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Bilbao - Cultures of football

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Looking at the formation of football cultures around particular cultural, historical and geographical contexts, in this case focussing on Athletic Bilbao. A 3rd yr undergraduate presentation created …

Looking at the formation of football cultures around particular cultural, historical and geographical contexts, in this case focussing on Athletic Bilbao. A 3rd yr undergraduate presentation created as part of the Living in a Digital World Media & Communications module at Coventry University.

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  • 1. Presented by Leon Emirali Jason KurmooBenedict Sycamore
  • 2. Aims Travel to Bilbao and document life of a local Examine the history of the Basque Country Identify how a city such as Bilbao remains economically stable
  • 3. Objectives Use a covert micro-ethnographic approach to document life in Bilbao Validate primary research by using secondary resources Observe how the city’s new service industries, now generate money for the city
  • 4. Field Research Inductive stance Interpretive-Constructivism Covert Micro-Ethnography Visual Ethnography
  • 5. Brief History of Bilbao Bilbao capital city of the Biscay provinces Economic history of Bilbao Spanish Civil war Basque Nationalism
  • 6. Brief History of Bilbao Ikurriña Union Jack
  • 7. Athletic Club Overview Founded in 1898 Most successful Club outside of Real Madrid and Barcelona Founded by British steel ship yard workers Cantera Policy “Home grown” Owned by fans ‘socio’s’
  • 8. Habitus and Bilbao “the habitus is a system of dispositions, constituted by durable, learned schemes of perception, thought and action which individuals learn through socialisation and their daily encounters with objective social structures – called ‘fields’ in the work of Bourdieu – which place requirements and incumbencies upon its members that are subsequently ‘absorbed’ into the habitus.” – Sean Morrissey
  • 9. Habitus of Bilbao Enam Gartziar: “Our fathers are not originally from here, they are from Zaragoza and Lyon but have always supported the beliefs of Bilbao and the football club.”
  • 10. Influence of Football “The regulated and codified form of football, which penalised violent and ‘ungentlemanly’ conduct, came to be welcomed by the bourgeoisie and subsequently, the working classes became increasingly ‘embourgeoisified’” - Sean Morrissey
  • 11. Influence of Football Vie Cazmen: “The philosophy of the team makes us feel very special and unique because there are no football players from other parts of Europe. The club is not in the market of business and it not the question of how much you can pay for football players but feeling of Basque, feeling of good players…… like it’s a dream for that player to play for the club. We believe that this philosophy of belonging is the reason and it’s not that you have to be born in Bilbao; you can be born in Africa e.t.c.”
  • 12. Influence of Football Subcultural Capital – The non-financial and social assets of a culture that is (in some form) differentiated from the larger culture to which it operates within, or belongs. (A neotribe)
  • 13. Influence of Football Neotribalism is the ideology that human beings have evolved to live in tribal society, as opposed to mass society, and thus will naturally form social networks constituting new "tribes”.
  • 14. Liminality Part 1 – Removed from familiar environments Part 2 – Liminal Space, not ruled by the environment from which they came, not yet invested in new environment Part 3 – Emergence, the application of insights, inner stirrings, new respect for diversity seen in others
  • 15. A global comparison Football support in China Chinese unity in football Neo-Tribalism and Identity Fractured Spain Political Football
  • 16. The City, The Space City Zoning Fig. 1: New York City Fig. 1: New York Grid
  • 17. The City, The Space Milton Keynes City design New City in the U.K. Fig. 3: Milton Keynes Central Grid Fig. 4: Milton Keynes Plan
  • 18. Use of space in Bilbao
  • 19. The City, The Space “underlying nearly all leisure forms is a characteristic which most liberal and radical writers tend to pass over in silence; self consciousness. If we are aware of the significance of our leisure activity – whether it can be said to be good or bad, whether it has high or low status – can we really be said to be free?” (Rojek 1993:4)
  • 20. Characteristics of a city Bourgeois Culture Human Nature Leisure and Reward
  • 21. Characteristics of a city “leisure can not be enjoyed unless it is won by effort, if it have not been earned by work, the price has not been paid for it ... but the leisure without the work, can no more be enjoyed than surfeit” (Smiles 1894:93)
  • 22. Characteristics of a city “Maps are full of references and indications, but they are not peopled. You often need a map to get around a city, its subways system its streets. But the preliminary orientation hardly exhausts the reality in which you find” (Bird, J. Et al 1993:188)
