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Lecture 2011.3B: Fundamentals of Copyright (Digital Sustainability)
 

Lecture 2011.3B: Fundamentals of Copyright (Digital Sustainability)

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    Lecture 2011.3B: Fundamentals of Copyright (Digital Sustainability) Lecture 2011.3B: Fundamentals of Copyright (Digital Sustainability) Presentation Transcript

    • Digital Sustainabilityin the Knowledge Society  Fundamentals of Copyright Dr. Marcus M. Dapp Board OKF Germany / IT Strategist, City Government Munich 10.10.2011
    • What is a »license«?   
    • Copyright in the analog world   By takomabibelot (flickr, CC-BY)
    • Analog world • Physical limitations of copying • Significant cost • Quality loss • Concept of »original« makes sense • Original stands out • Quality difference, original ≠ copies • Originals are a finite resource   
    • Basic concept of Copyright • Concerns original form/expression of  literary and artistic works • Right to commercially exploit creation • »right to copy« • Today: bundle of rights • Granted automatically Form Expression • Free of charge Idea Concept    WP(en): Copyright
    • © Related / Neighbouring rights • All rights reserved • Database rights • Moral rights • Renting rights (no misuse) • Performers rights   
    • © Derivative works • Co­creators have »veto« rights • Increase license costs; »Tragedy of the Anticommons« • Sharing rights • Who should own them? 1st, 2nd generation? • too broad rights hinder diffusion of works,  too narrow rights discourage creation • What if stuff is created cumulatively?   
    • © Exceptions and Fair Use • Suboptimal if transaction costs prevent  transactions, e.g. • Works with very low monetary value • Many different owners share rights • Fair use doctrine • Use without explicit permission, e.g. for  education, criticism, commentary, parody   
    • Copyright in the   digital world   By oskay (flickr, CC-BY)
    • Digital world • No physical limitations for copying • No quality loss • Marginal costs close to zero • Concept of »original« senseless? • All copies identical (incl. the first) • Infinite number of copies • Only obstacle to copying • Transaction costs of identifying and   contacting recipients  
    • Digital copyright in disbalance ? • In favor of public • Easy online distribution • Difficult to prevent technically • In favor of creator • Extend © to new rights • Extend © duration   
    • Rebalancing copyright in favor of creator • Legal • EU European Copyright Directive • RAM copies ≠ © copies • U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act • anti­circumvention law • Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act • prolonged US © from 50 to 70 years • Technical  • Digital Rights Management  
    • Rebalancing copyright in favor of public • CreativeCommons movement • Family of © licenses for digital stuff • »Some rights reserved« • Modification? • Commercial use? • »share­alike« = copyleft mechanism? • easy­to­use license templates • Reduce transaction costs  • »skip the intermediaries«  
    • License your group work! (Recommended ticks.)    http://www.creativecommons.org
    • Copyright theories • Utility (R. Posner) • Maximize net social welfare • Balance incentive vs. access • Labor (J. Locke) • You worked on it, it is yours to control • Personality (Kant, Hegel) • Human needs, self expression, honor, ... • Social Planning Theory (W. Fisher)  • More than social welfare, justice