TRANSLATION’S STUFFSHj. Dihliza Basya, S.S., M.Pd.ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF JEMBER
TranslationTransmittingCultureRevitalizingLanguageFiguring out themeanings of thetextInterpreting textContributingtowardsbetween nations
AdaptationFree TranslationSemanticTranslationIdiomaticTranslationWord For WordTranslationAuto-TranslationFaithfulTranslationLiteralTranslationCommunicativeTranslationMethods of Translation
What things do you pay attention intranslating text?GrammaticalStructureTermsTopic ofthe text??
EVERY TEXT (TO BE TRANSLATED)GIVES US:FormMeaning
FORM-BASED TRANSLATIONSATTEMPT TO FOLLOW THE FORM OF THE SOURCE LANGUAGEAND ARE KNOWN AS LITERAL TRANSLATIONMEANING-BASED TRANSLATIONSMAKE EVERY EFFORT TO COMMUNICATE THE MEANING OF THESOURCE LANGUAGE TEXT IN THE NATURAL FORMS OF THE RECEPTORLANGUAGE, WHICH IS CALLED AS IDIOMATIC TRANSLATIONS
LITERAL TRANSLATIONSChuave (Papua New Guinea) : kan daroLiteral Translation : your-name call !Nyamana Name
LITERAL TRANSLATION SHOULDBE???????????????????
What is your name?
Madame Odette, passengerwith destination Douala, isdemanded on the telephoneMadame Odette, passagersdestination de Douala, estdemande au telephoneMs. Odette, passenger forDouala, you are wanted tophone.
A truly idiomatic translation doesnot sound like a translation. Itsounds like it was written originallyin the receptor language.
WHAT IS TRANSLATOR’S GOAL?VeryLiteralLiteralModifiedliteralInconsistentmixtureNearidiomaticIdiomaticUndulyfree
The translator’s goal should be toreproduce in the receptor languagea text which communicates thesame message as the sourcelanguage but using the naturalgrammatical and lexical choices ofthe receptor language.
SENTENCE FORMULANOUN +(AUX VERB)PREPOSITION /NOUNADVERBCONJUCTIONEXCLAMATIONADJECTIVEVERB TO + V1 /V1+ ING (ACTIVE)TO BE /LINKING VERBVERB III (PASSIVE)
SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT /EXPLANATIONCOMPLEMENTHe canDia bisasurvivebertahanduring the crisis.selama krisis. Could betranslatedHeDia(Ayahnya sudahmeninggal duniasejak sepuluh tahunyang lalu)survivesditinggal matiHis father for tenyears.oleh ayahnyasepuluh tahun yanglalu. Could betranslatedMy labour???does not???fruit at all??? Could it betranslated?
Address1. His address is No. 18, Jalan Dewi Sartika.2. His address about human right yesterday, was so impressing, that the audienceapplauded.3. Don’t address him a boy anymore, as he has been 20 years old now!4. It’s time for us to address our business more seriously.5. Please address yourself in good manners.6. You may address your anger to me, as it is my fault.7. Why do you address me as if I were not human being?8. Please address him to his talent, not to what you want!9. The president will address business leaders in Bali.10. I want to address you something for your mother.
3 Main Aspects To Be Considered inThe Real Context of English Sentence.
TOP SOIL THEORYKATA BENDA / NOUNInduk/Superordinate: animal, vehicle, building, etc.Turunan/Subordinate I: reptile, insect, car, bicycle, house, etc.Turunan/Subordinate II: snake, crocodile, ant, mosquito, jeep, sedan, bike, office, etc.Kata Kerja/VerbInduk/Superordinate: to be (is, am, are, was, were), stay, move, exist, know, take,participate, etc.Turunan/Subordinate I: sit, go, lay, turnTurunan/Subordinate II: sit up, go on/ahead, lay on/off, etc
I need something to protect me from rain.I met a lecturer whose glasses-frame are white and who always bring her son inclass.I want to eat the fruit whose peel is thorny.I live in the capital of Indonesia.
