Phonetics, The Sounds of Language


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Introduction to Linguistics, Phonetics The Sounds of Language

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Phonetics, The Sounds of Language

  1. 1. PHONETICS :THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGEGroup 4:1. 2211409031 5.2. 2201411134 6. 22014110163. 2201411070 7. 22014100424. 2201411084
  2. 2. Sound segments Keep out Key poutDo you find any difference inpronouncing those two phrases?
  3. 3.  A napron  an apron Grade A  gray day I scream  ice cream Lack of breaks, no pause
  4. 4. Identity of speech sounds ignoring nonlinguistic in spokenlanguage. Man: how (cough) are you? Woman: fine. How about you? (cough) is nonlinguistic.
  5. 5.  acoustic phonetic  physicalproperties of sounds auditory phonetics  concern withhow listeners perceive these sounds articulatory phonetics  the studyof how the vocal tract produces thesounds of language
  6. 6. Phonetic alphabet Ortography doesn’t represent thesounds of language consistently.1. Combination letters represent singlesound think, shoot, read, either2. Single letter represents multiple sounds Single letter x usually stand for 2sounds ks Six, complex
  7. 7. 3. Some letter have no sound incertain words (silent letter)psychology, island, lamb4. No letter represent soundsthe letter u represents a y soundfollowed by a u soundCute [kyu:t] mute [myu:t]
  8. 8.  International phonetic alphabet (IPA)developed a phonetic alphabet tosymbolize the sounds of all languages. Use square bracket [ ] in phoneticsymbols to distinguish them fromordinary letter.
  9. 9.  The symbol [ə] in the sofa is used torepresent vowel in syllable that arenot emphasized and short duration. Other example: about, rider, etc.
  10. 10. Articulatory PhoneticsThe kind of phonetics that we will bedealing with, and this is the kind of phoneticsthat most linguists refer to, involves the studyof what speech organs are involved in producingthe various speech sounds that we produce.Because we are talking about how speechsounds are articulated.
  11. 11. Consonants• Produced with some restriction orclosure in the vocal tract that impedesthe flow of air from the lungs
  12. 12. Place of Articulation• Where in the vocal tract the airflowrestriction occurs.• There are eight major places ofarticulation, they are:
  13. 13. The vocal tract, places of articulation.
  14. 14. Bilabial• By bringingboth lipstogether• Ex:[p, b, m]Labiodentals• Bytouchingthe bottomlips to theupperteeth• Ex: [f, v]Interdentals• Byinsertingthe tip ofthe tonguebetweenthe teeth.• Ex: [θ, ð]
  15. 15. Alveolars• Thetongueraised tothealveolarridge.• Ex: [t, d, n,s, z, l, r]Palatals• By raisingthe frontpart of thetongue tothe palate.• Ex: [ʒ, ʃ, ʧ,ʤ, j]Velars• By raisingthe back ofthe tongueto the softpalate orvelum.• Ex: [k , g,ƞ]
  16. 16. Uvulars• By raising theback of thetongue to theuvula.• Ex: [R, q, G]Glottals• If the air isstoppedcompletely atthe glottis bytightly closedvocal cords.• Ex: [h, ?]
  17. 17. Manner of ArticulationThe difference between the initial soundsof the English word touch and such areboth voiceless, and they are bothproduced with the air flow beingimpeded at the alveolar ridge.
  18. 18. Stop/Plosive• completelyblocking• Ex: [p, t, k,ʧ, ?, b, d, g,ʤ]Fricatives• almost (butnot quite)completelystopping.• Ex: [f, θ, s, ʃ,h, v, ð, z, ʒ]Nasal• blockedcompletelysomewherein themouth• Ex: [m, n, ň,ƞ]
  19. 19. Flap• theobstructionis muchmoretransitory• Ex: [r]Lateral• the air toflow aroundthe side ofthe tongue• Ex: [l]SemiVowel• Speechsounds thatare on theborder linebetweenvowels andconsonants.• Ex: [w, j]
  20. 20. Voiced and Voiceless Sounds1. Voiced [b, d, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, ʤ, m, n, ƞ, l, r, w, j]If the vocal cords are together, theairstreamforces its way through and causes them tovibrate.2. Voiceless [p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, ʧ, h, ?]When the vocal cords are apart so thatthe airflows freely through the glottis into the oralcavity.
  21. 21. The voiced and voicelessdistinctionRope/robe = [rop]/[rob]Wreath/ wreathe = [riθ]/[rið]fate/fade = [fet]/[fed]Rack/rag = [ræk]/[ræg]Fine/vine = [faın]/[vaın]Seal/zeal = [sil]/[zil]Choke/joke = [ʧok]/[ʤok]
  22. 22. Nasal and Oral Sounds The voiced and voiceless distinctiondifferentiates the bilabial b [b]and p [p] Velum is where the flesh becomessoft and pliable. The velum ismovable. And when it is raised allthe way to touch the back of thethroat, the passage through thenose is cut off and air can escapeonly through the mouth.
