data visualization:  clouding     anne helmond & sabine niederer doing digital methods, rmes workshop, 28 june 2011
data visualization    the science of visual representation of “data”,    defined as information which has been abstracted  ...
data visualization                     1482: ptolemys world map
data visualization                     1611: scheiners “tres epistolae”
data visualization           1782: de fourcroy “tableau poleometrique”
data visualization                     1805: playfair
data visualization                     1836: parent-duchatelet
data visualization                     1837: harness
data visualization                     1869: minard
data visualization                     1873: loua’s scalogram
data visualization                     1991: schneiderman
direct visualization   data is reorganized into a new visual   representation that preserves its original form            ...
data visualization   a weighted list                     1992
history of the tag cloud                           1995
history of the tag cloud                           1997-2003
history of the tag cloud                           2004
tag cloud de nition  A tag cloud (word cloud, or weighted list in visual  design) is a visual representation for text data...
tag In online computer systems terminology, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information...
tagging   Tagging systems enable users to add keywords   (i.e., “tags”) to Internet resources (e.g., web pages,   images, ...
folksonomy  A folksonomy is a system of classi cation derived from  the practice and method of collaboratively creating  a...
types of tag clouds
types of tag clouds            content
types of tag clouds                      ordered
types of tag clouds                      un-ordered
types of tag clouds                      centered
ontological classi cation Domain to be Organized                       √      Domain to be Organized                      ...
tagging critiques    messy    amateur    spammy    non-human metadata
tag-elese            simons 2008
messy
fauxonomy  “metadata added with the conscious intent to  confuse or obfuscate,” or to weight them for  spammish reasons. (...
non-human metadata
extracting value from big data    The strategy of tagging -- free-form labeling,    without regard to categorical constrai...
compare privacy policies
tag exercise 1  Compare privacy policies: Twitter and Facebook  1. Look up privacy policies  2. Copy/paste all text into W...
tag exercise 1                advanced  Compare privacy policies: Twitter and Facebook  1. Look up privacy policies  2. Co...
clouding current events           #glastonbury                          27 june 2011
tag exercise 2  Clouding a current event: Glastonbury  1. Scrape top 1000 tweets for #Glastonbury using  the Twitterscrape...
tag exercise 2                advanced  Clouding a current event: Glastonbury on Twitter  and in Google News  1. Use previ...
sourcesImageshttp://web.archive.org/web/20040607054247/http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/http://web.archive.org/web/2004120...
anne@digitalmethods.net                   sabine@digitalmethods.net  kthxbai!www.digitalmethods.net                       ...
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DMI Workshop. Data visualization: Clouding

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DMI Workshop. Data visualization: Clouding