I need something to protect me from rain.I need an umbrella.I met a lecturer whose glasses-frame are white and who always bring her son inclass.I met Mrs. DihlizaI want to eat the fruit whose peel is thorny.I want to eat durian.I live in the capital of Indonesia.I live in Jakarta.
PART 2 : THE SEMANTIC STRUCTUREOF LANGUAGESURFACESTRUCTUREDEEPSTRUCTURE
FORM ANDMEANINGSURFACEGrammaticalLexicalPhonologicalDEEP Semantic
MeaningComponentsThingsEventsAttributesRelationsSemantic Structure is more nearly universalthan Grammatical Structure
MEANING COMPONENTS group together toform CONCEPTSTHINGS(nouns, pronouns)boy ghost angel galaxy ideaEVENTS(verbs)eat run think melt stretchATTRIBUTES(adjectives,adverbs)rough strong soft suddenly fewRELATIONS(conjunctions,prepositions,particles,enclitics,etc)with by since after therefore
Morgan called SyahriniMorgan & Syahrini belong to semanticclass THINGS and are NOUNS in thisparticular sentenceCALLED is an EVENT semantically and aVERB grammaticallyThe structure of the sentence indicatesthat Morgan, the AGENT, is the SUBJECTand Syahrini, the AFFECTED, is theOBJECT.
SEMANTIC CONFIGURATIONS GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURESMeaning Component Morpheme (Roots and Affixes)Concept WordComplex Concept (Concept Cluster) PhraseProposition ClausePropositional Cluster SentenceSemantic Paragraph ParagraphEpisode SectionEpisode Cluster DivisionSemantic Part PartDiscourse Text
PART OF SPEECHPARTICULAR SENTENCE
I EATI’M EATINGI ATEI WILL EATI’M GOING TO EAT
Translation is communicating thesame meaning in a target language.Discovering the meaning ofthe text to be translatedincludes consideration ofboth informations:
KINDS OF MEANINGSITUATIONALORGANIZATIONALREFERENTIAL
Both propositions include Mary as theAGENT and Apple as the AFFECTED.(Referential Meaning)Mary peeled an apple and then she ate it.(if they are the same, the surface structurein English would be like that).Mary peeled an apple, and the other Maryeat it. (Organizational Meaning ofreferences to two Mary and only one apple)Mary peeled an apple and Mary ate an apple
SITUATIONAL MEANINGThe message is produced in given communication situation.VerycrucialTo theunderstanding ofany textThe relationship between speaker/writer andaddressee will affect the communication.sexageWhere & when the com takes placeCulturalbackgroundSocial status
PROF. DR. H. SUSILO BAMBANGYUDHOYONO, MSI.Mr. President• General• BosSBY• Bapak• ProfPak SBY• Pak Dhe• Nak
SOME RELATIONSHIPS BETWEENLEXICAL ITEMSGeneric-Specific
SEMANTIC CONTENT OF ENGLISHVOCABULARYADULTSHEEP HORSE CHICKEN DOG DEERMALE ram stallion rooster dog BuckFEMALE ewe mare hen bitch DoeYOUNG lamb Colt/foal chick puppy fawn
Amina Wadud was born September 25, 1952 in Bethesda,Maryland and is an Islamic feminist and scholar with aprogressive, feminist focus on Quran exegesis. Wadud wasborn as Mary Teasley. Her father was a Methodist minister andher mother descended from Muslim slaves of Arab, Berber andAfrican ancestry dating back to the 8th Century. She receivedher B.S, from The University of Pennsylvania, between 1970and 1975. In 1972 she pronounced the shahadah and acceptedIslam, not knowing of her maternal ancestry and by 1974 hername was officially changed to Amina Wadud to reflect herchosen religious affiliation. She received her M.A. in NearEastern Studies and her Ph.D. in Arabic and Islamic Studiesfrom the University of Michigan in 1988. During graduateschool, she studied advanced Arabic in Egypt at the AmericanUniversity in Cairo, continued with Quranic studies and tafsirat Cairo University, Egypt, and took a course in Philosophy atAl-Azhar University.
