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Richard Rogers, The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods, Internews Kiev, 4 November 2010

Richard Rogers, The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods, Internews Kiev, 4 November 2010

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Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010 Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010 Presentation Transcript

  • THE END OF THE VIRTUAL: DIGITAL METHODS PROF. RICHARD ROGERS
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS > Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  • FROM CYBERSTUDIES OVER VIRTUAL METHODS TO DIGITAL METHODS Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000) Virtual as distinct from the real. Cyberstudies Web as Virtual Society? (2000-2007) Virtual is part of the real. Virtual methods Web as Virtual? Society (2007- ) 'Virtual' as indication of the real. Digital methods? Use online data and ground claims offline, or make 'online grounded' claims?
  • THE LEGACY OF CYBERSPACE Terminological persistence of cyberspace (in security studies discourse) [C]yberspace is now largely considered history, [yet] it is worth recognizing its continued presence in unexpected places: the U.S. Department of Defense prioritizes ‘cyberspace’ in its plans for protecting national infrastructure. At the same time, however, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace may be read as yet more evidence of cyberspace’s demise - if not through dismissal, then by depriving cyberspace of its revolutionary connotations to the point that it is no longer recognizable. - Michael Stevenson, 2010
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research >2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  • THINKING ABOUT THE VIRTUAL The continued use of 'the virtual': Apologists, or field-builders? 1) That which is not actually existing (virtual reality) 2) Between the actual and the real (disembodied, time-shifted or space-shifted) 3) Existing in effect (real-world effects) 4) Simulated ("artificial") (virtual world) 5) Representation (not the real thing) 6) Counterfeit (fake) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7) Related to online research (virtual ethnography; virtual methods)v
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? > The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  • MEDIA AS CONTENT? WEB AS CONTENT? McLuhan's critique of the western obsession with content in Understanding Media "Our typographical minds have trained us to concentrate on content, and ignore the medium." "The 'content' of a medium is like the juicy piece of meat carried by the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind." "typographic cultural bias" "typographic trance of the West" "typographic spell"
  • WEB AS PROBLEM FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS Three 'eras' of content types online The Web 0.1 Under Construction: Websites need 'filling in' The Web 1.0 Underground: "Fandom, porn and aliens have taken cyber-theory into a political and cultural wasteland." - Jodi Dean (2004) The Web 2.0 Amateur: The Web is "[where] ignorance meets egoism meets bad taste meets mob rule." - Andrew Keen (2007)
  • THE 'EMPTY' WEB The Web continually disappoints substantively "[T]he majority of the forum and blog discussions did not in any way match the normative criteria of the Habermasian public sphere." - T. Poell (2009) "It becomes clear that the quality of the [forum] discussion leaves a lot to be desired." - T. Witschge (2007)
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis >4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  • HISTORICAL PROBLEM WITH WEB DATA Web data's incapacity to stand alone (1) One issue is the messiness of Web data and the need for data cleansing heuristics. The uncontrolled Web creates numerous problems in the interpretation of results (…). (2) Indeed a skeptical researcher could claim the obstacles are so great that all Web analyses lack value. (3) One response to this is to demonstrate that Web data correlate significantly with some non-Web data in order to prove that the Web data are not wholly random. -M. Thelwall et al., "Webometrics," 2005. (Emphasis added.)
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? >5. How to become a digital methods researcher (digital vs. virtual methods)
  • VIRTUAL (DIGITIZED) METHODS Digitized methods Online surveys - Finding the list to mail them to. Online interviews - Become written exchanges by email. (Online) observation - Watching users over the shoulder. Online samples - Become difficult. Also issue of exhaustiveness. Online investigative reporting - Fact-checking by phoning/surfing?
  • DIGITAL METHODS Distinction between methods that migrate to the medium and those ‘native’ to it General Digital Methods Protocol - Follow the Medium Which objects are available? (Links, tags, threads, timestamp...) How do dominant devices and platforms handle them? How to learn from and repurpose medium methods? (Mash-up...) Are findings grounded in the online? Is the online the baseline?
  • CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE "This newspaper made an inventory of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites.... The newspaper found 150 of such sites that came and went over the past 10 years. The internet archive's wayback machine was used. We found that the number of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites grew after 11 September 2001, the rise of Pim Fortuyn...The growth was explosive... The difference in language use became smaller.... The internet is revealing a hardening of the Netherlands." - NRC Handelsblad (newspaper), 25 August 2007 On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results.
  • FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS: SUMMARY Situating Digital Methods: Beyond online cultural studies and user studies 2. Like cyberstudies, virtual studies are only one (niche) type of Internet research From 'content analysis' to medium specificity - studying natively digital objects 4. The Web as epistemological machinery, employing Web data sets 5. Digital methods research learns from and repurposes methods in media
  • DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES The Link - As reputation marker and indicator of a politics of association The Website - As an archived object, awaiting use The Engines - As ordering devices, providing hierarchies of credibility {4. The Spheres - As bounded, engine-demarcations, with distinctive qualities} {5. The Webs - As national Webs, with characteristics that may used for diagnoses}
  • DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES 6. Social Networking Sites - As friends' tastes for 'post-demographic' profiling {7. Wikipedia - As networked content, held together and 'co-authored' by bots} {8. Twitter - De-banalizing tweets and providing accounts of the ground}
  • 1. THE LINK How to follow the medium's dominant device, and repurpose Google's link handling? Google treats hyperlinks as reputation markers, and as indicators of relevance.
  • E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 10 Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 2 of of 9 Ranked Actor Profile 2 10 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 3 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 3 of 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 4 of of 9 Ranked Actor Profile 4 10 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur thomas.loc.gov picnicnetwork.org usdoj.gov vsbfonds.nl ncjrs.org minocw.nl aclu.org mondriaanfoundation.nl (14) inlinks and (0) (8) outlinks (10) inlinks and outlinks (8)(10) inlinks andoutlinks inlinks and (4) (0) outlinks (7) (9) inlinks and (10) outlinks inlinks and (1) outlinks (8) (9) inlinks and (3) outlinks inlinks and (1) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue thomas.loc.gov is not returned in E cultuur , beeld, fotografie, vsbfonds.nlis not returned in the usdoj.gov is not returned in ncjrs.org is not returned in the Speech van Staatssecretaris Van eCultuur Denot returned in the aclu.org is Mondriaan Stichting the top 1000 results for educatie. Ronnie Stevens, top 1000 results for "Criminal the top 1000 results for der Laan Symposium"Criminal in top 1000 results for eCultuur hecht groot belang aan top 1000 results for "Criminal - 134 -- - 31 41 - Oleksandr Justice Reform". "Criminal Demchenko, Eileen e-cultuurReform". Justice Justice Reform". Beweging, ... Van mijn korte cultuureducatie, zowel voor Justice Reform". Bell, Erik Driessen, Hanneke aanwezigheid moet de volgende jongeren als voor volwassenen. Vos, Frans Nauta ... boodschap uitgaan: eCultuur ... Uit onderzoeken van Ineke ... Ranked Actor Profile 5 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 7 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 8 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 5 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 6 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 6 of 25-Aug-2008 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 7 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 8 of 10 22-Nov-2006 e-cultuur e-cultuur e-cultuur e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform doen.nl fondsbkvb.nl creativecommons.org waag.org sentencingproject.org ojp.usdoj.gov ojjdp.ncjrs.org state.ny.us (8) inlinks and (2) outlinks (7) inlinks and (11) outlinks (7) inlinks and (7) outlinks (7) inlinks and (12) outlinks (5) inlinks and (0) outlinks (7) inlinks and (5) outlinks (7) inlinks and (2) outlinks (6) inlinks and (0) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue creativecommons.org is not waag.org is not returned in the doen.nl is not returned in the File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Information about crime, courts, Now let's look at the ojjdp.ncjrs.org is not returned returned in the top 1000 results Governor Pataki Introduces top 1000 results for e-cultuur top 1000 results for e-cultuur View as HTML Het Virtueel - - sentencing, criminal justice 159 imprisonment movement, the second for the top 1000 results for in e-cultuur - Criminal Justice Reform 10 358 Platform, sectorinstituut voor - 73 policy analysis, punishment, great criminal justice reform of "Criminal Justice Reform". Initatives. Police and Public e-cultuur , stelt zich als. doel alternatives to incarceration and the past two decades. The Protection Act, Criminal om e-cultuur in Nederland te ... reform. expanded use of prison ... Procedural Law Reform to ... Ranked Actor Profile 9 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Issue Crawler-discovered actors, Ranked Actor Profile 9 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 10 of 10 22-Nov-2006 signi cant to the e-culture sector e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform in the Netherlands.