The Spread of Information and its Influence On State Security And Development
The spread of information and its influence on state security and development AKHMEDOV SARDORBEK 4012R301-7 SUPERVISOR: PROF. MITOMO HITOSHI
Key Words: Information information space Manipulation: disinformation, Psychological Operations (PSYOP) mass media information communication technologies information warfare social media information influence state security
The subject of the research – security of state from information threats in the light of the expansion of information communication technologies. The object – situation in Uzbekistan concerning information influence conducted through advanced channels of communication. Target – negative information influence through internet (a manipulative effect on an individual consciousness and emotions, on group and mass consciousness as a tool of psychological pressure conducted by open or hidden motivations of individual and social actors in order to act against own interests of individuals involved in these effects).
Problem The possibility of information influence by manipulating over information concerning the situation in Uzbekistan, its domestic and foreign policy by other states, non-state actors, individual groups (politically motivated actors) in order to influence the behaviour of government, population, to destruct positive image of the country, and thus damage overall national interests.
Main tasks of the research - to study theoretic approaches towards information influence, identify its forms and main mechanisms of implication; - to analyze peculiarities of the information space of Uzbekistan and evaluate the risks ; - to identify effective measures that help respond or prevent possible negative information influence.
Contents Introduction Chapter I. Theoretical approaches on the study of the topic Chapter II. The information space of Uzbekistan Chapter II.1. The information space of Uzbekistan and the forms of information influence; Chapter II.2. Evaluation of measures to deal with negative information influence towards Uzbekistan. Conclusion. Appendixes. Bibliography.
Theoretical approaches Nontraditional threats to security: Change from traditional relations among countries due to the emergence of non-state actors such as NGOs, multinational corporations, as well as increase of various channels of interaction. Famous American scholars Robert O.Keohane and Joseph S.Nye elaborated the theory of Complex Interdependence, according to which state to state relations are not the only dominating factors in international relations taking into account the existence of people to people contacts. “To improve their chances of success, government agencies attempt to bring actors from other governments into their own decision making processes as allies... the United States have used such coalitions to penetrate weaker governments in such countries such as Turkey and Chile ” (Robert O.Keohane and Joseph S.Nye. Power and Interdependence,1997).)
Fragmegration of power Another representative of neoliberal school of IR theory James N. Rosenau uses a term “the age of fragmegration” to refer to recent trends. He implies that information is becoming “ever more relevant to the conduct of public affairs, so has knowledge become an ever more important source of power. Indeed, the ability of states to influence each other through the exercise of military capabilities has been increasingly superseded by their ability to use information as a means of prevailing in conflict situations”.
A futurist vision A futurist Alvin Toffler describes the development of civilizations as waves in a book “The Third Wave”, according to which first wave is called Agricultural Civilization; second – Industrial Wave which began in the 18th century; and the third one – Information Society that is connected with information explosion due to the invention of new information technologies (A.Toffler. The Third Wave, 1980).
The issue of information influence Most of the countries in the world are eager to utilize information communication technologies in order to enforce sustainable economic development, to better integrate world community. However as an everlasting paradox on social liberties and social security exists, we should also think about negative consequences of these processes. Joseph S. Nye elaborated the concept of Soft Power that means getting others to want the outcomes that you want without coercion (co-opts people rather than coerces them) (Joseph S. Nye Jr. Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics, 2004.) Another IR theorist Hans J. Morgenthau assumes that “cultural imperialism” is the most successful means of imperialistic policies that aims not at the conquest of territory or the control of economic life, but of the minds of men as an instrument for changing the power relations between two countries (Hans J. Morgenthau. Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace, 1948).
Forms of information influence Rapid development of Internet throughout the world make the information space more vulnerable. Recently after the so called “Arab spring” events there have been debates over the impact of social media on these conflicts. Among the main topics of discussion are the complexity of data provision and its interpretation, balance between anonymity and reliability, the relevancy of social interaction to peacetime or conflict situations.
Forms of information influence Specific forms of information influence are mostly discussed in the following works of Western researchers: - Monroe P. (Media & Sovereignty.//Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002); - Royce A. (Global Television & the Shaping of World Politics.//Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001); - Gilboa E. (The Global News Networks & U.S. Policymaking in Defence & Foreign Affairs. - Harvard: Harvard University, 2002); - Wilson D. (Digital Diplomacy: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Information Age. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001).
Information space of Uzbekistan and the threats of information influence In contemporary world of globalization and rapid development of information communication technologies that is thoroughly dependent on speed and quality of information it is a an important task to create an objective image of the country abroad and at the same time protect national interests from negative information influence. One of the important points is provision of sufficient information in order to avoid information vacuum that can be an easy target to influence.
Information space of Uzbekistan During the recent years comprehensive legal and organizational measures have been implemented to develop means of distribution of information in Uzbekistan, to ensure freedom of speech, the liberalization of the information sphere. A number of normative acts were accepted in Uzbekistan in the sphere of information. “Law on Publishing Activities” (1996), “Law on Mass Media” (1997), “On Principles and Guaranties of the Freedom of Information” (2002), “On Copyright and Neighbouring Rights” (2006) and etc. These legislative acts mainly regulate receiving, distributing, saving information, access to foreign information nets, as well as forming state information resources and system and guarantee individual rights for information.
Development of internet The number of Internet users in Uzbekistan in the first quarter of 2012 reached 9.1 million (about 30% of population). This is 21.3% more than in the first quarter of previous year, (7.5 million people). 5.2 million people are users of mobile internet (an increase - 24.2%). As to the end of March 2012 total speed (bandwidth) access has reached 5145 Mbit/s (in the last year - 4850 Mbit/s). Number of providers and operators of Internet services and data networks in the first quarter amounted to 936, the number of access points to the Internet - 1050.
Internet sitesin nativelanguageAccording to statistics(2012/11/14/) total activenames in the nationaldomain UZ. zone is 15569,with the growth of 16.0%in comparison with thelast year.These figures show thatthe speed of theutilization of Internet inUzbekistan is increasingthat enlarges informationspace as well.Among the notable pointsis the increase of nationaldomains most of whichdistribute information innative, Russian orEnglish languages.
Bibliography 1. Hans J. Morgenthau Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace. //Second Edition, Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1955. (Copyright 1993 by McGrow-Hill) 2. Joseph S. Nye Jr. The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone //Oxford University Press, 2002. 3. Joseph S. Nye Jr. Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics. New York, Public Affairs, 2004. 3. Taylor P. War and the Media. Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War. //New York. 1992. 4. Royce A. Global Television & the Shaping of World Politics. – Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001. 5. Robert O.Keohane and Joseph S.Nye. Power and Interdependence: World politics in Transition. (Little, Brown and Company (Inc) 1997). 6. James N. Rosenau. States, Sovereignty, and Diplomacy in The Information Age, 1998. 7. Monroe P. Media & Sovereignty. - Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002. 8. Royce A. Global Television & the Shaping of World Politics. - Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001. 9. Wilson D. Digital Diplomacy: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Information Age. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. 10. Gilboa E. The Global News Networks & U.S. Policymaking in Defense & Foreign Affairs. - Harvard: Harvard University, 2002