How does a translator make histranslation as dynamic as theoriginal text?For the translation to have the samedynamics as the original, it will need to naturaland easy to understand so that the readers willfind it easy to grasp the message, includingboth the information and the emotional effectintended by the source language writer.
Lexical Equivalents When Concepts Are SharedSL: The wealthy live here.RL: People who have lots of money live hereSL: The wolf snatched them and scattered them.RL: The savage animal snatched them and scattered them.SL: No fewer than ten people came last night.RL: At least ten people came last night.SL: Marry borrowed the book from James.RL: James loaned the book to Mary.SL: Everybody is talking about what is happening.RL: Everybody is talking about the high enrollment at the college. (understoodfrom the text).
Three Problems in Translation Related to Generic-Specific Words (Beekman and Callow 1974:185-186)The source language text may use a generic term, butthe receptor language may only have a more specificterm in that semantic area.The source language uses specific term but receptorlanguage only has a generic word available in thatsemantic area.The receptor language word used in the translation isintended to be understood in a generic sense but isinterpreted by the receptor language speakers in aspecific sense.
Generic Components – Shelter, used for religious purposesGeneric Class – kinds of shelters used for religious purposesSpecifying Components:Church – Used by ChristiansMosque – Used by MuslimsSynagogue – used by Jews
Generic Components – Shelter, used for religious purposes for JewsGeneric Class – kinds of shelters used for religious purposes by JewsSpecifying Components:TABERNACLE TEMPLE SYNAGOGUEa) Place where God metthe peoplea) Place where God metthe peoplea) Place where Jewishpeople met for religiousteachingb) Temporary (Portable) b) Permanent c) Permanentc) Only One c) Only one d) Many in differentplacesd) People went to makesacrificesd) People went to makesacrifices, pray teach,learn, burn incensed) People went forreading of the lawteaching, prayer
1. His words accuse (show up, bring out , betray) a great ignorance.2. There’s no sense wasting one’s time discoursing (talking, making speeches)3. His engagements (commitments, involvements, obligations) do not permit himto join the organization at this time.4) The attendant tied an etiquette (label, tag ticket) on my luggage.5) Anyone who owns a car ought to be insured against eventual (possible,potential) accidents.6) What are your projects (plans, affairs, works) for next year?7) Last year the textile industry made great progress in rationalization (efficiencystreamlining its production processes, introducing labor-saving methods).8) We always managed to get tickets for interesting spectacles (events, exhibitions,happenings).
1) The ambassador did not hesitate to express the disgust (displeasure,annoyance) of his government.2) The was a great discrepancy (disagreement, divergence, difference) betweenthe two delegations on the subject of disarmament.3) In actuality (at the present time, right now) there is a serious housingproblem.4) In the statistics of world armament, it appears as the most heavily armedcountry of the world in appreciation of (considering, in relation to) itsdimensions (size territory, measurements).5) Eleven million children are unable to assist in (come to, be present at,attend) school.
THE ROLE OF TRANSLATORADMIRATION OF FORMALFEATURES OFTRANSLATED FIELDSRESPECT FOR THECONTENT OF THE TEXTWILLING TO EXPRESSCREATIVITY
1. “Untuk lebih meramaikan acara, malam tadi saya ikut menyumbangkan suaradengan menyanyikan sebuah lagu.”2. “Habis kita mau usaha apa lagi sekarang? Modalnya sudah habis padahal kitasudah kerja habis-habisan. Kalau begitu, barang yang tersisa kita jual habis. Habisperkara.”3. “Bagi kebanyakan negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, era globalisasi akanmerupakan sebuah tantangan berat.”4. Jangan-jangan dia sudah ada di sana sekarang. Mendingan kita susul aja, yuk!”5. “Setibanya di airport, ternyata sudah banyak orang yang menunggu pesawatdengan tujuan yang sama dengan saya.”
