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  1. 1. Overview  What is Phonetics and Phonology ?  Phonetics vs. Phonology  Branches of Phonetics  Voiced and voiceless  Place of articulation  Manner of articulation
  2. 2. Phonetics  Phonetics is about the physical production and perception of sounds of speech  It is the study of physical aspects of speech. It studies all possible speech sounds  Phonetics is all about studying the sounds we make when we talk
  3. 3. Phonology  Phonology deals with the system and pattern of speech sounds in a language.  It describes the way sounds function – within a given language or across languages.  Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.
  4. 4. Phonology vs. Phonetics  Analyzes the sound pattern of a particular language by determining which phonetic sounds are significant and explaining how these sound are interpreted by the native speaker  Analyzes the production of all human speech sounds, regardless of language.
  5. 5. Phonology vs. Phonetics  Phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages.  The phonological system of a language includes an inventory of sounds and their features, and pragmatic rules which specify how sounds interact with each other.  Phonetics is the study of human speech sounds.  Phonetics studies which sounds are present in a language.
  6. 6. Phonology vs. Phonetics  Phonology studies how these sounds combine and how they change in combination, as well as which sound can contrast to produce difference in meaning  Phonetics simply describes the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds
  7. 7. Branches of Phonetics  Acoustic Phonetics This is the study of the sound waves made by the human vocal organs for communication and how the sounds are transmitted. The sound travels through from the speaker's mouth through the air to the hearer's ear, through the form of vibrations in the air. Acoustic phonetics also looks at how articulatory and auditory phonetics link to the acoustic properties.
  8. 8.  Auditory Phonetics This is how we perceive and hear sounds and how the ear, brain and auditory nerve perceives the sounds. This branch deals with the physiological processes involved in the reception of speech  Articulatory Phonetics Articulatory phonetics is interested in the movement of various parts of the vocal tract during speech. The vocal tract is the passages above the larynx where air passes in the production of speech
  9. 9. Articulation  Voiceless: When the vocal folds are spread apart, the air from the lungs passes between them without obstruction. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiceless. Sounds such as S-S-S-S or F-F-F-F are voiceless.  Voiced: When the vocal folds are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiced. Sounds such as Z-Z-Z-Z or V-V-V-V.
  10. 10. Place of Articulation  The point where a sound is produced is referred to as its place of articulation. Symbols are enclosed with square brackets [ ]
  11. 11. Bilabials  These are sounds formed using both upper and lower lips. The initial sounds in the words pat, bat, way and mat are all bilabials. They are represented by the symbols [p] [b] [m] and [w].
  12. 12. Labiodentals  These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip. The initial sounds of the words fat and vat and the final sounds of safe and save are labiodentals. Symbols are [f] [v]. The final sound in the word cough, and the initial sound in photo, despite the spelling differences, are both pronounced as [f].
  13. 13. Dentals  These sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth. The initial sound of thin and the final sound of bath are both dentals. The symbol used for these sounds are [θ], [ð], e.g the, there, then &thus
  14. 14. Alveolars  These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge, which is the rough, bony ridge immediately behind and above the upper teeth. The initial sounds in top, dip, sit, zoo, nut, lap, lit, and right are all alveolars. The symbols are– [t], [d], [s], [z], [n] [l] [r]
  15. 15. Palatals  Sounds produced with the tongue and the palate are called palatals. The initial sounds in the words shout and child. [ ] [ ]ʃ ʧ . So, the word shoe- brush begins and ends with the palatal sound [ ]ʃ and the word church begins and ends with the palatal sound [ ].ʧ
  16. 16. Velars  Sounds produced with the back of the tongue against the velum are called velars. Represented by the symbol [k], [g] and [ŋ] kid, kill go, gun, give, sing and ringing also the initial sound in car and cold. Despite the variety in spelling, this [k] sound is both then initial and final sound in the words cook, kick and coke.
  17. 17. Glottals  There is one sound that is produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth. It is the sound [h] which occurs at the beginning of have and house. When the glottis is open and there is no manipulation of the air passing out of the mouth, the sound produced is that represented by [h].
  18. 18. Manner of Articulation  Manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. For example, [t] and [s] are both voiceless alveolar sounds. They differ in their manner of articulation, that is, in the way they are pronounced. The [t] sound is one of a set of sounds called stops and the [s] sound is one of a set called fricatives.
  19. 19. Stops  This type of consonant sound, resulting from a blocking or stopping effect on the air stream, is called a stop. They are produced by some form of “stopping” of the air stream then letting it go abruptly. The set of stops: [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [ ]ɡ
  20. 20. Fricatives  The manner of articulation used in producing the set of sounds [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [ ], [ ]ʃ ʒ involves almost blocking the air stream and having the air push through the very narrow opening. As the air is pushed through, a type of friction is produced and the resulting sounds are called fricatives. If you put your open hand in front of your mouth when making these sounds, [f] and [s] in particular, you should be able to feel the stream of air being pushed out.
  21. 21. Affricates  If you combine a brief stopping of the air stream with an obstructed release which causes some friction, these are called affricates. Occur at the beginning of the words cheap and jeep. This is the set of affricates sounds : [ ]ʧ and [ ]ʤ .
  22. 22. Nasals  When the velum is lowered and the air stream is allowed to flow out through the nose to produce the sounds are described as nasals. The words morning, knitting and name begin and end with nasals. Set of nasals sounds [m], [n] and [ŋ]
  23. 23. Approximants  They are produced with the tongue moving or gliding, to or from the position of a nearby vowel. [w] [y] [l] [r] e.g we, wet, you, yes, led and red