  23. 23. Oral sound and nasal sound Oral sounds are sound which isproduced with the velumup, blocking the air from escapingthrough the nose. Nasal sounds is the sound which isproduced when the velum is not inits raised position, air escapesthrough both the nose and themouth. The sound [m] is a nasal
  24. 24.  The same oral/nasal differenceoccurs in raid [red] and rain [ren],rug [rʌg] and rung [rʌ ]Raised[d] and[g]Down[n] and[ ]VELUM
  25. 25. Ways ofclassifyingconsonantsBynasalizationBy PlaceofArticulationBy Voicing
  26. 26. Stop [p], [b], [m], [t], [d], [n], [k], [g], [], [t⨜], [d3], [?]Stops are consonant in which theairstream is completely blockedin the oral cavity for a shortperiod.1. [p], [b] and [m] are bilabial stop2. [t], [d] and [n] are alveolarstop3. [k], [g], and [ ] are velar stop
  27. 27.  Fricatives: [f], [v], [Ө],[ᶞ], [s], [z], [⨜], [3], [x],[⨜], [h]The airflow is so severelyobstructed that it caused friction,and the sounds are therefore calledfricatives.1. [f], [v], are labiodental fricatives2. [Ө],[ᶞ] are interdental fricatives3. [s],[z] are alveolar fricatives4. [⨜], [3] are palatal fricatives5. [x], [⨜] are denote velar fricatives
  28. 28. All fricatives are continuantsAffricates [t⨜], [d3]These sounds are produced by a stopclosure followed immediately by agradual release of the closure thatproduces an effect characteristicsof a fricative.Liquids [l], [r]There is some obstruction of theairstream in the mouth , but notenough to cause any realconstriction or friction.Glides [j], [w]
  29. 29.  The glide [j] is a palatal sound,the blade of the tongue is raisedtoward the hard palate in aposition almost identical to that inproducing the sound vowel sound[i] in the word beat [bit] Approximants. In books the sounds[w], [j], [r], and [l] arealternatively calledapproximants. Trills and Flaps . trills : a trilled “r” is produced byrapid vibrations of articulator.
  30. 30. Phonetic Symbols for AmericanEnglish Consonants Vowel sound produced by littlerestriction of the air flow from thelungs out the mouth and/or the nose These are the dimensions over whichvowels are produced. Tongue position Lip rounding diphtongs
  31. 31.  Tongue position: In producing vowel sound [a] the backtongue is low in the mouth The vowels [i] and [u] are produced withslightly lowered tongue positions. The vowel [⨜] is produces with the front part ofthe tongue low in the mouth. The vowel [e] and[o] are mid vowels. Produces by raising thetongue to a position midway. The vowel [a] the tongue is not strictly high norlow, front nor back.
  32. 32.  Lip rounding Divided into two: Rounded : [u], [u:],[o], [o:] Unrounded : the other sounds DiphtongsVowel is divided into two monophtongand diphtong.
  33. 33. Nasalization of Vowels Vowels, like consonant, can be producedwith a raised velum that prevents theair from escaping through the nose, orwith a lowered velum that permits air topass through the nasal passage. When the nasal passage is blocked, oralvowels result; when the nasal passage isopen, nasal vowels result.
  34. 34. Tense and Lax Vowels The first vowel in each pair is generally[produced with greater tension of thetongue muscles that its counterpart, andthey are often a little longer in duration Tense vs Lax Vowel :beat – bitbait – betboot – putboat – borehigh – hathow - hut
  35. 35. Different (tongue) Strokes for DifferentFolks If you speak British English, there’s agood chance that you have a low, back,rounded vowel in the word hot that thevowel chart lacks. Consonant is also vary form region toregion, if not from person to person.
  36. 36. Major Phonetic Classes Linguistic describe speech soundssimilarly. All sounds are consonantsounds or vowel sounds. Within consonant, all are voiced orunvoiced, and so on.
  37. 37. Noncontinuants and Continuants Stops and Affricates belong to theclass of noncontinuants. Nasal stopsare included although air does flowcontinuosly out the nose. All other consonant, and vowels, arecontinuants, in which the stream of airflows continuously out of the mouth.
  38. 38. Obstruents and Sonorants Obstruents is the non-nasal stops, thefricatives, and the affricatives form amajor class of sounds. Sonorants is sounds that are notobstruents. They are produced withmuch less obstruction to the flow of airthan the obstruents, which permits airto resonate.
  39. 39. Consonantal Obstruent, nasal stops, liquids, and glidesare consonants. Labial : sounds are those articulated withthe involvement of the lips Coronals : sounds are articulated by raisingthe tongue blade. Anteriors : sounds are consonantsproduced in the front part of the mouth. Sibilants : the friction created by sibilantproduces a hissing sound.