1. “Untuk lebih meramaikan acara, malam tadi saya ikut menyumbangkan suara denganmenyanyikan sebuah lagu.”“ To cheer up the party last night, I took participation (by) singing a song.”2. “Habis kita mau usaha apa lagi sekarang? Modalnya sudah habis padahal kita sudah kerjahabis-habisan. Kalau begitu, barang yang tersisa kita jual habis. Habis perkara.”“So what else can we do now? We’ve had no more assets to run business, despite we havebeen working hard. So now we had better just selll out all the remaining stocks. That’s all!”3. “Bagi kebanyakan negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, era globalisasi akan merupakansebuah tantangan berat.”“For most developing countries like Indonesia, the globalization era will be a hard challenge.”4. Jangan-jangan dia sudah ada di sana sekarang. Mendingan kita susul aja, yuk!”“I’m afraid he has been there now, just let’s go there after.”5. “Setibanya di airport, ternyata sudah banyak orang yang menunggu pesawat dengan tujuanyang sama dengan saya.”“Once I arrived at the airport, in fact there had been many people waiting for the same flightand destination as mine.”
I Come Late Because it was rain.I come late because of the heavy rain.
KINDS OF READING TEXTPopular English News-Paper, Magazine, Novel, Leaflet,Brochures, etc.Legal English Laws and Regulations, Notarial Deed MoU,etc.Technical English Engineering, Tool/Equipment Guide,Manufacturing Instruction, etc.Scientific English Medical, Pharmaceutical, LaboratoryGuide, Education, etc.Popular-Scientific English Management, Banking, Economy
In one-way translating activityfrom English to BahasaIndonesia, the most difficult thingto understand the source languagetext is particularly not caused bythe limited VOCABULARIES, butoften by their disabilities ofgrasping ‘THE MAIN IDEAS’ of thetext they read.
“Dalam istilah manajemen terkadangada pengertian pimpinan. Dan dalampengertian pimpinan ada pemimpindan yang dipimpin. Namun untuklebih jelasnya tentang apa yangdikatakan manjemen, sehingga dapatditerapkan secara baik sesuai dengansituasi masing-masing.”
MUST BE COMPREHENDED PERFECTLYNOUN and PRONOUN as the subject or object of sentence.VERB and TO BE as the predicate.ADVERBADJECTIVE
One can much more easily analyzeand describe the cognitiveequivalence of content than theformal equivalence of language.
MOST ELEMENTAL COMPONENTS OFSENTENCENOUN, as a subject or objectVERB / TO BE as a predicateADJECTIVE to explain the quality orthe characteristic of noun
NOUN MAY CHANGE INTO VERBNOUN VERBShe likes swimming She is swimming in the pool now.Thanks for your visit! Visit me once a while!Her eyes are shinning. He eyes her passing this way everyday.Eye never grows bigger. We eye our business prospect in thefuture better than now.I have a nice chair. I chair my son to run my business.This chair is made of rattan. I had better chair my own businessinstead of being employed by another.
NOUNNOUN AS SUBJECT Silence is golden.All I know is you.NOUN AS OBJECT I like dancing.He has stopped smoking now.NOUN AS EXISTING The table sheet is made of 100% cotton.There is a new model of tooth brush.NOUN ASPOSSESSIVEIts power is not enough to run the hand-held video game.That is not his responsibility.NOUN AFTERPREPOSITIONWe look forward to seeing you soon.Learning by doing is the best way of studying.
CONCRETE NOUNCOMMON NOUN Dog, man, table, fish, foot, etc.PROPER NOUN Indonesia, Widya, Wafiq, Mr. June, Roxy.COLLECTIVE NOUN The Team, The Crowd, Little Monsters.OCCUPATION NOUN Teacher, Driver, artist, manager, etc.
