Content  Managementopen source solutions       2010 edition               By Grégory Bécue               Version 4        ...
Page 2                                            CMS, open source solutions                                           [1]...
Page 3                                            CMS, open source solutions[1.2] Some Smile references    a) Web sitesLab...
Page 4                                            CMS, open source solutions[1.3] This White PaperThis document goes beyon...
Page 5                                            CMS, open source solutions [1.4.2] Version 3.0Over 25 000 downloads late...
Page 6                                            CMS, open source solutionsAs regards products, the same names appear at ...
Page 7                                            CMS, open source solutionsSince 2001, Smile has acquired exceptional exp...
Page 8                                            CMS, open source solutions      The free nature of sources guarantees t...
Page 9                                                     CMS, open source solutions                                     ...
Page 10                                            CMS, open source solutions         [2] OPEN SOURCE CONTENT MANAGEMENT S...
Page 11                                            CMS, open source solutionsDrupal integrates a very flexible PHP templat...
Page 12                                            CMS, open source solutionsAs regards search capabilities, eZ Publish in...
Page 13                                            CMS, open source solutionsSmile has integrated the Infoglue solution on...
Page 14                                            CMS, open source solutionsSmile has implemented the Jahia portal for Bo...
Page 15                                            CMS, open source solutions [2.1.6] OpenCmsOpenCms is an Open Source CMS...
Page 16                                            CMS, open source solutionsThe downside to this simplicity is that Spip ...
Page 17                                            CMS, open source solutionsSeveral thousands of companies already use th...
Page 18                                            CMS, open source solutionsOne of the distinguishing features of Lenya i...
Page 19                                            CMS, open source solutions[2.3] CMS componentsBeyond “business” CMS, a ...
Page 20                                            CMS, open source solutions[2.4] Promising solutionsSmile is committed t...
Page 21                                            CMS, open source solutions [3] THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF CONTENT MANA...
Page 22                                            CMS, open source solutions      This also allows to distinguish betwee...
Page 23                                            CMS, open source solutionsThis concept of content management (structure...
Page 24                                            CMS, open source solutions [3.1.2] Seperating form/layout and contentOn...
Page 25                                            CMS, open source solutions Joomla natively offers the Open Source solut...
Page 26                                            CMS, open source solutions As opposed to this, in Enterprise CMS such a...
Page 27                                            CMS, open source solutions Infoglue offers a very appealing language ma...
Page 28                                            CMS, open source solutionsHowever, when content management is planned a...
Page 29                                            CMS, open source solutionsThis point is very important. Presenting cont...
Page 30                                            CMS, open source solutions Spip, Drupal & Joomla are “content” orientat...
Page 31                                            CMS, open source solutionsWhere version management is involved bug mana...
Page 32                                            CMS, open source solutions InfoGlue manages versions at content level, ...
Page 33                                            CMS, open source solutionsNaturally, the management interface is only o...
Page 34                                            CMS, open source solutions One of the advantages with Infoglue is that ...
Page 35                                            CMS, open source solutionsWebDAVThe HTTP protocol has developed an extr...
Page 36                                            CMS, open source solutionsA site which works well is a site that is up-...
Page 37                                            CMS, open source solutionsremoval date together with a date upon which ...
Page 38                                            CMS, open source solutionsthen eventually published online. This is imp...
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
CMS guide
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  1. 1. Content Managementopen source solutions 2010 edition By Grégory Bécue Version 4 Further information: Tel: +33 (0)1 41 40 11 00 Email :
  2. 2. Page 2 CMS, open source solutions [1] PREAMBLE[1.1] SmileSmile is a company comprised of engineers specialising in the implementation ofopen source solutions and the integration of systems based on open source solutions.Smile is a member of APRIL, an association focused on the promotion and protectionof free software.With over 320 employees in France, and 390 throughout the world (June 2010),Smile is the leading French Open Source solution company.Since around the year 2000, Smile has been actively monitoring the technologicalmarket, allowing us to identify, to test and assess the most promising open sourcesolutions. We can then present our clients with the strongest, most sustainable,most efficient products available.This approach has given way to a whole range of white papers covering variousdifferent application sectors. Content management (2004); portals (2005); businessintelligence (2006); PHP frameworks (2007); virtualisation (2007); digital documentmanagement (2008); and ERPs (2008). Among the works published in 2009, the“Open Source VPNs”, and “Open Source flow controls and Firewalls” articles, withinthe “Systems and Infrastructures” collection are also of interest.Each of these works offers a selection of the best open source solutions in therelevant domain, their respective qualities, and feedback on operational use.As stable open source solutions slowly gain ground in new sectors, Smile will bepresent to offer customers the benefit of these solutions risk free. Smile appears inthe French I.T. market as the integration service provider of choice, to assist majorcompanies in adopting the best open source solutions.Smile has also developed a range of service offers over the last few years. Aconsultancy department has assisted our clients since 2005, through preprojectphases, solution research, and project support. In 2000, Smile created a graphicsstudio which in 2007 became known as The Interactive Media Agency. This agencyoffers not only graphic design services, but also e-marketing, editorial, and richinterface expertise. Smile also has an agency specializing in Third-party ApplicationMaintenance, application support and application processing. Smile offices can befound in Paris, Lyon, Nantes, Bordeaux and Montpellier, with presence in Spain,Benelux, Switzerland, the Ukraine and Morocco.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  3. 3. Page 3 CMS, open source solutions[1.2] Some Smile references a) Web sitesLaboratoires Boiron, Foncia, Crédit Coopératif, EMI Music, Salon de l’Agriculture,Mazars, Areva, Société Générale, Gîtes de France, Patrice Pichet, Groupama, Eco-Emballage, CFnews, CEA, Prisma Pub, Véolia, NRJ, JCDecaux, Larousse, 01Informatique, Spie, PSA, Boiron, Dassault-Systèmes, Action Contre la Faim, BNPParibas, Air Pays de Loire, Forum des Images, IFP, BHV, ZeMedical, Gallimard,Cheval Mag, Afssaps, CNIL… b) Portals and IntranetsEurosport, HEC, Bouygues Telecom, Prisma, Veolia, Arjowiggins, INA, Primagaz,Croix Rouge, Invivo, Faceo, Château de Versailles, Ipsos, VSC Technologies, Sanef,Explorimmo, Bureau Veritas, Région Centre, Dassault Systèmes, Fondationd’Auteuil, Korian, PagesJaunes Annonces, Primagaz… c) Electronic Document Management and ECMAgefiph, Primagaz, UCFF, Apave, Géoservices, Renault F1 Team, INRIA, CIDJ,SNCD, Ecureuil Gestion, CS informatique, Serimax, Véolia Propreté, NetasQ,Corep, Packetis, Alstom Power Services, Mazars… d) E-businessFuret du Nord, Camif Collectivité, La Halle, De Dietrich, Adenclassifieds, Macif,Gîtes de France, GPdis, Longchamp, Projectif, ETS, Bain & Spa, Yves Rocher,Bouygues Immobilier, Nestlé, Stanhome, AVF Périmédical, CCI, Pompiers deFrance, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique… e) Business Intelligence and ERPLafarge, Groupe Accueil, Anevia, Projectif, Xinek, Companeo, Advans, Point P,Mindscape, Loyalty Experts, Cecim, Espace Loggia, Nouvelles Frontières, France24,La Poste, HomeCineSolutions, Vocatis, Skyrock, France Domicile, Polyexpert,Cadremploi, Cmonjob,… f) Infrastructure and HostingKantar, Pierre Audoin Consultants, Rexel, Motor Presse, OSEO, Sport24, SETRAG,Canal-U, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, ETS, Ionis, Osmoz, SIDEL, Atel Hotels,Cadremploi, Institut Français du Pétrole, Mutualité Française…© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  4. 4. Page 4 CMS, open source solutions[1.3] This White PaperThis document goes beyond a simple comparative study of Open Source ContentManagement Systems (CMS), to present an introduction to the fundamentalconcepts of CMS and the implementation of these systems. Content ManagementSystems must be selected based on the specific needs of the client, and not just onthe tool functions.With this in mind we offer our analysis of the issues that arise in this area and thecapabilities (in relation to each fundamental concept) which differentiate one toolfrom the other.Following this analysis, we will attempt to bring to light the capabilities of eachCMS studied, in relation to different needs.[1.4] Versions [1.4.1] Version 2.1The first version of this white paper dates back to 2004 and has been downloadedover 10,000 times. Version, 2.1, is a major overhaul of our initial report.First off, we eliminated Redhat CMS from our panel of solutions, for anumber of reasons: Redhat is now Byline under the responsibility of the ObjectWebconsortium, but the transfer is far from finalized, and development seems to havecome to a standstill. Furthermore, ObjectWeb already has a portal and contentmanagement solution with the recent integration of eXoplatform, a more dynamicproject. In this context it seems difficult to believe that this seldom-used solutionwill last very long.On the other hand we included, Apache Lenya and InfoGlue, two Javaenvironment products which meet very different needs. These are two qualitysolutions which have already proven popular with clients, allowing to complete theJ2EE Open Source product range, which had been relatively limited up to this.Finally, we redrafted our comments to take the important developments of thevarious solutions into consideration. Typo3, in particular, which had greatlyevolved, with TemplaVoila extensions for content structures, and the versionmanagement and workflow extensions that were so sorely lacking. OpenCMS alsodelivered some excellent developments in relation to content structuring in its latestversion, while eZ publish delivered an impressive range of improvements inversions 3.6, and 3.7.