* flickr.com afk.nl Legend followthemoney.org albany.edu aimsterdam.nl (6) inlinks and (2) outlinks amsterdam.nl (5) inlinks and (3) outlinks (5) inlinks and (3) outlinks anymeta.net beeldengeluid.nl creativecommons.nl creativecommons.org cultuurfonds.nl del.icio.us doen.nl emaf.de Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue fabchannel.com feedreader.com Method Flickr is almost certainly the followthemoney.org is not bestis the author of Explaining and He online photo management lmfestivalrotterdam.com returned in the top 1000 results 18 Criminal Justice: Community Insert the organisations in the Virtual Platform database - 592 sharing application in the world. lmfund.nl for "Criminal Justice Reform". Show offand Criminal photos and Theory your favorite Justice as the starting points for an Issue Crawler map. lmmuseum.nl videos to.the view Dr. Duffee's Reform To world, ... ickr.com Perform this over time and make a ranked list of persistent actors. Vitae - click here. [Photo ... fondsbkvb.nl Rank and profile actors in the shown issue network (August 08), frankwatching.com and show their ranking according to Google PageRank per issue. hku.nl hollandfestival.nl hyves.nl idfa.nl kunstenaarsenco.nl last.fm marketingfacts.nl mediamatic.nl E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors _______________________ - minocw.nl mondriaanfoundation.nl mondriaanstichting.nl 08 prinsbernhardcultuurfonds.nl September November Analysis_ Richard Rogers and Sabine Niederer. syntens.nl transartists.nl Design _Marieke van Dijk. uva.nl vsbfonds.nl Data_from Virtual Platform. Analysis and visualization from issuecrawler.net youtube.com and tools.issuecrawler.net by govcom.org. *Each actor was present in the e-culture networks in April, June and August 2008. © 2008 Govcom.org
  • LINKING AS POLITICS OF ASSOCIATION . GM Food Network - Aspirational linking, Govcom.org, 1999.
  • The Palestinian Political Webs: Separate Spheres? What kind of 'state' of the Palestinian Web is suggested by the Hamas-related sites? Fatah-related and Hamas-related Networks Compared Method Insert Hamas-related sites in Issue Crawler. Perform co-link analysis. Render as spring map. Findings The Hamas-affiliated news agency, Palestine Information Center, has numerous mirrored websites in various languages, hosted and registered under the main domain name Palestine-Info, with different domain extensions (Palestine-info.info, Palestine-info.co.uk, Palestine-info.net, etc). These sites, together with otherHamas-related websites do not link out to other (Palestinian) websites.Instead, they provide links to RSS-feed readers, whereby individuals and other sites may subscribe to Hamas-related content. 6 September 2007 6 September 2007 What kind of 'state' of the Palestinian Web is suggested by the Fatah-related sites? Method Insert Fatah-related sites in Issue Crawler. Perform co-link analysis. Render as spring map. Findings Mapping the Palestinian Web Space ___________________________ Fatah's Palestinian Web may be characterized primarily as a 'civic Web'. Fatah-related and Hamas-related networks compared Fatah-related websites link to each other as well to Palestinian NGOs, Palestinian Media and to a lesser extent to International NGOs and Media. 07 Analysis by Anat Ben-David. Design by Marieke van Dijk. September A co-production of the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam, There are no links to other Palestinian political actors or to any official .ps websites. and the Information Society in Palestine project, Cambridge. The research presented in this publication is the result of a project supported by Canada's International Development Research Centre (www.idrc.ca). The Information Society in Palestine project was conceived and implemented by the Advanced Network Research, . Cambridge Security Programme, and The SecDev Group (www.secdev.ca).
  • DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING & INTERNET CENSORSHIP A METHOD FOR THE DISCOVERY OF CENSORED WEBSITES Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researchers, using the Issue Crawler, perform hyperlink analysis, discovering further URLs, and run them through a proxy in Iran for code 403’s (forbidden). On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results.