PRONOUNMorgan is a clever boy. He is the first rank athis school.•Morgan = Noun (Proper Noun)* He = Pronoun (for single-third person of afemale gender
PERSONAL PRONOUN POSSESSIVE ADJ/PRONOUN REFLEXIVEPRONOUNSUBJECT OBJECT ADJECTIVE OBJECTI Me My + Noun Mine MyselfYou You Your + Noun Yours Yourself/selvesShe Her Her + Noun Hers HerselfHe Him His + Noun His HimselfIt It Its+ Noun Its ItselfWe Us Our + Noun Ours OurselvesThey Them Their + Noun Theirs ThemselvesName Name Name’s + Noun Name’s Himslef/herself
I am happy, if you are happy. I am happy if you are.Are youer going somewhere? Going somewhereShe is beautiful. But she is fussy. She is beautiful but fussy.The house is located on the hilland it is surrounded by kinds oftree.The house is located on the hilland is surrounded by kinds oftree.If he had come yesterday, Iwould have told him off, but hedidn’t come.If he had come yesterday, Iwould have told him off, but hedidn’t.
Principally,verb is anywordnotifyingaboutmovement,act, effort orintention ofboth a livingsubject.Linking Verb is a verbwhose function isequal to ‘to be’,because of having noobvious meaning as a‘real verb’ and it isalso cannot completea sentence to havemeaning.VERB AND LINKING VERB
SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT/EXPLANATORYCOMPLEMENTMy mother Feels-----------------ishappy NowMy mother feels the weather inJakarta terribly hotShe gets----------iswetShe gets the first prize
SUBJECT TRANS.VERB OBJECTI tell/told her.They visited us.We eat riceHe drinks coffee.I do my job
SUBJECT INTRANSITIVE VERB PREP OBJECTI talk/talked to himThey come to usThey sit/sat on chairsshe Goes/went To BogorThey quarreled with us
AUX VERBPREP. NOUNADJECTIVETO + V.I /V.ING (ACTIVE)VERB III (PASSIVE)ADVERBCONJUNCTIONEXCLAMATIONNOUN VERB-------------TOBE/LINKING VERBKami mengundang mereka untuk datang ke kampus kami, karena mereka juga seringmengundang kami untuk datang ke kampus mereka.SUBJECToftenPREDICATE OBJECT/EXPLANATORYCOMPLEMENTWe invite them (to visit ourcampus) ,and alsoThey invite us (to visit theirs)
First compose the main structure of the subject, predicate, and object prior towriting the other complements.‘Possessive Adjective’ or preposition ‘of’ can alternatively be applied in acompound word to indicate ‘ownership’, e.g.:Phrase ‘my book’ may be replaced with its comparable meaning ‘the book of mine’where the use of preposition ‘of’ means ‘a part of’ (a smaller one of a bigger one).My friend = a friend of mineBogor City = The City Of BogorGUIDANCE
AUX VERBPREP. NOUNADJECTIVETO + V.I /V.ING (ACTIVE)VERB III (PASSIVE)ADVERBCONJUNCTIONEXCLAMATIONNOUN VERB-------------TOBE/LINKINGVERBTeman ayah saya menyukai mobil ayah teman saya.SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT/EXPLANATORYCPMPLEMENTMy Father’s friendA friend of my fatherlikeslikesmy friend’s father’s carthe car of the father (‘s)of my friend’sor
SUBJECT PREDICATE OBJECT/EXPLANATORYCOMPLEMENTMy car paint(The painthas been mixedbelongstogether with thinner.to me, not to the car)My car’s paint(The paintisbelongsmetallic blue.to the car).His computer monitor(The monitorisbelongsto him.to the computer).His computer color(The colorisbelongswhiteto the computer)My mother tongue(The tongueisbelongsJavaneseto me, not my mother)My mother’s tongue(The tonguebruisesbelongsto cause mouth ulcer.to my mother).
EXERCISE1. Sekretaris Asisten Ketua AsosiasiPengusaha Tekstil Indonesia Cabang Jember.2. Direktorat Jendral Tanaman PanganDepartemen Pertanian Kabinet ReformasiPembangunan Republik Indonesia.