  40. 40. Syllabic Sounds Vowels are syllabic, but they are notthe only sound class that anchorssyllables. Liquids and nasals can also be syllabic. Obstruent and glides are neversyllabic sounds because they arealways accompanied by a vowel.
  41. 41. Prosodic Features Length, pitch, and stress areprosodic, or suprasegmental features.The terms of prosodic comes frompoetry, where it refers to the metricalstructure of verse. Speech sounds that are identical intheir place or manner features maydiffer in duration. Tense vowels areslightly longer than lax vowels.
  42. 42. Tone and Intonation Tone : Languages that use the pitch of individualvowels and syllables to contrast meanings of words. More than half the world’s languages are tone languages. There are two kinds of tones1. Register tone : the pitch os level across thesyllable2. Contour tone : the pitch changes across thesyllable, whether from high to low or vice versa. In a tone language it is not the absolute pitch of thesyllables that is important but the relation among the
  43. 43. Tone Tones generally have a lexical function, that is,they make a difference between words. But in some languages tones may also have agrammatical function, as in Edo spoken inmidwestern Nigeria. Tone on monosyllabic verbs followed by a directobject indicates the tense and transitivity ofthe verb. Low tone means present tense, transitive. High tone means past tense, transitive.
  44. 44. Intonation Language that are not tone languages,such as English, are called IntonationLanguages. In intonation language, pitch is not usedto distinguish words from each other. Intonation may effect the meaning ofwhole sentences, so that sentence : “Johnis here” with falling pitch at the end isinterpreted as a statement, but withrising pitch at the end is interpreted as a
  45. 45. Phonetic Symbols andSpelling Correspondences
  46. 46.  the table shows the sound/spelling corespondence forAmerican English consonants and vowels. Some of these pronunciations may differ from ourown. For the example : we may (or may not)pronounce the words cot and cought identically. In theform of English describe here, cot and caught arepronounced differently, so cot is one of the examplesof the vowel sounbd [a] as in car. Caught illustratesthe vowel [ɔ] as in core. English is a worldwide language and is spoken inmany forms in many countries, that is why there willbe other differences in the way it pronounces.
  47. 47. The phonetics of signedlanguges Like other human languages, signed languages are alsogoverned by a grammatical system that includes syntatcticand morphological rules. Signed languages and spoken languages are the same inanother ways. Signs can be broken down into smaller unitsanalogous to the phonetic features.
  48. 48.  Just like spoken languages that distinguish soundsaccording to place and manner of articulation, signedlanguages also distinguish signs according to the placeand manner in which the signs are articulated by thehands. Signs of ASL, for the example, are formed by threemajor features :1. The configuration of the hand (handshape)2. The movement of the hand and arms toward or away fromthe body3. The location of the hands in signing space
  49. 49.  English is not language in which vowel orconsonant length can change a word. When we speak, we also change thepitch of our voice. In many language, certain syllables in aword are louder, slightly higher in pitch,and some what longer in duration.
  50. 50. THE “PHONETICS” OF SIGNEDLANGUAGES• Signed language are governed by a grammaticalsystem Signs can be broken down into smaller unitsanalogous to the phonetic features Signed languages distinguish signs according tothe pace and manner in which the signs arearticulated by the hands
  51. 51. The signs of ASL are formed by three majorfeatures:1. The configuration of the hand (hand shape)2. The movement of the hand and arms toward oraway from the body3. The location of the hand in signing space
  52. 52.  ASL has over 30 hand shapes, but not allsigned languages share the same handshapes Example:1. T hand shape of ASL doesn’t occur in Europeansigned languages2. Chinese signed language has a hand shape formedwith an open hand with all fingers extendedexcept the ring finger which ASL doesn’t have it.
  53. 53.  Signs can also be undirectional or bidirectional A change along one of these parameters can result in differentwords The are two-handed and one-handed signs One-handed signs are formed with the speaker’s dominant hand,whether left or right A different in handedness doesn’t affect the meaning of the sign
  54. 54. SUMMARY The science of speech sounds is called phonetics The major phonetic alphabet in use is theInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) whichincludes modified Roman letters and diacritics Speech sounds: Vowels and Consonants Consonants have some obstruction of the airstream inthe vocal tract. It classified according to theirmannerof articulation. In the voiced sounds, the vocal chordsare together and vibrating whereas in voicelesssounds they’re apart and not vibrating
  55. 55. consonants, may benasal or oral, although most vowels in all languages areoral In many languages, the pitch of the vowel in the syllableislinguistically significant Intonation languages in which the rise and fall of pitchmaycontrast meanings of sentences English also uses stress to distinguish different words In sign languages there are “phonetic”features analogoustothose spoken languages In ASL, these are hand shape, movement, and location