  • Method & Findings: A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites Using Issuecrawler.net, crawl URLs (on 30 March A hyperlink analysis method for censored Website discovery. 2006) from the OpenNet Initiative's list of Iranian social, political and religious sites. Find network of sites through one iteration of co-link analysis (pictured). Fetch each site through a proxy in Iran (on 18 May 2006). Discover sites previously rdki.com unknown to be blocked. Compare newly discovered voanews.com blocked sites with entire list of Iranian Websites sh-shafa.com checked by the OpenNet Initiative. The finding is i-w-o.org the discovery of 30 blocked sites in Iran. medusa2000.com rowzane.com iranazad.com tehrantimes.com zagros.info marzeporgohar.org womeniniran.com siasate-kargari.com shamlou.org kasravi.info avairan.com radio-international.org Newly discovered blocked sites: didgah.com sharareha.com ihrwg.org sarbedaran.org bbc.co.uk/persian jebhemelli.net http://home.bip.net/radiohambastegi/ jebhe.org http://ir.mondediplo.com/ azadi-iran.org peykeiran.com nashrieh-nameh.com http://www.alahwaz.com/ radiokomaleh.com wpiran.org etehadchap.com http://www.ashoob.com/ fadaian.org http://www.asre-nou.net/ irandokht.com jebhemelli.org komalah.org http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/ iran-emrooz.de alahwaz.com un.org iran.mojahedin.org radiofarda.com http://www.channelonetv.com/ golshan.com home.bip.net/radiohambastegi http://www.didgah.com/ peiknet.com http://www.didgah.net/ hayateno.org kargar.org payvand.com/news panahjoo.com roshangari.com http://www.fadaee.org/ zan.org jonge-khabar.com mani-poesie.de http://www.fedayi.org/ etehadefedaian.org radis.org iran-e-sabz.org cpiran.org http://www.fwhi.org/ rahekargar.net fadaee.org fedayi.org http://www.geocities.com/~fedaian/ hamshahri.net ranjbaran.org komala.org http://www.gozareshgar.com/ kanoon-zendanian.org http://www.iran-jommelli.com/ amnesty.org gooya.com radiobarabari.net http://www.iranazad.com/ baztab.com shahrvand.com http://www.irandokht.com/ forughfarrokhzad.org isnagency.com fadai.org negah1.com siahkal.com http://www.komalah.org/ asre-nou.net ashoob.com http://www.kvinnonet.org/ ettelaat.com iran-newspaper.com tudehpartyiran.org mihan.net http://www.mani-poesie.de/ news.gooya.com avayeashena.com fwhi.org http://www.medusa2000.com/ nehzateazadi.org pdk-iran.org http://www.mihan.net/ rfi.fr/fichiers/Langues/rfi_persan_main.asp http://www.negah1.com/ golshirifoundation.org gozareshgar.com irna.com http://www.peykeiran.com/ ilna.ir wsu-iran.org channelonetv.com iran-chabar.de http://www.radio-international.org/ iran-jommelli.com http://www.radiobarabari.net/ shamlu.com kvinnonet.org toufan.org avayezan.com marxists.org A co-production between the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam, and the http://www.rdki.com/ geocities.com/~fedaian OpenNet Initiative, a partnership between the Citizen Lab at the Munk http://www.roozonline.com/ sharghnewspaper.com Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, the Berkman Center hadisara.com ir.mondediplo.com http://www.shahrvand.com/ for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network http://www.zagros.info/ Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme at Cambridge University, and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University. iransocialforum.org rooydad.com Legend didgah.net Internet Censorship Visualizations________________________2006 A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites Blocked sites roozonline.com Newly discovered blocked sites 06 Accessible sites Data_by OpenNet Initiative and map by Issuecrawler.net. alefbe.com Analysis_by Richard Rogers, Nart Villeneuve and Erik IR A N Inaccessible site (owing to DNS issue) Borra, and design_by Marieke van Dijk. Size of node indicates inlink count from network. © 2006 Govcom.org and ONI
  • 2. THE WEBSITE How is it often studied? User and Eyeball Studies Usability - "Don't make me think." Also: The Web is blue. Eye-tracking - Heat maps tell stories, and help redesign sites. Site optimization - "Grabbing more eyeballs" Site features - types of interactivity ergo participation
  • 2. THE WEBSITE How else to study it? As an archived object, awaiting use. Internet Archive literature review - articles about it, but not how it's used. Follow Wayback Machine's interface - Privileges single-site histories. Capture a site's history. What does it tell?
  • 3. THE ENGINE How is it often studied? As a dark web-maker, as attention deficit, as 'googlization' Engines include and exclude by not indexing orphans; by burying sites. Engines encourage attention deficits. Users rarely look past result 10. 'Contemplative man' replaced by 'flickering man.' Googlization turns the engine into an object of mass media critique. Google as monolith. Surveillance studies. One’s search history becomes new databody.