USING ‘OF’Sekretaris Asisten Ketua Asosiasi Pengusaha Tekstil IndonesiaCabang Jember.Secretary of the Assistant of the chairperson of IndonesianTextile Entrepreneurs Association of Jember BranchDirektorat Jendral Tanaman Pangan Departemen PertanianKabinet Reformasi Pembangunan Republik Indonesia.Directorate General of Food Crop of Agriculture Department ofDevelopment Reform Cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia
ADJECTIVEPure Adjectives are all labeled by ‘adj’ in dictionary, i.e.: good, clever, smart, curious, high,many, much, etc.1) Adjectives coming from noun. Tooth brushGovernment building2) Adjectives coming from verb + ing Sleeping beautyDrying machine3) Adjectives coming from ‘passive verbs’ Educated personVisited area4) Adjectives coming from ‘noun’ of‘gerund’Swimming poolWaiting list
The Distinctiveness of AdjectivesEnding with ‘-able’, namely the adjective derived from verb that means‘possible to be’ : understandable, solvable, adorable, touchable, believable,etc.It will oppositely mean negative if initiated by prefix ‘un’ to mean‘impossible to be’, for example: unbelievable, unbearable, untouchable.Ending with ‘ous’ : continuous, famous, serious, efficacious, curious,nervous.Ending with ‘y’, ‘al’, and ‘ful’, namely the adjective derived from noun:funny, rainy, dusty, muddy, national, traditional, optional, factual, beautiful,successful, useful, truthful, etc.
The Distinctiveness of AdjectivesInitiated by ‘To Be’The host is open-hearted.We are satisfied.Don’t be lazy. (You are lazy.)Initiated by Linking VerbJeny becomes rich.It smells nice.I feel so happy now.She got wet because of the heavy rain.When it lies side by side with a noun in a compound word, adjective will alwaysprecede or lie in front of the noun, for examples:Demonstrative : this book, that man, those people, etc.Distributive : each side, every one, take either half, etc.Quantitative : some body, any time, many people, etc.Possessive : my opinion, your turn, his responsibility, etc.Qualitative : clever boy, dry season, fat man, red flower.Interrogative : which book is yours? What time is it now?
Some adjective don’t follow previousrules, they don’t lie before noun, butafter it, namely for those prefixed by aletter “a”, for example:the stock available,those alike, etc.You can’t say:afraid personavailable stockaware one, etc.
Many people think that English composition is contradictory in theform of writing form that of Indonesian language, whereas it isnot, as both English and Indonesian language use the sameconcept of SPO pattern (Subject Predicate Objet). But only incompound word or compound noun (subject or object composedby more than one word), the adjective will always lie in front of anoun and the noun will oppositely lie after the adjective or at theend of the compound word.The FastcepatElectriclistrikTrainkeretaKereta Listrik CepatThe HighlytinggiEducatedberpendidikanPeopleOrang-orangOrang-Orang TerpelajarThe FunniestterlucuHomerumahVideovideoVideo rumah paling lucu
Nation Building Pembangunan bangsaNational Building Bsngunan yang memiliki nilaikebangsaan (*nationalanthem = lahu yang memilikinilai kebangsaan)National Problem Masalah yang memilikicakupan nasionalNation Problem Masalah Bangsa
Electricity Supply Pasokan ListrikElectric Car Mobil ListrikElectrical Appliances Barang-barang yangberhubungan dengan listrikElectricity Problem Masalah Aliran Listrik (ShortCircuit=Korsleting)Electrical Problem Masalah Kelistrikan(Berhubungan Dengan Listrik ,Manajemen Listrik)
That is an educative book.There will be an attractive show.Dynamite is an explosive material.Those are only decorative matters.OrdinaryAdjective
ORDINARY ADJECTIVEThat is an educative book. Possible to educate/memiliki daya didik.There will be an attractive show. Possible to attract/memiliki daya tarik.Dynamite is an explosive material. Possible to explode/memiliki daya ledak.Those are only decorative matters. Possible to décor/memiliki daya hias.