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  5. 5. Page 5 CMS, open source solutions [1.4.2] Version 3.0Over 25 000 downloads later; version 3.0 brought a new major update of this whitepaper. We felt it was necessary to include two more tools in the already large rangeof solutions covered in our study. Joomla and Drupal are very widely-used toolswith active, productive, communities. The strengths of these solutions lie in thesimplicity of their installation, configuration and use, resulting in great successamong associations, individuals and small business.These tools have proven their stability and maturity. While they do offer a fewadvanced features, in their overall simplicity these tools provide an alternative tomore complete solutions which sometimes prove complex to implement.We have taken both Cofax and PHPNuke out of the study, as they are no longeractively maintained and as such their functionality is now less complete than that ofother solutions.Other tools have also benefited from a number of improvements since the previousversion of this white paper. For example:  eZ Publish 3.9: now supports clustering, advanced Multilanguage management, Single Sign-On, etc.  Typo3 4.1: work spaces, front office access control, etc.  InfoGlue 2.5 image editor, web services, new identification modules, etc.  Jahia 5 : Ajax Back-office, new portlets, XML Import /Export, specific multi- level workflows, JSR168 compatibility, metadata, FCKEditor, hibernate, ESI cache, clustering, … [1.4.3] Version 4.0After a further 20,000 downloads, this greatly revised edition is the most up-to-dateversion of our white paper on Open Source CMS.Before discussing products, we decided that an update on the fundamentals ofcontent management was required. Expectations have evolved, and a number ofelements which had been on the fringes have now become standard features of theOpen Source solutions studied herein.The basics are now centred on 4 main themes: structuring content, manipulatingcontent, using content, and securing content. We also include an analysis of thetechnical framework which is a less functional but equally important aspect,especially in the creation of professional web sites which generate major traffic.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  6. 6. Page 6 CMS, open source solutionsAs regards products, the same names appear at the top of the list: Drupal, eZPublish, Infoglue, Jahia, Joomla, OpenCMS, Spip & Typo3. They have all evolvedwell with an improved functional scope and strengthened technical framework.Apache Lenya is the only solution to be removed from our study, as though it has agood architecture and does not require databases (XML files); the user interface ispoor and only suitable for users with good technical expertise.We have added the “loaded CMS” section which presents the content managementcomponents (portal, ECM) included in solutions other than CMS. These may well betangible alternatives in the coming years.Finally, we have integrated a “Promising solutions” section which, as the namewould indicate, lists some excellent solutions which haven’t yet reached maturityand which won’t be long in finding their niche in the market. They often place theemphasis on their differentiating aspects: handling, scalability, architecture, etc.[1.5] The CMSIt is now generally accepted that one must be able to manage both Intranet andInternet web sites in an interactive manner. That is to say that an interface must beavailable which allows administrators to define new pages and new sections, tomanage updates and to reorganise information.But beyond the specific needs of a given site, certain companies identify the need toconstitute and administrate a content repository, on which different publications willbe based, both on the web and on other media.Naturally, lots of tools may meet this need. In the CMS product range we candistinguish between:  Simple, ready-to-use products focused on web site management, generally with limited extension possibilities,  And, more high-end products which allow to build a real content repository at company level to define the associated management processes and reproduce content on a variety of media.The first area, that of integrated CMS, is completely covered by Open Sourceproducts such as Joompla or Spip. These products are of such a high standard thatno proprietary solution can rival them.The second area, that of high-end CMS solutions was, historically, covered bycommercial products such as Documentum, Vignette or Interwoven. Today however,solutions such as Jahia, eZ publish, Typo3 or Infoglue, provide similar if not betterscope. These solutions have become over time real alternatives in the area ofEnterprise Content Management.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  7. 7. Page 7 CMS, open source solutionsSince 2001, Smile has acquired exceptional expertise in the area of contentmanagement and excellent knowledge of the best Open Source solutions on themarket.It is for this reason that we initially decided to compile this White Paper, in order toshare our knowledge and experience. We have been severe in our choice of solutions, so that only really quality products make the cut. This allows the client to select a tool based on their individual needs, safe in the knowledge that the tool is a reliable one.[1.6] Open Source CMSA Gartner Group concluded that as regards content management, “today peopledon’t see why they should pay for expensive leading commercial products, and arelooking for low-cost alternatives”.Analysts agree that the advantages of Open Source solutions are not merelyfinancial. Content management, by its very nature, requires an ever-increasingnumber of modifications. Plugins help developers to safely create new functions suchas the definitions of new types of content, workflows, etc., something which cannotbe achieved using proprietary solutions.All kinds of companies have now chosen to use Open Source CMS and largecompanies in particular, as Smile testimonials reveal. Companies often take a lookat the alternatives, including Open Source solutions, when a project is beingcompletely restructured or when the support contract of a proprietary solution in usefor a number of years, is due for renewal. At this stage the benefits of Open Sourcesolutions, such as the financial savings, come to light.[1.7] Viability, supportWhen we choose a product on which to build all or part of the information system,the question of viability or durability is often even more important than the list ofcapabilities.Open Source solutions offer two important advantages in this respect:  The products survival does not depend on its profitability or marketing considerations. As long as there is community interest, the product will continue to exist.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  8. 8. Page 8 CMS, open source solutions  The free nature of sources guarantees the durability of the product, though we must stress the importance of the client companys’ competence to manage this source code.One must keep in mind that proprietary CMS solutions depend entirely on theireditors. Editors who can go out of business overnight, leaving their customersstranded, with no choice but to rebuild their sites immediately using a different tool.There have been numerous cases like this over the past few years, and not the name,editor, licence nor even client list can guarantee the viability of the product.Though the Open Source nature of a product does not guarantee that it will existeternally, and some solutions will slowly loose the interest of their community, onething is certain: an Open Source solution will never disappear overnight,furthermore a company that builds its project around an Open Source solution hasaccess to the source and as such can ensure that their system lasts for a leastnumber of years.The specific type of support available with Open Source solutions is now broadlyrecognised. There are generally two to three different levels of support.On the one hand we have the support of the community, the activity of which isbased around a given site where downloads and source code are available (togetherwith the roadmap, a directory of known bugs, and support mailing lists). Thiscommunity support is non-contractual, but very strong nonetheless.This support can be complemented with contractual support from companies such asSmile.More and more editor solutions are appearing alongside real Open Sourcecommunity solutions; these solutions are from commercial profit-driven companieswho have chosen to release certain solutions under Open Source licence. The freedistribution of these solutions allows these editors to make their solutions as well-known as possible, and their business model is often based on the support andconsulting services associated with these solutions.These companies generally offer product support and/or product guarantees(unlimited management of kernel bugs).© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  9. 9. Page 9 CMS, open source solutions Content[1] PREAMBLE.......................................................................................................2 [1.1]SMILE............................................................................................................................... 2 [1.2]SOME SMILE REFERENCES........................................................................................................ 3 [1.3]THIS WHITE PAPER............................................................................................................... 4 [1.4]VERSIONS........................................................................................................................... 4 [1.5]THE CMS......................................................................................................................... 6 [1.6]OPEN SOURCE CMS............................................................................................................. 7 [1.7]VIABILITY, SUPPORT................................................................................................................ 7[2] OPEN SOURCE CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ......................................10 [2.1]OUR SELECTION.................................................................................................................. 10 [2.2]OTHERS........................................................................................................................... 17 [2.3]CMS COMPONENTS............................................................................................................. 19 [2.4]PROMISING SOLUTIONS .......................................................................................................... 20[3] THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF CONTENT MANAGEMENT .....................21 [3.1]STRUCTURING CONTENT ........................................................................................................ 