5. Troubleshooting IPv6 - Rolf Schärer

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Es werden anhand von Beispielen und Demonstrationen Methoden und Werkzeuge gezeigt, um Fehler und Probleme in IPv6 Umgebungen zu finden und zu beheben.

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5. Troubleshooting IPv6 - Rolf Schärer

  1. 1. Troubleshoo*ng  IPv6   Rolf  Schärer,  CCIE  #17218  HSR  Hochschule  für  Technik  Rapperswil   Swiss  IPv6  Council  Member  
  2. 2. Off-­‐Topic  •  The  sad  thing  about  IPv6  jokes  is  that  almost  no  one   understands  them  and  no  one  is  using  them  yet.   unknown,  Internet   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  3. 3. Agenda  •  Real  life  IPv6  issues  •  DemonstraNon  •  Tools  •  Conclusions  and  RecommendaNons   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  4. 4. Agenda  •  Real  life  IPv6  issues  •  DemonstraNon  •  Tools  •  Conclusions  and  RecommendaNons   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  5. 5. Real  life  IPv6  issues  Host  •  Wrong  IPv6  address/subnetmask/default  gateway   ð IPv4/IPv6  fallback  problem   ð Check  reachability  of  your  prefix  with  looking  glass   •  ping  /  traceroute   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  6. 6. Real  life  IPv6  issues  Network  •  Broken  connecNvity  on  the  path   ð traceroute   ð check  reachability  of  your  prefix  and  the  desNnaNon  via   looking  glass  /  verificaNon  service  •  Broken  Path  MTU  discovery  (RFC1981)   ð No  fragmentaNon  allowed  on  path   -­‐>  node  must  adjust  the  MTU  •  Firewall  blocks  traffic   ð On  today’s  products,  IPv4  and  IPv6  rules  have  to  be   configured  separately   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  7. 7. Real  life  IPv6  issues  IPv6  to  IPv4  fallback  problem   IPv4/IPv6 enabled network IPv6 IPv6 Connected via IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 www.test.com A: 192.0.2.10 AAAA: 2001:db8::10 ca. 20-30s IPv6 Connection FAILS via IPv6 IPv6 IPv4 Connected via IPv4 IPv4 www.test.com A: 192.0.2.10 AAAA: 2001:db8::10 IPv6 Connected via IPv4 IPv4 IPv4 www.test.com A: 192.0.2.10 Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  8. 8. Agenda  •  Real  life  IPv6  issues  •  Demonstra*on  •  Tools  •  Conclusions  and  RecommendaNons   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  9. 9. Demonstra*on  •  IPv4/IPv6  performance  measurement   ð via  online  service  –  test  your  internet  uplink  •  DNS  behavior  with  and  without  dualstack   ð v4.ipv6now.ch  –  A  record  only   ð v6.ipv6now.ch  –  AAAA  record  only   ð dualstack.ipv6now.ch  –  A  and  AAAA  record  •  IPv6/IPv4  fallback   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  10. 10. Agenda  •  Real  life  IPv6  issues  •  DemonstraNon  •  Tools  •  Conclusions  and  RecommendaNons   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  11. 11. Tools  End  Host  Tools  and  Plugins  •  Firefox  /  Chrome   ð Show  IP  Plugin   •  only  show’s  the  response  of  the  DNS  server,  not  the  used  IP  address  •  ping/ping6  •  tracert/traceroute6   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  12. 12. Tools  End  Host  Commands  (I)  •  Address  verificaNon   ipconfig netsh interface ipv6 show addresses•  DHCP   ipconfig /release6 ; ipconfig /renew6•  Default  Gateway   netstat –nr•  Neighbor  Table   netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors•  Ping  /  Traceroute   ping <X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X> ; ping -6 <hostname> tracert <X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X>; tracert -6 <hostname> Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  13. 13. Tools  End  Host  Commands  (II)  •  Address  verificaNon   ifconfig en0 ifconfig en0 | grep inet6  •  Default  Gateway   netstat –nr | grep default•  Neighbor  Table   ndp -a  •  Ping  /  Traceroute   ping6 <X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X> | <hostname> traceroute6 <X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X> | <hostname> Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  14. 