Wilderness Hazard Slide Show


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This slide show can be used to brief students as to safety awareness issues in the outdoors. It identifies many hazards, these can be used to discuss with students identification of dangerous situations and risk management strategies to reduce exposure to these hazards. This can be a beginning point for students developing the skills to make informed decisions and judgements when in the outdoors.

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  • Glengarry provides an opportunity of a life time. One life one chance
  • Wilderness Hazard Slide Show

    1. 1. Photo Album By Preferred Customer Outdoor Education At Glengarry “ One life, one chance”
    2. 2. One life One Chance <ul><li>In the context of your next 5 months at Glengarry, what does this saying mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>Take several minutes to discuss this with the person next to you! </li></ul><ul><li>Would any of you like to share your discussions with the group? </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Outdoor Environment
    4. 4. Is a place for us to explore the environment and ourselves
    5. 5. Many say that the Wilderness is a learning place! What do you think we can get out of our experiences in the bush? <ul><li>Psychological benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Social benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Physical benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Educational benefits </li></ul>Kangaroo Valley
    6. 6. Possible Benefits Of Attending The Glengarry Outdoor Program Fitness Skills Strength Co-ordination Catharsis Balance Outdoor education Nature awareness Conservation Ed Problem solving Outdoor technique Improved academics Compassion Group cooperation Respect for others Communication Friendship Belonging Self Concept Confidence Self efficacy Sensation seeking Well being Personal testing Physical Educational Sociological Psychological
    7. 7. As you are about to set out on your Glengarry adventure what kind of attitude are you going to apply to your time? A positive or a negative attitude? Give everything your best Anything is possible if you believe in yourself Whoever you were before Glengarry forget it, here you can change!
    8. 8. What ever you decide to set out to achieve while you are here at Glengarry, the number one theme that must underpin all you do is safety! Safety! Looking out for each other and coming home safe! There are many simple things that can harm you in the bush Being aware of what they are is an important step in the safety process! Let us take you through some of the things we have learnt!
    9. 9. Hazards in the Bush
    10. 10. Safety Begins With The 5 P’s <ul><li>Being safe in the outdoors begins before you even set off on your journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of accidents has shown that many series injuries occur because some key planning questions were taken too lightly. </li></ul><ul><li>What questions should you ask? </li></ul>Prior Preparation prevents poor performance
    11. 11. Ask yourself the following; Do you have …. RIGHT PEOPLE RIGHT PLACE RIGHT TIME RIGHT EQUIPMENT Common goals? Similar ability & experience? The same safety mindset among all members Is everyone the same fitness level? The same technical skills; is everyone prepared for this kind of trip?
    12. 12. RIGHT PEOPLE Ask yourself the following; Do you have …. RIGHT PLACE RIGHT TIME RIGHT EQUIPMENT This easy moving river was a good choice for our first kayak trip We will be right, lets just go for it, don’t worry about what might happen Are you sure you can handle the terrain and conditions you will encounter? What dangers await?
    13. 13. RIGHT PEOPLE Ask yourself the following; Do you have …. RIGHT PLACE RIGHT TIME RIGHT EQUIPMENT What are the conditions like at this time of year? Seasonal variations in weather can have serious consequences for your safety! No water, snakes, ticks, floods, storms, snow, cold, heat?
    14. 14. RIGHT PEOPLE Ask yourself the following; Do you have …. RIGHT PLACE RIGHT TIME RIGHT EQUIPMENT Use your gear list to pack, to ensure you don’t leave things behind! Know what your equipment is for and know how to use it. Your life could depend on it!    
    15. 15. Discussion Point <ul><li>Based on your present experience level, and your knowledge of the bush of Kangaroo Valley, how difficult should the trips be in catering for your present fitness, experience level? </li></ul>
    16. 16. RIGHT PEOPLE Once you have ticked off these important things….. RIGHT PLACE RIGHT TIME RIGHT EQUIPMENT         Once you have prepared well, it is time to focus on safety issues in the field. What do we need to be concerned about?