21 [3.2]MANIPULATING CONTENT........................................................................................................ 32 [3.3]USING CONTENT.................................................................................................................. 41 [3.4]PERMISSIONS AND ACCESS SECURITY ..........................................................................................56 [3.5]TECHNICAL PLATFORM........................................................................................................... 61[4] SUMMARY......................................................................................................68© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  10. 10. Page 10 CMS, open source solutions [2] OPEN SOURCE CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS[2.1] Our selectionIn this section we introduce our selection of the best CMS currently available. Wehave based our selection on our content management savoir-faire, ourimplementation experience, and client feedback.Other solutions do exist and some definitely merit a second look; please take thetime to read the paragraphs further on in this White Paper which present otheralternatives.The solutions below meet most of the requirements established by the Smilemonitoring team – for example: ease of handling; a solid, proven technicalframework; a dynamic community; etc. [2.1.1] DrupalDrupal is a multifaceted CMS. Originally designed to serve as a collective blog, it isnow used in a whole range of situations: serving corporate sites to communityportals, to Intranets and even ecommerce websites.The strength of this CMS lies in its extendibility. Numerous modules can beadded easily (forums, photo galleries, surveys, forms, newsletters, messengers,chats, online payment solutions, shared agenda, etc.). It includes some highly-regarded community modules. Further modules are relatively easy to develop giventhat the syntax is accessible.Administration is a specific feature of the product; a single interface providesconsultation (the front office) and site administration (the back office)features; something that is particularly well-appreciated by those with limitedtechnical experience.At content management level, Drupal falls somewhere between Spip and eZ Publish.A complimentary module (CCK) allows to easily create types of structuredcontent (native in version 7).At content organization level, Drupal is different in that it operatres usingkeywords (tags - taxonomies) and not a tree-structure, like most CMS. What mightseem a little disconcerting initially actually turns out to be really useful.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  11. 11. Page 11 CMS, open source solutionsDrupal integrates a very flexible PHP template system, management of userpermissions, multi-positioning of content, together with search and statisticsfeatures.At performance level, Drupal offers excellent results notably in stand-alone mode. Itconstitutes a real alternative to “high-end” CMS, for purely editorial sites inparticular.The version considered in this study is version 6.16Smile has deployed Drupal on several occasions for clients such as : NRJ-Studio,Diester, Alban Muller, BibNum (Cerimes), CDC Biodiversité, L’Equipe, GPSA,Bastide Diffusion, Autorisé de la Concurrence, ESTP, Université d’Orléans,Fondation EADS, INSA, etc. [2.1.2] eZ PublishThe main aspect which differentiates eZ Publish from other Open Sourcesolutions is its configuration and extension capabilities: it is presented as aready-to-use tool but also as a development framework allowing to create businessapplications.eZ Publish is one of the most powerful Open Source tools in relation to thefundamentals of content management: structured content, categorisation,version management, etc.eZ Publish allows to create online content types. “Minutes of meetings”,“News” or even “Cataloguing” content types can be created in a just a few clicks, andusing forms. First piece of content is composed of a title, project name, date, list ofparticipants, a body of text, etc. The second only contains a title and small amount oftext. The third is more complex.eZ Publish pushes the object approach to the limit, making each piece of content anobject and applying all possible methods to same object: multi-positioning,versioning, multilingualism, relationships between content, access permissions, andworkflows. This makes eZ Publish a highly configurable CMS.The eZ Publish CMS offers a number of options for the integration ofcontent: basic forms, multiple-uploads, WebDAV access, frontend editing, OpenOffice document loads.From a technical point of view, eZ Publish is written in PHP, on Apache & MySql(PostGreSql 8 & Oracle 11g are supported), manages three different caches anddistinctly separates form and content (layout and content).© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  12. 12. Page 12 CMS, open source solutionsAs regards search capabilities, eZ Publish interfaces with the Open Source searchengine Solr; it returns pertinent results in very rapid response times.The version considered in this study is version 4.3.Smile has deployed eZ publish on over 100 projects, including Foncia, CFnews, Fia-Net, Afssaps, Evian Masters, Gallimard, BFM, Bouygues Telecom, Mazars, YvesRocher, Groupama, Patrice Pichet, EMI, Voyages-Sncf,, INRA, OSEO,Sport24, De Dietrich, Prisma Presse, Femme Actuelle, Elle, Gîtes de France, HachetteFilipacchi, Suez environnement, Amnesty International, National Geographic,Automobile Magazine, Forum des Images, Ordre des Pharmaciens, etc. [2.1.3] InfoGlueInfoGlue is a tool that originated in Sweden. It has a number of interesting features:Technical advantages: InfoGlue is developed in Java, and can use any MySQL,Oracle, Microsoft Sql Server or DB2 database. InfoGlue integrates the PlutoOpen Source portal tool, which allows it to accept extension modules. As regardsworkflows, InfoGlue integrates the OpenSymphony Open Source tool, whichallows it to configure any business process in XML.Functional advantages: InfoGlue allows to define new types of content andcategories without development, two essential high-end content managementfunctions.The latest version of the CMS, version 3.0, is eagerly awaited and it’s improved,more user-friendly, graphic interface in particular.In the meantime, version consolidates existing functions offering anextensive range: text editor, multi-sites management, page publication on a givendate, page and tree-structure versioning, batch publication, personalized reports,etc.Though the project was launched in 2003, it remains relatively unknown in France;it is implemented in Universities in particular.In the Java world, InfoGlue is a solution which filled a niche in the OpenSource market. Easy to install, easy to use, configurable and extendible, InfoGluemeets a number of web site needs, but is also an excellent solution for themanagement of company content repositories.The version considered in this study is version© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  13. 13. Page 13 CMS, open source solutionsSmile has integrated the Infoglue solution on several occasions: Xinek, Oncoval, Kpar K, Lapeyre, Nouvelles frontières, Université de Pau, Université de Bordeaux 3 &4, etc. [2.1.4] JahiaJahia is a Franco-Swiss product, which has a special place in the world of portalsand JEE CMS, in two respects.In terms of licence first of all. There is a real Open Source “Community” (GPL)version, but this is not the version which is most commonly used. Annual ProductionSubscription is obligatory for professional developers. This provides: the right ofannual use of company versions, correction of bugs, production support, etc.Secondly in terms of it’s position, as Jahia is one of the rare solutions whichbrings together the JEE portal and content management, perfectlyintegrated in one single product.Jahia is an excellent alternative to the portal solutions offered by leading editors,the fact that Jahia source files can be accessed and modified ensures that theproduct can meet client needs, while also ensuring the durability of the product.As mentioned earlier, the strength of Jahia lies in its ability to bring together theCMS and portal in one perfectly integrated, easy-to-use package. Compliance withtechnical standards and the standard JSR 168 (& 286) in particular, offers realcompatibility and the capacity to integrate “portlets” (third-party or specific), givingaccess to internal company applications.Jahia is ready-to-use and implementation generally doesn’t necessitate anydevelopment (apart from its integration). Freely available to download, Jahia ismost impressive as regards its finish and packaging: it is installed and ready-for-usein a matter of minutes.The Jahia content administration interface, blended into the site itself,differentiates Jahia from other CMS. Once identified, you have access to add, modifyand delete functions, directly on the site, within pages and menus. Thismanagement mode really simplifies processes for the administrator, who can viewthe information on the site directly and instantly see where it needs to be modified.At functional level, Jahia is one of the most complete solutions offering: multi-sitemanagement, versioning, efficient workflows, structured data, multilingualism, veryspecific management of permissions, etc. Version 6 has notably delivered anexcellent user interface via Ajax.The version considered in this study is version 6© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  14. 14. Page 14 CMS, open source solutionsSmile has implemented the Jahia portal for Bouygues Immobilier, BNP Paribas,Valorissimo, Arjowiggins, Beauté Prestige International, Veolia Eau, Eutelsat, Egide,Académie de Rennes, Conseil Régional d’Ile de France, SANEF, Groupe COLAS,Adoma, Fondation d’Auteuil, Académie de Créteil, IRP Auto, Pimkie-Diramode,AFNOR, OCP, Vinci Energies, Conseil Général de la Côte d’Or, Diagnostica Stago,Conseil Régional du Centre, Conseil Supérieur du Notariat, Macif, and La Poste,among others. [2.1.5] JoomlaJoomla is a CMS developed from Mambo. It was created following a falling outbetween the main developers and the company coordinating development. Today,the majority of the community developers are focused on Joomla, which decidedlytips the scale in its favour.The most distinguishing element of this tool is probably the conviviality of itsadministration interface. The emphasis being on “giving non-techies total controlof the product”. Page creation, categorisation, search, access statistics, significantURLs, are integrated together with a number of modules, and these do not requireany specific technical expertise for their implementation.Nevertheless, Joule does not allow to natively manage different types of content, andcannot be used for advanced content structuring needs (even if a plugin does existallowing the implementation of structured content).This CMS is perfectly adequate for personal sites and to meet the needs of certainprofessional sites; for example corporate type sites (basic publications).The version considered in this study is version 1.5.15© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  15. 