  • DATABODY STUDIES Stored Search Engine Queries (anonymized) - What do they tell? AOL user 311045 apparently owns a Scion XB automobile in need of new brake pads that is in the process of being upgraded with performance oil filters. User 311045, possibly a Florida resident, is preoccupied with another topic as well: >how to change brake pads on scion xb 2005 >us open cup florida state champions >how to get revenge on a ex >how to get revenge on a ex girlfriend >how to get revenge on a friend who f---ed you over >replacement bumper for scion xb >florida department of law enforcement
  • DATABODY 'SOLUTIONS' Answers to Stored Search Engine Queries (anonymized) - What to do? Scroogle.org - An Google search proxy which prevents the searcher's data being stored by Google. TrackMeNot - A Firefox extension that periodically issues randomied search-queries to popular search engines, e.g., AOL, Yahoo!, Google, and MSN. It hides users' actual search trails in a cloud of 'ghost' queries, significantly increasing the difficulty of aggregating such data into accurate or identifying user profiles.
  • 3. THE ENGINE How to repurpose Google for social research? Capture and reinterpret the engine's results. Inquire into the stability of the hierarchies of credibility. Query individual sites for partisanship and commitments with the Lippmannian Device.
  • ON TOP OF THE ENGINE: THE LIPPMANNIAN DEVICE Google as data source for the study of source partisanship Capture engine's results. Query each of the first hundred result for terms. How far are terms from the 'top of the Web'? (Source distance.) Inquire also into sources' partisanship and commitments.
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (6) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (55) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Sallie Baliunas” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Sallie Baliunas” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (6) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (0) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Timothy Ball” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Timothy Ball” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Robert Balling) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (2) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (11) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (4) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (11) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Robert Balling” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Robert Balling” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Paul Driessen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (0) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (28) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Paul Driessen” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Paul Driessen” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (42) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (14) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Sherwood Idso” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Sherwood Idso” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Richard Linzen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (13) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Richard Linzen” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Richard Linzen” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Patrick Michaels) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (4) pewclimate.org (2) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (3) foe.co.uk (0) eea.europa.eu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (1) dar.csiro.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) realclimate.org (45) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) faqs.org (0) climatecrisis.net (1) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (7) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Patrick Michaels” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Patrick Michaels” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (1) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (1) unep.org (1) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (1) pewclimate.org (1) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (1) climatechallenge.gov.uk (1) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (1) eea.europa.eu (1) whoi.edu (1) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (1) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (1) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (1) ecokids.ca (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (1) ecy.wa.gov (1) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (33) open2.net (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (1) climatecrisis.net (1) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (1) ltscotland.org.uk (1) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (1) envirolink.org (1) mofa.go.jp (1) sourcewatch.org (27) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (1) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (1) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Stephen Milloy” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Stephen Milloy” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Frederick Seitz) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (8) climateark.org (4) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (35) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) faqs.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (21) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Frederick Seitz” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Frederick Seitz” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (S. Fred Singer) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (1) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (14) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) sourcewatch.org (64) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (11) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Fred Singer” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Fred Singer” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (2) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (4) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (27) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Willie Soon” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Willie Soon” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  • 6. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES How are they often studied? Presentation of self, class conflict, friends? Presentation of (a more expansive) self. MySpace and Facebook have different 'classes' of users. Distinction between real-life friends and 'friended' friends.
  • 6. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES How else may they be studied? As post-demographics Post-demographics is a recognition that profiles are made of interests, i.e., favorite media interests (movies, TV shows, books) Study how profilers make use of preferences.
  • CONCLUSION: METHODS IN NEW MEDIA DIGITAL METHODS FOR (NEW) MEDIA RESEARCH 1. Links as reputation markers. 2. Websites as archived objects awaiting study. 3. Engines as epistemological machines with new orders of things. {4. Spheres as demaracted engine spaces for comparative study.} {5. Webs as national, to diagnose the condition of a country.} 6. Social networking sites as sets of friends' (post-demographic) tastes. {7. Wikipedia as networked content, dependent on bots for quality.} {8. Twitter as source of accounts on the ground.}
  • "There are methods in media." THANK YOU Digital Methods Initiative, http://www.digitalmethods.net Govcom.org Foundation, http://www.govcom.org Prof. Dr. Richard Rogers, University of Amsterdam, rogers@uva.nl