    17. 17. HAZARDS IN THE BUSH <ul><li>Can be broken down into several key areas </li></ul><ul><li>Endo or subjective hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things within our control like our fitness, experience or skill level. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exo or objective hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are things that are always out in the bush and things we could encounter at any time like cliffs, rock fall, flooded rivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We will now focus on identifying the EXO hazards that you may encounter in the bush while at Glengarry. </li></ul><ul><li>You must be constantly on the look out for these, in order to take appropriate safety precautions. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Poison plants </li></ul><ul><li>Thick vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Deadfall, logs </li></ul><ul><li>Whip back branches </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>Rock fall </li></ul><ul><li>Steeps </li></ul><ul><li>Undercuts </li></ul>WEATHER FAUNA FLORA TERRAIN WILDERNESS HAZARDS
    19. 19. WEATHER <ul><li>Increase wind chill; hypothermia </li></ul><ul><li>Increase fire hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause lake & ocean to get rough </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of trees falling on tents or hikers </li></ul><ul><li>Can effect communications </li></ul><ul><li>Can indicate a change in weather conditions </li></ul>Wind
    20. 20. WEATHER <ul><li>Increased risk of hypothermia </li></ul><ul><li>Makes footing very unstable increasing risks of falls; be aware of cliff edges & steep terrain in these conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>After heavy rain, creeks and rivers may flood blocking your route. What should you do if this happens to you? </li></ul>Rain
    21. 21. Lightning A threat we must take seriously
    22. 22. Discussion Point <ul><li>How many of you have ever been outside playing when you see lightning and hear thunder very close to seeing the lightning? </li></ul><ul><li>Lets have a show of hands! </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know you have been putting your life in danger? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lightning
    24. 24. Lightning <ul><li>Get off high ground </li></ul><ul><li>Get off the water </li></ul><ul><li>Get out of your sleeping bag </li></ul><ul><li>Stay out of creeks </li></ul><ul><li>You MUST insulate yourself from the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Boots on, rubber mats on ground, crouch on packs. </li></ul>A risk that you must take very seriously, your life could depend on taking the right action!
    25. 25. Lightning Protection Position Do not huddle under tree as lightning may strike high point If you are in the open you may become the high point that gets struck Insulate yourself from the ground using your boots, pack, and rubber mat Don’t be under the tree, but not right out in the open. ½ height from tree.
    26. 26. When Should We Begin To Be Worried About Lightning: 25 / 15 Second Rule! <ul><li>At 25 seconds between lightning and thunder, lightning is in striking range. Move to safest ground in case storm is closing in on you. </li></ul><ul><li>At 15 seconds group must be spread out and in insulation position. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Observing Weather Charts <ul><li>Check the weather forecast prior to departure. If the forecast is for bad weather modify your plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to read the weather in the field. Wind, clouds, temperature, pressure systems. </li></ul><ul><li>We will do this in the coming lessons </li></ul>
    28. 28. COLD <ul><li>Be alert in winter or in bad weather in summer for symptoms of hypothermia in members of your group. </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperatures, wind & rain provide the conditions for hypothermia. </li></ul><ul><li>Tired, fatigued, lack of food and drink, wet, inappropriate clothing along with the right environmental conditions can lead to life threatening conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some symptoms that would tell you someone in your group is hypothermic? Show of hands if you have an answer! </li></ul><ul><li>What would you do? </li></ul>Shivering Hands numb Difficulty using finger because they are so cold Mild confusion, irrational comments Lagging behind the group If any of these symptoms are present you must stop, take shelter, get in warmer clothing, set up camp, get in sleep bag, warm drink, food.
    29. 29. Pack For The Worst Conditions
    30. 30. Hot Weather <ul><li>Risk of hyperthermia or heatstroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear cool clothing, hat. </li></ul><ul><li>Drink lots of H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Walk in morning and late afternoons. Pace yourself, don’t sweat excessively. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>What would these be? </li></ul>Pale, Clammy Skin Nausea, vomiting Stop, wet, get cool, drink, Sweaty, weak, thirsy, dizzy
    31. 31. Flora Hazards <ul><li>The Australian Vegetation provides many hidden traps for the uninitiated. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining an awareness of potential dangers is essential to safe travel in the bush </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of ways vegetation can be a threat to our safety? </li></ul>Ouch! This is thick Dam, that flicked me in the head Oh! My eye, I got a stick in it! My legs are just getting so scratched I can’t see where I am supposed to be navigating I feel like I have been stung by something!
    32. 32. A trip on deadfall combined with the weight of a pack could lead to injury
    33. 33. Packs can get caught on branches Vegetation type can greatly effect travel time. 500 mts per hour in areas along the coast
    34. 34. Traversing Deadfall Slipping between deadfall, then falling forward or back can result in broken limbs. Tread carefully!
    35. 35. What are the consequences of tripping or slipping on a tree root or loose terrain when I am above a steep slope or cliff? Cliff Below A potentially life threatening fall. Travel slowly & carefully!
    36. 36. Whip Backs It is my responsibility to walk far enough behind the person in front This allows time for the branch to flick back into place without hitting me. Walking too close could lead to my eyes being injured
    37. 37. Branches or sticks in the eyes Rushing or running in the bush can be dangerous Wearing a cap can obscure our view of branches Keep your head up, looking ahead. Walk in a controlled manner
    38. 38. Poison Vegetation
    39. 39. Allergies from Pollens Poison Vegetation Internal. Do not eat strange plants Dermatitis. Skin contact with plants Mechanical Spines & prickles
    40. 40. Tree Fall <ul><li>Be aware of strong winds and surrounding trees </li></ul><ul><li>Dead or rotten trees are potential concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Also large mature trees </li></ul><ul><li>Select your tents site carefully, your life could depend on it! Don’t set up under trees that could drop branches on you </li></ul><ul><li>Several school girls lost their lives in Sydney in 2001 </li></ul>
    41. 41. Prudent tent site selection is always important
    42. 42. The Scratchy Australian Bush <ul><li>Can severely cut up your legs if adequate clothing is not worn. Long pants should always be a part of your hike kit. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick vegetation can also limit your visibility and add extra challenge to navigation </li></ul>
    43. 43. What if you become Lost There may be times when you are unsure of where you are, or you may become separated from your group Would you know what to do?