14. Tools  End  Host  Commands  (III)  •  Useful  Commands   ð Verify  IPv6  Address   •  All  sedngs:  ip addr list eth0   •  Address  only:  ip addr list eth0 | grep inet6  •  Default  Gateway   ip –6 route list netstat -6 -rn•  Neighbor  Table   ip -6 neigh show Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  15. 15. Tools  Network  Equipment  Commands  (cisco)  •  IPv6  unicast-­‐rouNng  has  to  be  enabled   separately   Router# config t Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing•  RouNng  Table   show ipv6 route show ipv6 route X:X:X:X::/64•  Interfaces   show ipv6 interface brief Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  16. 16. Tools  Network  Connec*vity  Tools  •  BGP  looking  glasses   ð e.g.  Switch  IPv6  looking  glass   hfp://www.switch.ch/network/tools/ipv6lookingglass/index.html   ð shows  the  view  of  the   internet  to  your     network   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  17. 17. Tools  Server  Verifica*on  Tools  •  e.g.  hfp://www.checked.by.iks-­‐jena.de/   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  18. 18. Tools  World  IPv6  Day  –  Connec*vity  Chart  •  hfp://ipv6eyechart.ripe.net/   ð overview  of  sites  parNcipate  at  the  World  IPv6  Day   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  19. 19. Tools  DNS  verifica*on  –  on  client  •  Windows:   nslookup –q=AAAA hostname•  Linux/OS  X:   dig AAAA hostname Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  20. 20. Tools  DNS  verifica*on  –  external  services   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  21. 21. Tools  Path  MTU  discovery  •  hfp://www.ipv6chicken.com   ð shows  an  incomplete  image  if  the  MTU     Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  22. 22. Tools  Simple  IPv6  performance  measurement  •  iperf   ð hfp://sourceforge.net/projects/iperf/  •  Jperf  (graphical  extension  to  iperf)   ð hfp://www.nwlab.net/know-­‐how/JPerf/   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  23. 23. Tools  Online  IPv4/IPv6  Performance  Test  •  With  online  speedtest’s  you  can  measure  your  internet   connecNvity   ð  Bad  performance  does  not  automaNcally  mean  your  internet  uplink  is  bad,  it  also   can  be  the  server  or  the  network  between  •  hfp://ipv6-­‐test.com/speedtest/   Internet Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  24. 24. Tools  Wireshark  •  hfp://www.wireshark.org   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  25. 25. Agenda  •  Real  life  IPv6  issues  •  DemonstraNon  •  Tools  •  Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  26. 26. Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons  (I)  •  Update  your  exisNng  troubleshooNng  tools  AND  skills    OR    •  Look  for  new  tools  if  your  exisNng  tools  do  not  support   IPv6   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  27. 27. Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons  (II)  •  Monitor  your  IPv6  infrastructure    AND      •  Document  your  IPv6  environment   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  28. 28. Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons  (III)  •  Align  your  IPv6  structure  with  your  exisNng  IPv4   environment  •  A  good  design  speeds  up  your  troubleshooNng  and   secures  your  environment   ð datacenter   •  EUI-­‐64  and  router  adverNsements  not  necessary   –  use  staNc  allocaNon  only   ð clients   •  design  depends  on  your  environment   (full  DHCPv6,  eui-­‐64/DHCPv6,  pure  eui-­‐64)   •  enable  IPv6  privacy  extension  on  all  your  EUI-­‐64   clients!   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  29. 29. Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons  (IV)  •  Train  yourself  (and  your  other  IT  staff)  in  IPv6   troubleshooNng     it’s  all  about  pracNce...     ...  but  not  that   different  to  IPv4!   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011
  30. 30. Conclusions  and  Recommenda*ons  (V)  •  Update  your  internal  processes  for  IPv6   ð VerificaNon  aler  a  change   ð Deployment  of  new  equipment   ð Helpdesk   ð ...   Troubleshooting IPv6 – Swiss IPv6 Day Zürich – 08. Juni 2011

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