  • 23. Characteristics of a city Landscape as human activity Culturalism Spain’s hegemony over the Basque Country
  • 24. Characteristics of a city “in the primitive view, land is not a thing that can be cut into pieces and sold as parcels. Land if not a piece of space within a large spatial system. On the contrary, it is seen term of social relations the people as part of nature, are intimately linked to the land” (Sack 1980:22)
  • 25. Use of Space in Bilbao What space means? What does Bilbao look like today?
  • 26. Football as Commodity A game for the working classes? Highly profitable industry Athletics fierce preservation of identity
  • 27. Football as Commodity “sport stars have a similar status to rock and movie stars and are not key figures in the celebrity landscape” Ellis Cashmore
  • 28. Virtual Space Promoting engagement and interactivity Professional Blog Facebook, Twitter ect.
  • 29. SummaryWe have covered: How Bilbao remain economically stable How space is used in cities in relation to Bilbao The origins of Basque nationalism How football constructs habitus in social city scapes The way football is changing as a result of commodification How identity has been attempted to be preserved by Athletic Bilbao
  • 30. Conclusion Neo-Liberal policy and attitude has forced Athletic Bilbao to conform to the consumerism of the modern world to retain financial stability Bilbao is still affected by the hegemony of the ruling country, Spain and is yet to gain independence. Bilbao is consistent with wanting to keep their own identity and sense of regionalism and nationalism.
  • 31. The Next Step Look further across Spain to gain understanding of the intricate fractions that exist in Spanish society and culture. More extensive primary research to carry out more accurate field research. Conducting a full ethnographic study
  • 32. Thank you for listeningWe would now like to open the floor to questions
  • 33. Bibliography 1 of 2 Armstrong G & Giulianotti (1999) Football Cultures and Identity, Basingstoke: MACMILLAN PRESS LTD Beach, D. (1996) The Responsible Conduct of Research. Cambridge: VCH Bertrand, I. and Hughes, P. (2005) Media Research Methods: Audiences, Insitutions, Texts. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillsn Bird, J., Curtis, B., Putnam, T., Robertson, G. & Tickner, L. (1993) Mapping the Futures local cultures, Global change. London: Routledge. Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods. 4nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press Bryman, A. (2004) Social Research Methods. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press Cashmore, E (2010) Making Sense of Sports. 5th edn. Oxon: Routledge. Capozza, D & Brown, R (2000) Social Identity Process, London: SAGE Publications Ltd Drucker, S.J & Gumpert, G. (1997) Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. New Jersey: Hampton Press Inc During, S. (ed.) (2007) The Cultural Studies Reader. 3rd edn. Oxon: Routledge Duncan, J. & Ley, D. (1993) Place, Culture, Representation. London: Routledge. Eisenschmid, Giulianotti, R & Williams, J (1994) Game Without Frontiers, Football, Identity and Modernity. Ashgate Publishing Ltd Hall, S & Du Gay, P (1996) Questions Of Cultural Identity. London: SAGE Publications Ltd Harris, C & Alexander, A (1998) Theorizing Fandom, Fans, Subculture and Identity: Hampton Press Ltd Heiberg, M (1989) The Making Of The Basque Nation. Cambridge: Press Syndicate Huff, S. A. (2009) Designing Research for Publication. London: SAGE Publications Jackson, P. (1999) Maps of Meaning. London: Routledge Kuhn, G (2011) Soccer vs. The State: Tackling Football and Racial Politics. Oakland: PM Press. MacClancy, J (1996) Sport, Identity and Ethnicity. Oxford: Published by Berg McNeill, P. (1985) Research Methods. London: Routledge Moffit, F. J. (1999) The Arts in Spain. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Michel Maffesoli, Sage Publications Ltd (5 Dec 1995), The Time of the Tribes: The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society Papastergiadis, N (1998) Dialogues In The Diasporas, Essays And Conversations On Cultural Identity, New York Washington Press Priest, H. S. (1996) Doing Media Research: An Introduction. London: Sage Publications Rojek, C. (1993) Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel. Hampshire: The Macmillan Press LTD R., Frundt, H-J., Luippold, D. & Zakrzewski, R. (2009) Spain Travel Guide. Ostfildern:Baedeker Sack, R. (1980) Conceptions of space in social thought. Minneapolis: Smiles, S. (1894) Character. London: Murray Smith, N. (1991) Uneven Development. Nature, Capital and the Production of Space. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publisher Ltd. Turner, Victor W. 1969 The ritual process: structure and anti-structure. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
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