15. Page 15 CMS, open source solutions [2.1.6] OpenCmsOpenCms is an Open Source CMS edited by the German company Alkacon. It abroadscale, solid product - the result of a great deal of development work.The latest version, 7.5, offers a number of functions: structured content, batchpublication, publication on a given date, a content editor, management of links,WebDAV, management of permissions, etc.OpenCms is built on a specific Java framework, with a view to extendibility. Assuch, while the basic functions are ready-to-use, advanced implementations requiredevelopment by way of extensions.One of the features of the tool is a back office with graphics that are practically areproduction of a Windows interface: tree-structure, contextual menus, dialogueboxes, etc. The interface though very attractive from an aesthetic point of view, is abit heavy to use. The tool has allowed to edit content in the front office since version6, (without having to go through the back office). But this use is still limited to verystraightforward edits, and not for total administration of content.OpenCms has excellent corporate site references, the majority of which are fromGerman companies.Here are some examples of the companies who have chosen to use OpenCms: AliceDSL:, Bonduelle Germany:, Fujifilm, Intersport International:, etc.The version considered in this study is version 7.5.2Smile has implemented OpenCms for l’UDF and Editions Francis Lefebvre. [2.1.7] SpipSpip includes all of the main features that one would expect with a CMS. Spip wasoriginally used by web-users to manage their personal site, or by associations fortheir sites, but Spip continued to develop and is now used by both private and publicentities to manage their professional web sites. Spip is a French Open Sourceproject, with an active community, hundreds to thousands of members. Severalversions of the solution are released each year.Spip is one of the rare CMS which can boast thousands of users throughout theworld. This success is explained by the simplicity of the product: it is easy-to-use, but beyond that is easy to deploy and easy to adapt.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  16. 16. Page 16 CMS, open source solutionsThe downside to this simplicity is that Spip presents some limitations as regards themain content management functions, which obviously limits it to the world of ‘web’oriented content management tools, as opposed to ‘enterprise’ oriented CM tools. Aninteresting Spip feature is its totally multi-lingual administration interface,translated into over 20 languages, including Arabic, Esperanto, Russian, and evenChinese.The Spip-Agora project, sponsored by a French government department, wasdeveloped concurrently with Spip. The idea of Spip-Agora was to add functions to theSpip project in order to use Spip for administration purposes on complex projects.Having enhanced the product, the Spip-Agora project ceased to exist and is no longersupported (as of May 2008).Almost 2 years after the 1.9.2 version was released, Spip brought out version 2.0,giving the project a new lease of life. This new version offers a number of newfeatures: the possibility of installing PostSQL and SQLite on top of MySQL, asimplified private interface based on Ajax, a download & plugin installation page,troubleshooting management, API and new functions for the development oftemplates.The version considered in this study is 2.0.10Smile has used Spip for several sites, including the Spip site generator for delegationsof the French Red Cross, the Fratel site, réseau francophone de la régulation destélécommunications, ANCV, Evian masters experience, or more recently the SecoursCatholique. [2.1.8] Typo3Typo3 is the fruit of several years of work from the Danish guru Kasper Skårhøj. Ahighly active community has developed around the product in Germanic countries inparticular, since its launch in 2000.In terms of ready-to-use functions, Typo3 is one of the most comprehensivetools that we have found to date. It offers practically everything one could wishfor, all the while providing an excellent finish. Management of contributions &permissions, cache, layout, templates, etc., it’s all there, with very few limitations.Among the functions Typo3 has to offer, we found the image editor to be of particularinterest, allowing to resize images, create thumbnails and dynamically generatetitles as images.One of the greatest strengths of Typo3 lies in the extendibility of its modules.Modules can not only add a range of functions to Typo3, but also modify existingfunctions that are already integrated, without modifying Typo3 code, leaving itcompatible with future versions of Typo3.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  17. 17. Page 17 CMS, open source solutionsSeveral thousands of companies already use the product, as indicated onthe community site. In France, Smile has already implemented Typo3 on over 100sites, while also training and supporting numerous other integrators.For example, Dassault Systèmes choose typo3 for their Intranet, giving Smile theopportunity to work alongside Kasper on this ambitious and exciting project.The version considered in this study is version 4.3Smile implemented Typo3 for the CNIL, Dassault Systèmes, Eco-Emballages, Areva,AMUE, Archimag, BHV, Armée de lair, IPSOS, CCI, Polytech’Savoie, PCI, Projectif,Spie, Faceo, Institut National de lAudiovisuel, Cidil, RATP, Souriau, Prolea, PSAPeugeot Citroën, Crédit Coopératif, Château de Versailles, SAS, ETS Europe, Agencede lEau Seine Normandie, Glamour,, IUFM Créteil, Conseil Régionald’Ile de France, ODIT France, AFPA, Action contre la Faim, Arvalis, Comexpo,CORA, MGEN, World Water Council, Société Générale, Immovalor, LegrisIndustries, Agritel, My Coop, Gefco, Salon de l’Agriculture, INVIVO, Cidilait, andmany more.[2.2] OthersA number of other CMS solutions also exist apart from those mentioned; Mambo,Apache Lenya and Zope are 3 solutions that featured in our previous studies. Here isa quick review of these products.Mambo, Joomla’s “predecessor” is a relatively complete site management tool. Aswith other tools of this type, it has a number of ready-to-use modules which arepractical for community sites: guestbook, forum, photo gallery, blog, etc. Its ease ofaccess allows even non-techies to create graphically pleasing sites.The latest Mambo version, version 4.6.4, was released in July 2008. The projectseems to have come to a standstill as most of its contributors have gone over toJoomla.Apache Lenya is a tool which really stands out in the world of contentmanagement. Integrated by the Apache Foundation, it comes from the Wyona CMSproduct, of Swiss origin.Lenya is a content and document management software product, developed in Java,based on the Cocoon framework, which manipulates XML content.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  18. 18. Page 18 CMS, open source solutionsOne of the distinguishing features of Lenya is that all of the data that it manages isstocked in XML files. Even structure information, such as on groups and users, ismanaged in XML files. Lenya does not require a database to function. XML files areorganised into a tree-structure and are displayed in HTML – or another format –using XSL style sheets. XML content modifications (the schemas of which aremodifiable) are carried out by rich graphic editors integrated into the web interface,resulting from different Open Source projects.Its distinctive architecture can be useful to specific needs (no database for example)but its range of functions together with it’s difficulty of use, has put off more thanone contributor in favour of one of the excellent solutions offered by the competition.Finally, we can’t talk about CMS without mentioning Zope and risking the wrath ofthe products numerous fans!Zope is a very complete server application, which goes well beyond the function of aCMS. Everyone is in agreement that the only major fault of this tool is itsconstruction on a Python environment. Python development and maintenanceexpertise is rare, which is the reason that we have decided not to include Zope in ourstudy. We have chosen solutions where the native functions can be completed and/ormodified as necessary. Furthermore, the progressive abandoning of this environmenthas been confirmed by the main promotor Nuxeo’s decision to cease using Zope CPS,despite the release of a new version.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  19. 19. Page 19 CMS, open source solutions[2.3] CMS componentsBeyond “business” CMS, a great number of Web solutions exist which providecontent management “components”. CMS components are just one among awhole range of modules.This is the case with portals such as Liferay or ExoPlatform which, apart from theirprimary functions as content aggregators, also offer content management functions.These components are not yet as developed as the best CMS but they arerapidly advancing and may well equal CMS and Portal type solutions, as withJahia, in the coming years.On the other hand, other solutions are not designed for the implementation ofcomplex web sites, they did not orignally include real CMS components. This is thecase with Wordpress, one of the leaders in blog solutions. This type of tool will becompletely capable of rivalling the best CMS in the near future; especially with theword processing strength that it is known for. In its favour, it already has contentstructuring notions and experience of scalability.Finally, surprisingly, we notice that certain EDM tools or more preciselyECM tools are capable of extending their scope to provide advancedpublication functions. Nuxeo stands out, with its capability to modulate articlesor news (from larger content). These tools are very powerful in structuring (thecreation of complex document types) and manipulating data (multitudes of loadspossible including excellent interfacing with Microsoft Office or Open Office). Theonly area which is not developed or requires further development is the contentpublication area. Webengine from Nuxeo enables the publication of mini web sites,designed as folders in the content tree-structure. The Alfresco WCM module whichmanages content production and dispatch to a CMS for publication is alsointeresting.Finally it is worth noting that the CMIS standard is being finalized to allow asimple and efficient bridge between content managed in an ECM and to be publishedin a CMS.As we can see, there is a fine line between the tools; and a new distribution of rolesmay very well come about in coming years.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  20. 20. Page 20 CMS, open source solutions[2.4] Promising solutionsSmile is committed to offering its clients the very best Open Source solutions. Inorder to achieve this, we constantly monitor new and existing content managementtools. Some tools tend to become dated, while others are particularly dynamic.In general, new tools are too young to be used in the framework of a professionalproject but we are keeping an eye on these tools and hope that development on themwill continue.Here are some of the new tools that we are closely monitoring:  SilverStripe, Modx, CMS Made Simple, for the quality of their handling in particular  Sympal, Diem, Apostrophe, recent products based on the Symfony framework  Cahaya, a product based on the Zend Framework  Magnolia, a product which is having some difficulty in building up a community  Silverpeas, a product which recently adopted the Open Source model Framework based CMS are not particularly advanced to date, but look promising. They offer a real alternative for projects which require complex modifications to existing CMS.