  1. 1. data visualization: clouding anne helmond & sabine niederer doing digital methods, rmes workshop, 28 june 2011
  2. 2. data visualization the science of visual representation of “data”, defined as information which has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information. (2009:1) michael friendly
  3. 3. data visualization 1482: ptolemys world map
  4. 4. data visualization 1611: scheiners “tres epistolae”
  5. 5. data visualization 1782: de fourcroy “tableau poleometrique”
  6. 6. data visualization 1805: playfair
  7. 7. data visualization 1836: parent-duchatelet
  8. 8. data visualization 1837: harness
  9. 9. data visualization 1869: minard
  10. 10. data visualization 1873: loua’s scalogram
  11. 11. data visualization 1991: schneiderman
  12. 12. direct visualization data is reorganized into a new visual representation that preserves its original form manovich 2010
  13. 13. data visualization a weighted list 1992
  14. 14. history of the tag cloud 1995
  15. 15. history of the tag cloud 1997-2003
  16. 16. history of the tag cloud 2004
  17. 17. tag cloud de nition A tag cloud (word cloud, or weighted list in visual design) is a visual representation for text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, or to visualize free form text. wikipedia
  18. 18. tag In online computer systems terminology, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an internet bookmark, digital image, or computer le). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are chosen informally and personally by the items creator or by its viewer, depending on the system. wikipedia
  19. 19. tagging Tagging systems enable users to add keywords (i.e., “tags”) to Internet resources (e.g., web pages, images, videos) without relying on a controlled vocabulary. [...] a freely chosen set of keywords (“tags”). marlow et al 2006
  20. 20. folksonomy A folksonomy is a system of classi cation derived from the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content; this practice is also known as collaborative tagging, social classi cation, social indexing, and social tagging. (Wikipedia) Folksonomy is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a URL) for ones own retrieval. The tagging is done in a social environment (usually shared and open to others). Folksonomy is created from the act of tagging by the person consuming the information. (Vander Wal 2007)
  21. 21. types of tag clouds
  22. 22. types of tag clouds content
  23. 23. types of tag clouds ordered
  24. 24. types of tag clouds un-ordered
  25. 25. types of tag clouds centered
  26. 26. ontological classi cation Domain to be Organized √ Domain to be Organized X • Small corpus • Large corpus • Formal categories • No formal categories • Stable entities • Unstable entities • Restricted entities • Unrestricted entities • Clear edges • No clear edges Participants Participants • Expert catalogers • Uncoordinated users • Auth. source of judgment • Amateur users • Coordinated users • Naive catalogers • Expert users • No Authority shirky 2005
  27. 27. tagging critiques messy amateur spammy non-human metadata
  28. 28. tag-elese simons 2008
  29. 29. messy
  30. 30. fauxonomy “metadata added with the conscious intent to confuse or obfuscate,” or to weight them for spammish reasons. (Jamais Cascio) cascio 2007
  31. 31. non-human metadata
  32. 32. extracting value from big data The strategy of tagging -- free-form labeling, without regard to categorical constraints -- seems like a recipe for disaster, but as the Web has shown us, you can extract a surprising amount of value from big messy data sets. shirky 2005
  33. 33. compare privacy policies
  34. 34. tag exercise 1 Compare privacy policies: Twitter and Facebook 1. Look up privacy policies 2. Copy/paste all text into Wordle 3. Adjust visualizations in Wordle for readability 4. Compare visualizations
  35. 35. tag exercise 1 advanced Compare privacy policies: Twitter and Facebook 1. Look up privacy policies 2. Copy/paste all text into Tagxedo 3. Adjust visualizations in Tagxedo for readability 4. Exclude terms (which ones?) 5. Compare visualizations
  36. 36. clouding current events #glastonbury 27 june 2011
  37. 37. tag exercise 2 Clouding a current event: Glastonbury 1. Scrape top 1000 tweets for #Glastonbury using the Twitterscraper 2. Open le in Excel/OpenOffice 3. Copy/paste text column in Tagxedo 4. Exclude terms (which ones?) 5. Compare visualizations
  38. 38. tag exercise 2 advanced Clouding a current event: Glastonbury on Twitter and in Google News 1. Use previous instructions for Twitter 2. Enter keyword Glastonbury in Tagxedo 3. Adjust visualizations in Tagxedo for readability 4. Exclude same terms as Twitter 5. Compare visualizations
  39. 39. sourcesImageshttp://web.archive.org/web/20040607054247/http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/http://web.archive.org/web/20041204231120/http://twiki.tensegrity.net/bin/view/Main/SearchReferralZeitgeisthttp://web.archive.org/web/20041122035256/http://twinkler.43things.com/twinkler/http://www.librarything.com/blogs/thingology/2007/07/fauxonomy/Artist featured in photos: Tomas SaracenoServiceshttp://www.tagxedo.comhttp://www.wordle.netArticlesFriendly, Michael (2009). “Milestones in the history of thematic cartography, statistical graphics, and data visualization.” PDFMarlow, Cameron, Mor Naaman, danah boyd and Marc Davis (2006). "HT06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr, AcademicArticle, ToRead." Proceedings of Hypertext 2006, New York: ACM Press.Shirky, Clay (2005). “Ontology is Overrated: Categories, Links, and Tags.”Stevenson, Michael. “Getting things done? Tagging, del.icio.us and procrastination.” http://whateverbutton.com/blog/index.php/getting-things-done-tagging-delicious-and-procrastination/
  40. 40. anne@digitalmethods.net sabine@digitalmethods.net kthxbai!www.digitalmethods.net artist: tomas saraceno

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