number calculator" or "model of a Bell Relay Machine" Thiscomputer is mainly due to calculations in the submarine cable devoted involved. First in 1940, the remoteconnection over a telephone line between the computer Sony VGP-BPS18 at Dartmouth and his twin brother inNew York. You can see something like the beginnings of the Internet Moore School of the University ofPennsylvania, there was the colossal project at the time of the digital computer: the ENIAC, for "electronicnumerical integrator and objective The computer has been re-calculation of ballistics and the project was stronglysupported by the U.S. military.One researcher, John H. Mauchly and Presper Eckert great engineer, were the two main players in this project.This calculator, which extends from the development from 1942 to 1945 was perhaps a little unfair, as thebeginning of the era of modern computing. Yes, its not very advanced techniques in programming, as done byriders against each other, it had long been a while in a volume of 30 m, 3 m high and 1 m deep, and consumes 140kilowatts Despite these impressive figures in memory of the machine are more than 20 words! Finally, the majorproblem unreliable by this monster, the huge amount of components used in its formation, resulting in an MTBF4 pretty disastrous.It is in this context that Goldstine, a mathematician of the team in Philadelphia, John von Neumann, himself afamous mathematician, professor at Princeton who was involved in research on "The Bomb" in Los Alamos. Theydiscuss how the ENIAC Goldstine and von Neumann invited to visit Moore School. This visit will be the startingpoint for a fruitful collaboration between Eckert, Mauchly and Eckert and Mauchly von Neumann identifieddeficiencies in their systems: small vacuum tube memory of manytoo many to reach an acceptable reliability and finally programming the machine to be cumbersome.With the help of other comrades Burks and Goldstine, Eckert, Mauchly and von Neumann are brain stormscommissioned a new prototype that will develop deficiencies corrected. This project is called EDVAC ElectronicDiscrete Variable Automatic Computer Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery (although in its commercial form of the machineas UNIVAC). It is probably the work, the key principles identified to date is still in the computer today. The mostimportant is that the stored program (stored program) mixing instructions and data associated with the concept ofthe program counter. This process opens the way for the program autoséquencement (ie repeat sequence,conditional branching, ...). The problem was solved as he, along with that of the excessive number of tubes: Eckertproposes to make the mercury delay lines to achieve the main memory. Such a rate of 1.50 meters long has aperiod of 1 millisecond. In the loop back on itself and by touching the rotating flux, with a period of 1 microsecond,so it is possible to save kbit first Unfortunately, this success was undoubtedly the source of serious conflictbetween von Neumann and his colleagues Eckert and Mauchly. The starting point was a discrepancy on thedisclosure of the processes developed with the EDVAC. Von Neumann wanted these discoveries to the attention ofthe scientific community and Mauchly quEckert wanted to protect their invention in the patent specification. Thatvon Neumann, "was the first" "Draft Report on the EDVAC design" published June 30, 1945. The historical
  • 6. consequences are not questionable, because even today, when you think about the origins of SonyVGP-BPS9 modern computing, it is known as "von Neumann machine." Eckert and Mauchly, who were the firstcraftsmen are finally let out of this mythology. Therefore, it is also important to rehabilitate their name, it would befoolish to try to take credit for inventing the computer to a person of their own. It is an undeniable contributioncollective, which lasted more than a few thousand years, since the concept of number is certainly not the leastimportant in this story.2.3.4 The AD 1946-1950 are EDVACThe summer of 46, a series of lectures at the School Moore of the University of Pennsylvania on the computer bythe main actors have organized projects ENIAC / EDVAC.Ces meetings, a very significant influence on the futuredevelopment of Informatics. Said Maurice Wilks is the design of the Cambridge University EDSAC (ElectronicDelayed Storage Automatic Computer) on a pedestal near the EDVAC. It is generally accepted that the EDSAC,the first programmable computer Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery was fully functional. Programme "registered" meansthat the execution of a program carried out in two steps: first loaded into memory and then himself. That offers theflexibility of sequencing instructions as opposed to the execution of the flight intructions, if there is nopre-registration. This computer, operating at 49, additional innovations such as the use of subroutines. The librariesof scientific computing begins to form (detailed properties of the EDSAC, see [EDSAC-99]).Published in 1951, Maurice Wilks yet another innovation, a significant impact on computer architecture: thefirmware. Under this approach, the control is part of a computer Sony VGP-BPL9 machine PROGRAMMBLEcomplete, which will pave the way for the machine instruction sets are much more powerful than what wepreviously with wired controllers.Besides the development of the EDSAC, another project called the Manchester Mark I, by FW Williams and TomKilburn is conducted under the guidance of Max Newman at the University of Manchester. This is a programmablecomputer, but in a smaller size. From the perspective of memory, giving the designer of the delay line of mercuryused in the EDSAC and has developed two new devices that will constitute a significant advance:- Cathode ray tube memory developed by William FW itself 47, usedthe main memory of Mark-I. ;- The magnetic drum, which carries a storage capacity of sequential access is much higherTime units on the brand I secondary storage (for more information on the device you will find in this memoryorganization was itself an innovation and paved the way for the unit to become the standard used today: Centralmemory Random Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery Access Memory and a secondary magnetic disk. However, the firsttechnology that will provide a purely random access ferrite matrix, developed by Forrester in 1951. It was quicklyadopted to achieve the main memory of computers, high " in semiconductors of 70 to be replaced.Recall that the first transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 (see Figure 23) by Shockley, Bardeen and Brattan.2.4 Some words about the work on programmingThe time the Caculation the principle of the recorded program (ie, the EDSAC), use the intructions aresystematically coded as binary words. Directly produce a program in this form will quickly become boring andtherefore conducive to a lot of mistakes. For this reason, understandable language similar to assemblerprogrammers (or mnemonic language), that explicitly, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ Battery which will be supported onthe machine instructions and addressing modes to be invented. Wilkes is yet to see the interest of creating aprogram that can automatically ensure the implementation of the mnemonic code into machine code, a programthat was later called the assembler.Later, Elizabeth Snyder Holberton, part of the programming team, was the pioneer of the ENIAC, a code generatorto develop the machine sorted UNIVAC I program. In 1952, Grace Murray Hopper, the first high-level language(ie, abstraction of the machine) with the appropriate compiler. This language was as A-0. It generates a code of
  • 7. poor quality is performed significantly worse than programming directly in assembler. It did not happen to changehis mind because the critics, few people at the time thought it would ever be possible to generate efficient codefrom a high-level language.It was John Backus, a researcher at IBM, that this challenge in a well-defined Pink, computer science. He createdthe Fortran (Formula Translator) in 1957. The effectiveness of the product code was very acceptable in comparisonto hand coding. Although under certainCriticism, when we talk later began structured programming was a success that Fortran has never failed so far andcontinues to change regularly (Fortran 90, HPF,. ..).The example of Fortran was a few years later by a U.S. government initiative that "committer on Data Systems andLanguages", in 1960, the development of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), whose goal was thebusiness management led follow established. Even today, many accounting applications are in COBOL on oldlayers that may not be documented in writing built .