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  21. 21. Page 21 CMS, open source solutions [3] THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF CONTENT MANAGEMENT[3.1] Structuring contentIn the previous versions of this White Paper, we deal with a number of aspects ofcontent structuring and manipulation. Both issues are intrinsically linked; but thenotion of content structuring has taken such an important place in choosing a CMSsolution we felt it was important to go back over the main concepts of structuring. [3.1.1] Structuring contentAn article is a content element. It deals with a given subject, representing from afew lines to a few pages of text.An article is not the smallest unit of content structure; an article itself is generallybroken down into basic fields, for example: title, sub-title, image, text body.There are two main ways of structuring articles: functional and semanticstructuring.Functional structuring breaks down the article based on the role, or function, of eachitem, often title, sub-title, summary. This function is independent to the subjectbeing treated, the theme of the article: whether we are talking about cooking or arugby match, we can identify a field title and a field summary.Semantic structuring breaks down the article based on the significance of each item.As such it is possible to distinguish between fields relating to ingredients, cookingtime, the oven temperature, the level of difficulty, etc. for a cooking recipe; todistinguish between fields relating to teams, the stadium, date and time, for afootball match, etc. As we see, semantic structuring is closely dependant on thetheme of the article, this means, we may be led to define several structures or typesof articles within the same content management. As each content is one type oranother, it is not always easy to return a type 1 article where a type B article isexpected.Correctly structuring each article in a specific way is greatly advantageous:  This allows to guide the correct entering of articles using a customised form, and as such ensuring that they all fall into the right categories. Hence effecting to the quality of content.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  22. 22. Page 22 CMS, open source solutions  This also allows to distinguish between each of the components of the article during publication, and as such to truly separate the form/layout from content, as mentioned above. This makes it possible to define in the article template that, for example, the “ingredients” field is to be displayed in italics, while “cooking time” should be displayed in bold. This effectively makes it possible to modify the way content is displayed without touching content itself. In the absence of a suitable article structure, one would have had to either give up on these effects on the ingredients and cooking time, or else inject formatting in the body of the article.  This allows to carry out specific searches beyond simple textual searches; e.g. recover all of the recipes with a cooking time of under 30 minutes.  Finally, this is what gives content meaning. Content is no longer text fields, but attributes which describe an object: country, city, price, date, etc. as such multiplying the possibilities for use of this content.We have seen how important it is to ensure that article structuring is managedcorrectly. But it must be recognized that these benefits are obtained at a certainprice, that of complexity. The CMS becomes a real database: where entities,entities attributes, and relationships between entities are defined, together withcontrols to be carried out on each field, etc. When the declaration of a structuredcontent type can be done without I.T. development, this is one of the features of aCMS which is most appreciated.The images above show two different ways of presenting a recipe for “Apple pie”, theimage on the left depicts the non-structured version, and the image on the rightdepicts the structured version of the same content. It is easy to see that the controlof restoration as well as the use of content is much greater with structured content.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  23. 23. Page 23 CMS, open source solutionsThis concept of content management (structured or non-structured) is key,in choosing your CMS solution. It is important to think about this and to decidewhat type of information you want to publish and what you want to do with thisinformation. Joomla & Spip do not natively allow to define specific types of articles (cooking recipes etc.) This creates some restrictions, but also a large simplicity in the management and organisation of a site. All of the content is entered on the same form; all content can be restored on the same template. Nevertheless, a number of quality extensions exist to get around this problem: jSeblod CCK for joomla (which is relatively complete) and Champs Extras 2 for Spip (which only allows to extend existing content types). Drupal natively supports different types of content, but does not allow to directly manage their editing. An operational module (CCK) provides this capability and allows to simply create new types of content with the help of forms integrated into the Back Office. The success of this extension has won it a native place in version 7 of Drupal. Tpyo3’s TemplaVoila module allows to define new content structures, with customised data-entry forms. While creation is still a little technical, the result is worth it, we can create new types of content and use them easily throughout the site. Structured content is stored in XML in a new field of the table of contents. It is particularly well adapted to sites which require a lot of content structuring. OpenCms has allowed to define specific types of articles based on XSD schemas since version 6. The structure possibilities remain basic, not using XML potential to its full, but it is possible to easily create new content structures. Structured content is then stored as XML, in a database field. eZ Publish really stands out here. This is the tool which most easily allows to define as many content types as we like, online, using a web interface. The new types of content have a standard template by default, displaying all content fields. For each type of content, both an administration interface preview and restore interface template (front office) has to defined. eZ Publish also allows to define content relationships. Jahia allows to define new types of content using CND files in which the structure of content is defined. There is no graphic interface to create new content types, but creation is easy and can be done at the same time as definition of new rendering templates. Jahia 6 has made improvements in this area. InfoGlue allows to create new content structures via its interface, without the need for any prior technical experience. InfoGlue goes even further being the only CMS which allows to define the rules of validity for each field, by using regular expressions. This allows, for example, to ensure that the first letter be capitalised, or that there are no spaces etc.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  24. 24. Page 24 CMS, open source solutions [3.1.2] Seperating form/layout and contentOne of the principles of Content Management Systems is to create a dividebetween form and content, between the presentation of articles and the articletext (or the attributes of these articles).There are a great number of reasons for maintaining this divide.Form and content touch on different professions: the page layout is created by agraphic artist, while content is supplied by a contributor.Both of these individuals must be able to work independently of each other. Itmust be possible to change the site design without touching the content, and vice-versa, to add or modify content without touching the page layout.A unique page layout (template) is shared by multitudes of content: this is whatmakes the site homogenous. It would be impossible to obtain this result if eachtime content was entered the page layout also had to be defined.Add to this that formatting is always defined in reference with a publicationmedium, so that mixing up formatting and content means reducing the publicationpossibilities to one single medium.As such the layout and content are seperated. Practically speaking, this signifiesthat the text inserted into the content database must not include formatting data.This restriction is sometimes too restrictive for certain usage, as such exceptionsmust be authorised e.g.: bold, italics; or the level of formatting accepted within anewspaper article. The type of modifications which can be made must be limited;and changes to font, character size, colours, aligning, column layout, etc. mustremain unauthorized under content administration. Some WYSIWYG editorsstore all content (even in Bold, etc.) under XML format and provide totalseparation of form and content.To meet formatting needs, CMS generally include a graphic editing tool(WYSIWYG); this allows to format text, but also to insert links and images.Integration of such a tool can be partial or total, depending on whether CSS filesdefined for the site need to be taken into consideration, or whether the insertion of alink should allow to select site content or the insertion of an image into a medialibrary.To conclude, the separation of form and content is important in order to carry outmulti-channel publication (web & mobile for example). Furthermore, it is essentialfor the creation of accessible sites.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  25. 25. Page 25 CMS, open source solutions Joomla natively offers the Open Source solution TinyMCE (Sourceforge: Project of the Month, January 2009), a quality WYSIWYG editor which produces good HTML code. Other editors can be implemented on the extension principle. Drupal does not natively integrate a rich text editor, but complementary modules allow this function to be easily added using good Open Source editors. OpenCms has a native graphic editing solution (FckEditor), which is well integrated into the tool. There are a few versions of this, Typo3 had opted for the VBscript solution which only functions on Internet Explorer. In version 4, Typo3 now integrates the WYSISYG editor HTMLArea RTE, which opens up compatibility with other navigators. This editor is perfectly integrated, with image management and editor customization possibilities depending on the user. As for Spip, it does not have a WYSIWYG editor which is replaced by specific tags that the user must be familiar with (a “mini-editor” allows to insert them). This greatly limits page edit possibilities, like the inclusion of images in the text, or a more complex table or structure; however this does allow the complete separation of form and content. It is also worth noting that a full WYSIWYG editor such as FckEditor can be integrated. Jahia includes the graphic editor FckEditor, which ensures functionality on all client platforms. There are three distinguishable levels of use for this editor (light, complete, etc.) configurable profile by profile. We can as such offer, for example, the full version to the administrator and the simplified version to contributors. eZ Publish integrates its own Open Source editor "Online editor", under GPL. This WYSIWYG editor writes in XML as opposed to HTML, this results in some very minor formatting restrictions, but ensures perfect separation of form from content. Furthermore, perfectly integrated with the CMS, this editor allows to insert files from the eZPublish media library, to upload a file directly as a content attachment. 