CAUSATIVE ADJECTIVE or CAUSAL ADJECTIVEthe adjective modified from VERB because of causal influenceACTIVE-CAUSATIVEADJECTIVEPASSIVE-CAUSTIVEADJECTIVE
ACTIVE-CAUSATIVE ADJECTIVEderived from VERB + ING, also identified as ‘CAUSING ADJECTIVE’My father is an educating person.She is a very attracting presenter.What is the exploding thing?You are very disappointing.There are so many decorating matters in this room.
ACTIVE-CAUSATIVE ADJECTIVEderived from VERB + ING, also identified as ‘CAUSING ADJECTIVE’My father is an educating person. Active in educating, despite he isn’t ateacher.She is a very attracting presenter. Active to attract, despite she is notattractive.What is the exploding thing? Active to have exploded.You are very disappointing. Causing disappointment.There are so many decorating matters inthis room.Active to cause good looking.
PASSIVE CAUSATIVEderived from PASSIVE VERB or VERB III, also identified as ‘influencedadjective’.We are educated people.They feel very attracted.The exploded thing is the rock hill.I feel very disappointed with him.The hotel has many exclusively decorated rooms.
PASSIVE CAUSATIVEderived from PASSIVE VERB or VERB III, also identified as ‘influencedadjective’.We are educated people. Some people have made us intelligent andwell-educated.They feel very attracted. Something has made them pay attention.The exploded thing is the rock hill. Something has exploded the rock.I feel very disappointed with him. He has disappointed me.The hotel has many exclusively decoratedrooms.Many things decorated the rooms.
MODIFIED ADJECTIVEadjective derived from noun.A noun subject or object consisting of more thanone word.• Compound wordConsisting of more than one noun• Compound noun*noun is always written at the end of that composition,meanwhile all words written before noun are adjective
Heni is a beautiful long-haired girl.Marsha is a beautifully long-haired girl.Robby William is an internationally famous singer.Giselle is an internationally-famous singer.Full Pressed Body.Fully-Pressed Body.Small Scale Business.Small-Scaled Business.Special Fund Allocation.Specially-Allocated Fund.
Heni is a beautiful long-haired girl.Marsha is a beautifully long-haired girl.Gadis centik Berambut Panjang.Gadis yang memiliki rambut panjang danindah.Robby William is an internationally famoussinger.Giselle is an internationally-famous singer.Penyanyi internasional.Penyanyi lokal yang terkenal hinggamancanegara.Full Pressed Body.Fully-Pressed Body.Hampir sdemua bagian dipres.‘body’nya dipres sekuat tenagaSmall Scale Business.Small-Scaled Business.Pengusaha kecil/pedangan asongan.Pegusaha modal lemah.Special Fund Allocation.Specially-Allocated Fund.Alokasi Dana Khusus.Dana Alokasi Khusus.
1. Snake is a frog eater.adj. noun2. Snake is a frog-eating reptile.adj. noun3. Eagle is a kind of fish-eating wild birds.noun adj. Adj. noun4. Herbicide is a wild-grass-killing liquid.adj. noun5. Telkom and PLN are two of the state-owned companies.noun adj. Noun6. PDAM is a local-government-run company.adj. Noun7. UIJ Printing is an Al-Qur’an-big-printing company.adj. noun8. Al-Qur’an is the most valuable-printed material.adj. Noun9. I have a new model of tooth brush.adj. Noun adj. noun10. My mother has many kinds of big-sized cats.adj. Noun adj. noun
ADJ. + NOUN = COMPOUND WORDNOUN + NOUN = COMPOUND NOUNHyphen (-) Sign is used to combine wordshaving close relation and to is to hindervagueness.
Adjective + NounMy Golden OpportunityHis Stony HouseIndonesian Economic GrowthHer Beautiful HouseOur Religious TeacherNoun + Noun(Noun Elemental AdjectiveMy Gold WatchHis Stone HouseIndonesian Economy ExpertHer Beauty HouseOur Religion Teacher