5.0, the latest version from the editor, is based on TinyMCE. InfoGlue natively integrates a rich text editor, based on FckEditor (versions prior to version 2 used HTMLArea), which is very well integrated with the CMS, and which allows to create a link to content by selecting it, and likewise for the insertion of images.Good separation of form and content is more a question of policy than a question oftool. On an integrated CMS such as Spip, Joomla, OpenCMS, or Drupal, it is not unreasonable to authorise contributors to define formatting beyond Bold and Italics. The multi-channel restriction is very slight, and we can count on validation processes to control these contributions and ensure that pages are homogenous.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  26. 26. Page 26 CMS, open source solutions As opposed to this, in Enterprise CMS such as eZ Publish, InfoGlue, Jahia and Typo3, this restriction must be closely complied with. It must be highlighted that the possibilities of structuring of specific article types greatly limit the need to insert formatting in articles, as for each article field a format can be defined at template level, as we will see later. [3.1.3] MultilingualismFor some time, multilingualism was manually implemented using handy hints builtinto the CMS tree-structure and elsewhere. This meant that to give the site aninternational dimension one had to create as many sections (e.g. FR & EN) aslanguages, at the root of the site. The corresponding sites were managedindependently to each other.Better handling of multilingualism is required for companies with internationalpresence.As such the CMS must manage different translations for each piece of content tobuild multilingual sites – this reintroduces a link or dependence between the sites.This dependence makes it possible to go between one language and another on agiven page, to use an automatic page translation tool, etc.Multilingual management can become very complex: fields that require translation,fields that don’t require translation, the chain to validate translations, automaticand semi-automatic translations, specific permissions for a given language,consideration of the different “alphabets”, identification of the visitors’ language, etc.This is why multilingualism is now a fundamental part of content management. Alltools offer different multilingualism implementations; some are limited to the samecontainer for different languages; others offer a full interaction with excellentfunctions. This is an important point to be considered if you wish to communicate atinternational level. A plugin (content translation and locale) must be used if you wish to implement a multilingual site on Drupal. This allows to configure languages and behaviours on your site. Drupal, like Spip, creates links between the different linguistic versions, a basic principle which is generally sufficient. eZ Publish perfectly manages multilingualism; it is one of the forerunners in this domain. Every piece of content can be translated into one or more languages. The creation of linguistic versions of the site is very easy to implement. Configurable management rules allow to define eZ Publish behaviour in the absence of a linguistic version of a piece of content.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  27. 27. Page 27 CMS, open source solutions Infoglue offers a very appealing language management feature. The interfaces are straightforward and linguistic versions are made around content not pages. Content or structure (a page) is composed of two facets: range and version. The range contains general content information (is the content protected? what is its lifecycle? etc). Each piece of content and structure has one single range. Each element has multiple versions. A version is created for an element as soon as we modify published content or when we create a new language. This gives us a version tree-structure for each element, one branch per language. This CMS is very comprehensive on this point. Jahia perfectly manages multilingualism. The linguistic mechanism is well-oiled and easily accessed via different screens. “By default” it manages languages based on user preferences (e.g. where the profile is connected). The administrator can configure the front office display rules according to the availability of content. Jahia allows to declare content attributes that are not translatable. Very thorough multi-language management. Joomla does not natively offer multi-language site management. To properly implement a multi-language site (beyond two separate tree-structures), a complimentary extension, such as Joom !Fish must be activated. OpenCMS does offer multi-language management. Similarly to Jahia, different linguistic versions can exist for given content. Spip also offers multi-language management; it has evolved-well in this regard. As Spip is more “page” than “content” orientated, article translation is carried out by the link between two pages (data entered by the contributor); a simple but efficient solution. Typo3 offers several multilingual site options. Apart from that of developing X number of sites (one per language), it is possible to define several linguistic versions of a given page (where one page has content in French another content in English etc.) For the initialization of a linguistic version, the contributor can copy the content from the existing source. From there on, the site administrator can delegate administration of a linguistic version to a given contributor. [3.1.4] Organisation of contentThe traditional mode of content organisation is, of course, that of ahierarchical tree-structure, similar in structure to a directory. Each level on thetree-structure, each file or folder within the directory, corresponds to a concept, aclassification based on the sense of each item, for example based on themes.To give an example: the content of a media site can be organised into sport, culture,international, etc., the sport section can then be broken down into basket, football,etc.In this example, content is organised in line with how publishing is organised. It iseasy to see that where internal organisation reflects external organisation, theadministrators work is greatly simplified.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  28. 28. Page 28 CMS, open source solutionsHowever, when content management is planned at company level as the platform forseveral publications, it is unlikely that the organisation of publications reflects theorganisation of the content repository. In this case, it is worth defining in whatmanner the articles will be placed in the structure of each publication, eitherexplicitly, by placing each article in a specific position, or implicitly usingmanagement rules.Pure hierarchical organisation is not always the best solution, even within alone site, as it can be too structured. There are a number of alternatives. We can forexample, associate an article with different themes, which is a more relational thanhierarchical approach to organisation. This is sometimes referred to as contentcategorisation or taxonomy, which is an important feature of contentmanagement.Classification that is not strictly hierarchical is often a necessity at publication level.An article on a local football match may appear in both the “sport” section and the“local news” section. The possibility of finding an article in different areas ofthe tree-structure allows to satisfy visitors who each have their ownrationale; we are talking here of multi-positioning.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  29. 29. Page 29 CMS, open source solutionsThis point is very important. Presenting content in a logical, organised manner isnot sufficient, one must also take the visitors manner of thinking intoconsideration. As we don’t all follow the same manner of reasoning, content mustbe made available based on different ways of reasoning.Pages and content For certain CMS, content is always created in a specific page, or even a specific part of a specific page. For others, the creation, validation, and versioning of content is independent to the notion of page. It is only once created and validated that the content can be placed in one or more pages. This approach comes from the principle of separating management (upstream) and publication (downstream).Even when content is placed on a page first, it is important that it can be restored onother pages without being duplicated. As such if the content is updated on one filethe updated version will automatically appear on all of the other pages that thiscontent is displayed on.This multiple restitution of content, sometimes referred to as the multi-positioningof articles, can be handled explicitly: where the manager places the article in a givenpage or pages; or implicitly where rules are created to manage publication(sometimes using taxonomy). The display of the latest 5 news headlines on the homepage, or on the side of certain pages, is a typical example of publication by rules. A new headline doesn’t need to be placed on such and such a page (the home page for example), as it is recognised as “news” content type (or it is associated with the keyword News) and because it is recent, it will automatically appear on the given page/pages. Some solutions are based on multi-positioning to manage multi-sites; this corresponds to use of the same content within different sites (in this case, one single management tool with a single database is often used).© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  30. 30. Page 30 CMS, open source solutions Spip, Drupal & Joomla are “content” orientated; each piece of content (article, newsflash, section, etc.) forms a page, with a URL. Keywords then allow to assign content to different pages. Typo3 is “page” orientated. A page contains one or more columns, and each column contains one or more blocks of content or modules, which gives page layout great flexibility. The validation and monitoring of versions are done at the level of the page as a whole. Jahia is also “page” orientated, reflecting its portal aspect. Page formatting is flexible, and dependant on the templates created. Well-implemented categorisation – or the “content picker” (improved on version 6) – then allows to assign content to several pages. The validation and monitoring of versions is carried out by page and content. Jahia also allows to carry out multi-positioning of content using the principle of “virtual links”. eZ Publish is more “content” orientated. Content follows validation processes, is followed-up in versions, and placed in several folders, which they themselves are considered as content. A piece of content has a URL in relation to its position on the tree- structure. Page are managed via templates. The eZ Flow extension allows to build page layouts from repository elements (contents). InfoGlue is “content” orientated. Content is validated, followed-up in versions, and multi-positioned via components. Infoglue separates the content tree-structure from that of rendered informtion. Content is visible in the front office via components placed in pages by the webmaster. [3.1.5] Versions of contentVersion management and the capacity to conserve previous versions of a givenarticle (content in the larger meaning of the term), are basic functions of a CMS.They apply to both old and future versions. As such, a given article can have anonline version, a N+1 version (accepted but not published), and a N+2 version (indraft status).As we will see further on in this document, having several simultaneous versions ofthe same content is necessary for the workings of validation workflows. This is whatallows us to follow chains of validation for each modification, and so to alwaysensure that a manager checks the quality of the published item.Versions can be managed at either content or page level – where a page presents oneor more organised content blocks -, or at the level of part of the site or even thecomplete site. Management of the site version is complex to manipulate, but isuseful to conjointly publish content blocks, divided up throughout the site. This is apractise which is come across in large structures where a single communication canlead to whole range of changes; in this case, the modifications can not be publishedindividually; they form a coherent whole which must be “manipulated” in one block.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  31. 31. Page 31 CMS, open source solutionsWhere version management is involved bug management is not far behind. The toolmust also avoid all loss, by prohibiting two people to access to a given document atthe same time or by creating different versions, one per person.For traceability purposes, contributors need for one to know who has modified whaton the site, and secondly, what the differences are between the two versions, be it atcontent, page or site level.A differentiating point between the tools is the capacity to manage versions ofattachments, like PDF files for example, but also images. As when a contributormodifies a press release with a PDF attachment, replacing the text but also thePDF, the tool must be abel to differentiate between the two PDF versions for thechain of validation and to make it possible to return to a previous version. Joomla does not integrate a version management system. It does however lock articles which are being edited, in order to avoid inconsistencies. This makes it impossible to return to older versions unless the user copies the page and labels it as an archive. Drupal now integrates a version manager. The creation of a new version is, nevertheless, declarative; it is the contributor who decides when a new version is created. It is possible to get around this, but the Drupal version management system remains relatively basic. Spip conserves article versions and can display the differences between two versions; but management remains basic. Spip locks articles which are being edited, in order to avoid inconsistencies. Spip’s weakness lies in the fact that it does not allow to modify an article independently to the online version. Typo3 allows to natively manage complete tree-structure versions thanks to the workspace notion. Since version 3.7, a versioning module allows to create new page versions, but also complete tree-structures, which can be worked on, and then uploaded. The differential remains at the level of each piece of content. As such, a contributor can work on Draft content, accept it, and automatically make this content Go Live (online). This is a very practical feature. OpenCms manages content versions. The separation of work and publication spaces allows to work a tree-structure, piece of content or file without impacting on the online version. eZ Publish can manage content versions, including versions of files associates with content; it is very complete in this respect. eZ Publish associates a version with a status in the chain of validation, which allows to perfectly manage content, in modification and monitoring. eZ Publish offers a version comparison system. Jahia has a version monitoring module. Page or page content modifications and validations are carried out in parallel with the online version, the draft version of the overall site can even be previewed; which is a really interesting feature. Jahia offers a version comparison system.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  32. 32. Page 32 CMS, open source solutions InfoGlue manages versions at content level, and allows a given piece of content both a published status and draft status. Once content is published, its display depends on its life cycle (creation date, expiry date); this introduces a new status which can be entitled “archived”. Content is always present in the back office but not visible in the front office. Infoglue allows batch publication.[3.2] Manipulating contentThis section deals with manipulating content, including lifecycle management. Oncethe content type has been defined, content can be created, modified, published, etc.This is obviously the main purpose of the CMS, and as such particular attentionmust be paid to this content manipulation. [3.2.1] The management interfaceOver the years, the content management interface has become a key element of theCMS.Contributors and administrators spend most of their time updating. It is for thisreason that it is important that they have an efficient interface at their disposalwhich facilitates their work and helps to save time.The use of technologies such as Ajax (grouped technologies which allow to exchangeand manipulate data without having to reload the page) allow to implementinterfaces which have nothing to do with simple Web pages; this allows to build realinteractive applications which can be used via a simple navigator. This can be takenfurther again: use of keyboard shortcuts, field “completers”, “drag and drop”,contextual menus, etc.It is easier to delete a page in one click using a contextual menu than by loading apage, then finding the “delete” button and clicking on it. It is easier to associatekeywords using a “completer” tool (which proposes existing keywords based on thefirst few letters entered) than by entered keywords one by one (without spellingerrors), etc.Beyond ergonomics (a key part of a good management interface), ease of use is vitalin approbation of the tool. All too many tools are rejected by contributors, who arenot generally technicians. It is not surprising then that the CMS which are mostcommonly used are those that are the easiest to access and handle.Certain CMS with complex interfaces put the emphasis on the “productivity” of theirback office, which is to say that what they lack in user-friendliness is made up for inefficiency once the tool is mastered.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  33. 33. Page 33 CMS, open source solutionsNaturally, the management interface is only one of the criteria taken intoconsideration; the others must not be forgotten: extendibility, performance, etc. Joomla made a great impression right from the beginning, in great part due to the quality of its management interface. Highly graphic and well-finished, its screens are greatly inspired by Web computer tools. It interface is easy to master and even though some terminology may be difficult to understand at first (menu, section, category). In 2010, it seems a little dated, especially in relation to Ajax (no drag and drop to put pages into order, for example). Drupal is also very easy to use. Its interfaces are low key and practical. Drupal differentiates itself from its competitors with its management interface (back office) which is situated in the front office. This can be a little disconcerting initially but is actually very interesting to use. The only downside is complex navigation between functions when numerous extensions are activated. Version 7.0, which recently became available, provides improved ergonomics, with great use of Ajax. Very promising. The Spip hasn’t evolved very much, in terms of graphics in particular, from version to version. Users like its ease of handling, improved in version 2.0 to make it one of the easiest to use CMS. The WYSIWYG editor for typographic shortcuts sometimes proves to be confusing for contributors. Typo3 has few weaknesses, but its management interface is one of them. Beyond the “idea” behind the tool (that it may be complex but highly efficient), its screens are difficult to read due to the great number of functions. Fortunately version 4.3 provides a well-made frontend-editing contribution (from the front office interface – i.e. the part visible to web-users) which makes it easier for those who do not have technical experience to contribute. The eagerly-awaited version 5, promises to provide a new, much more ergonomic, graphic interface. In the meantime, Typo3 users are highlighting the productivity associated with its use. OpenCMS has the peculiarity of “reproducing” Windows screens. This can be advantageous as regards change management associated with certain projects. This imitation can, however, lead to strange behaviour in web interfaces. eZ Publish has a relatively staid interface which is straightforward and easily accessible. It is a good compromise between advanced features and usability. The recently released version 4.3 delivers a revamped interface, more neutral and most especially featuring very practical Ajax functions. Jahia provides a well-designed interface that it is hard to find fault with. Its front end editing tool is exceptionally easy to use; guaranteeing that users will quickly take to it. The only downside is the block architecture (a page is made up of several blocks); it is sometimes difficult to find the entrance point for interface modifications; likewise for workflow statuses.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  34. 34. Page 34 CMS, open source solutions One of the advantages with Infoglue is that it clearly separates the contribution step from the page layout step. Its interfaces are nice but lack Ajax. Contributors can work solely on content production without worrying about rendering or final positioning. The positioning of content in the rendering tree-structure can be automatically or manually carried out by the webmaster. Building a page from a black page can be a bit daunting for a beginner, but it actually turns out to be quite easy. [3.2.2] Depositing contentIn the first versions of content management tools, content integration was doneexclusively by a simple form (e.g.: title, sub-title, text, etc.) without even using aWYSIWYG editor.Things have come a long way since then, and there are now a great number of waysto incorporate content: a form with a graphic editor, multi-uploads, WebDAV,frontend editing, Microsoft or Open Office integration, email, etc.Forms and editorsForms remain the main method for integrating web site content, but today they arefar more comprehensive and efficient.Firstly, they almost all include a graphic editor (WYSIWYG: What you see is whatyou get). This editor must be completely integrated with your CMS in order tofunction efficiently (see above).Secondly, forms (like content) are more structured (see the “cooking recipe” exampleabove) which allows to assist the contributor in entering data.Frontend EditingFrontend Editing consists in modifying content directly from the front office. Wealways work using forms but this makes it easier to navigate and search for a pageto be modified. Frontend Editing is particularly well adapted to site proofing ormodification, going through pages and stopping at those which requiremodifications. This is a very simple mode of contribution, mainly due to the factthat the interfaces lack advanced functions.Multi-uploadUpload fields have always existed in forms but in the past loads were made one byone. Today, new components (often in flash) allow any number of files to be loadedsimultaneously. This greatly revolutionizes the creation of a media library!© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  35. 35. Page 35 CMS, open source solutionsWebDAVThe HTTP protocol has developed an extra layer allowing to make a web server a fileserver. WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) allows users toaccess and modify files (or content in the larger sense) on distant web servers.Compared to the well-known FTP protocol, the WebDAV protocol also allows to lockfiles while they are being modified by a user, but more importantly, it avoids havingto make a local copy of the file before modifying it. This allows users to work incollaboration on files that are stored on a distant server, as if it was asimple shared directory on a network.User workstations must be equipped with a WebDAV client in order to allow them toaccess it. The Windows file explorer has one, as does Microsoft Word & Open Office,together with several (free) clients for Linux and Mac.The integration of WebDAV with content management tools opens up newfunctionalities: access to files published and publication processes outside the webinterface.WebDAV access to a CMS must employ the same security as web interface access,with the same users and permissions.Integration with word processorsFor several companies and organisations, the creation of a web site goes through thenever-ending copy/paste phase. The majority of content is usually already availablein office format, preciously held by the communications department.Today the best CMS provide interfaces which include the best word processors onthe market. Integration, in conjunction with the WebDAV protocol, is exceptionallyefficient! You just need to deposit your files via WebDAV and they are automaticallyconverted into articles on your site. Over time, you will be able to manage your site(content at least) directly from your favourite word processor.Email integrationEditors and communities have come to understand the obstacles to the use of theirsolutions. They have attempted to increase the ways in which content can beintegrated easily.Among these methods, we now find the integration of emails directly in the CMS.The principle is: to route emails and transform messages into articles or flashes(with consideration of attachments, for the most advanced solutions).This method is very easy to use. It is recommended in Intranet mode to collect, forexample, news regarding various subjects and breakthroughs. Email integrationmust be coupled with a workflow to validate content before it is published online.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  36. 36. Page 36 CMS, open source solutionsA site which works well is a site that is up-to-date! It is for this reason that weconsider it to be a fundamental concept of content management. As we have seen,there is a wide range of content integration methods; one must take care to chooseone which suits the organisation and format of your content. OpenCMS allows the integration of content via structured forms, WebDAV and frontend editing. Typo3 offers different types of content integration: frontend editing, adapted forms, multi-uploads and email via extensions. Joomla integrates content using forms. eZ Publish is very comprehensive as regards content integration. Content can be integrated: using structured forms (often accompanied by a WYSIWYG editor), via OpenOffice, via a multi-load flash component and via WebDAV implementation. eZ Publish offers a frontend editing mode together with a content saving module via a mail intermediary. Spip is more restrictive in this respect. It provides fixed interfaces to integrate different types of content (articles, flashes, sections) and multiple loads via a community component. Jahia provides content integration via structured forms, WebDAV, multiple uploads via Zip files and frontend editing. Infoglue integrates content via structured forms and multiple uploads (via a flash component). It also offers frontend editing via back office etc. Drupal allows content integration via forms. It also supports WebDAV and multiple loads via plugins. Frontend editing is native; a Drupal commitment. [3.2.3] The lifecycle of contentArticles are born, live and die within the content database. Let’s take a look at howthe CMS manages this lifecycle.One of the standard needs consists in preparing an article before its publication date,and programming this article to go live automatically on a certain date.An article can also have a life duration that is known in advance: either in terms ofduration or in terms of a given expiry date. This allows for example to create anarticle entitled “how to complete your income tax return”, and indicate right fromcreation, that this article is valid for one year, or up to the 31 of January 2011.What happens on this date? The article can easily be removed from the siteautomatically. In certain cases, the contributor will wish to be informed of theupcoming modification in advance. The CMS can then, allow to define the article© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  37. 37. Page 37 CMS, open source solutionsremoval date together with a date upon which the contributor and/or webmaster willbe alerted on this looming site modification. Once alerted, the contributor canupdate the article if necessary, and define a new article expiry date.These are relatively basic lifecycles. One may need more complex options, and inparticular that article display options change between its creation and expiry. Forexample, an article may remain on the home page for one week, then remain in thenews section for three months, and then one year in the archive section before finallydisappearing off the site.We generally use process triggers and workflows to implement lifecycles. In relation to lifecycle management, Joomla only allows to define the start and expiry dates for articles. Drupal has a “Scheduler” module which allows to manage content lifecycles. Spip meets common needs and allows to publish articles, prepared in advance, from a given date, without a publication expiry date. A slight modification (being developed) will allow to implement publication start and expiry dates. In the same way, Typo3 optionally defines a start and expiry date for the visibility of each article, without expiry alerts. Typo3 also manages the duration that a page will live for, even a full tree-structure. eZ Publish does not associate the duration of life with content, but this functionality is made possible by simply configuring the tool: add the two dates (or more) to each content structure, and configure the workflow event so that it compares the date of the day with the start and expiry dates entered. This is an important part of the tool. The extension eZ Flow also allows to create pages by blocks and to create block actions (automatic rotation, publication on the _, etc. Jahia allows to define start and expiry dates for all content. It is also possible to plan “daily” publications (for example, every day from 5pm – 6pm, etc.) and “weekly” publications (for example, Monday from 9am – 10am, Tuesday from 15pm -16pm, etc.). For more complex actions, the workflow engine must be implemented and configured. InfoGlue allows to input start and expiry dates in content metadata, as such defining the lifecycle for each piece of content.Validation workflowsIt is often necessary to be able to separate the contribution steps from validationsteps. This is the case when it comes to situations where contributions are externaland come from a great number of different sources. If we wish to keep full control ofcontent, as is often essential, an article must first be drafted, then accepted, and© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden
  38. 38. Page 38 CMS, open source solutionsthen eventually published online. This is important as contributors are often neithercommunications nor web specialists.In certain situations, there are several levels of validation: a contributor writes anarticle, his head of department accepts it at his level, and then the head ofcommunications accepts it at his level. Validation or acceptance must, then, be implemented by the CMS with all of the features of a real workflow: the contributing parties must be notified by mail regarding tasks that relate to them, and managers must be able to consult the list of articles that await validation, in one simple click. But validation doesn’t end here, once content has been created, accepted and publishedfollowing the validation process, one must be able to modify it, accept modificationsand republish, where online content remains unchanged until the modified versionis published. Advanced management of versions must therefore be associated withthe validation process, allowing several simultaneous statuses for the same content.Workflows are, then, elements that make up a whole part of the contentlifecycle. They have to be given serious consideration as regards the organisation ofyour work. And this even more in that implementation varies depending on theCMS. With Spip, an article can be in draft, proposed, published, refused or deleted status. Depending on their role as writer or administrator, one has/does not have publishing permissions. The workflow is therefore relatively limited, but sufficient in most situations. It should be noted that in order to modify an article that is already online, it has to be duplicated to then go through the validation process, as Spip content can only have one status at a time. Validation management is very straightforward with Joomla. Content is either in “published” or “not published” status. Only a user with the right permissions can change the status of an article. Joomla is not adapted to a collaborative content production mode.© Smile – Open Source Solutions - All unauthorised reproduction is strictly forbidden