    44. 44. Know how to use your map & compass <ul><li>Keep track of where you are. Maps must be out at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust your compass it never lies </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help if you are not sure </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping is like putting all the pieces of a jigsaw together. This will need you to be paying constant attention </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a route plan with a responsible person </li></ul>If I follow 45 degrees for 400 metres we should hit the road
    45. 45. Navigation Now which way from here? That way! No this way!
    46. 46. Navigation Training <ul><li>Sessions are designed to help you learn navigation skills so you can know where you are in the bush. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t understand be sure to ask, staff are out there to help you! </li></ul>Contours tell us what the ground around us should look like. Closer together means this next section will be steep!
    47. 47. What can your group do to prevent becoming lost? <ul><li>Maps out at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly try and match the terrain around you with what you see on your map </li></ul><ul><li>Never stop looking at your map when walking along. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your compass </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER split your group </li></ul><ul><li>Use the group to sound ideas </li></ul><ul><li>If in doubt STOP </li></ul>We passed that creek here, and we have gone up this steep slope, we now should look out for that small hill. Lets all do a compass bearing to the hill and make sure we get the same bearing I get 360 degrees, so do I; hang on I get 180 degrees. Lets check it again and work out where we went wrong.
    48. 48. S top T hink O bserve P lan
    49. 49. When Lost & Trying to Attract Attention Blow 3 Whistle Blasts Your rescuers will respond with 1 whistle blast
    50. 50. Often terrain hazards that near home would seem of no concern, are potentially places where serious accidents can occur When a long way from help always exercise the uttermost caution, as assistance is often a long way away. Terrain Hazards
    51. 51. Terrain Hazards Under the right conditions crossing a log over a stream can be a safe way of getting across Under what circumstances would you never cross a stream via a log? NEVER EVER think that it is safe to cross a flooded river via a log. Just because it is out of the water does not mean it is safe Ask the question, what if I fall in? Assume the worst that you will fall in. If in doubt Set up camp and wait for help!
    52. 52. Safety Around Cliffs With the right training and safety equipment cliffs can be a place for adventure
    53. 53. Safety Around Cliffs Without being tied in to a rope and an anchor point, one slip could be your last slip. No one should venture any closer than 3 body lengths to a cliff edge
    54. 54. Cliff Edge Safety <ul><li>Showing off </li></ul><ul><li>Just getting that bit closer for a look </li></ul><ul><li>Clowning around close to the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Rushing </li></ul><ul><li>Wet conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks & sticks </li></ul><ul><li>You just might slip for the last time. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Safety Around Cliffs <ul><li>One slip and……. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules for around cliffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 body lengths from edge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If it is higher than a body length then a fall can be life threatening </li></ul>You guys above be careful you do not knock rocks on us below If rocks from above were a threat how could you manage this group in a safer manner?
    56. 56. Mosquitoes I will keep you awake, and drink your blood all night long
    57. 58. Keep your tent done up at all times otherwise it will fill with bugs, spiders, snakes, pack rats. Precaution against night visitors
    58. 59. Discussion Point <ul><li>Has anyone every had a tick? Show of hands? </li></ul><ul><li>What triggered your senses to alert you to the fact that you had a tick? </li></ul>
    59. 60. Ticks I usually hide in places that are dark, moist and warm, like in your hair, under your arms, in between your legs You will know I am on you as I initially make you itchy. If left in I can cause numbness and even paralysis Does anyone know how to get me out?
    60. 61. Repellant: Ammonia or gasoline Grease Gently extract with tweezers Heat
    61. 62. Don’t sit in long grass or bush in tick season
    62. 63. Leeches I’m harmless I don’t like insect repellant Salt, flicking, repellant all get me off I itch
    63. 64. Insect Stings or Spider Bites If I bite you, pressure bandage, imobilise & don’t move until help arrives If I bite you, put a cold compress over the bite area Funnel Web Red Back
    64. 65. Allergic Reactions I am friendly to most but I can cause a life threatening allergic reaction to some If you are allergic have your preventative injection with you on hike Let your friends and hike group mates know what to do if you get stung or have a reaction! Other people can be allergic to vegetation or food EG: Peanuts.
    65. 66. Snake Bite <ul><li>Calm & reassure person </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilise bitten extremity with firm elastic bandage from fingers or toes up </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move casualty, seek help immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow patient to move or walk around </li></ul>First Aid If Bitten
    66. 67. Precautions with Snakes I feel vibrations in the ground and will be long gone if I hear you coming
    67. 68. Discussion Point <ul><li>If you and your hike group are walking along a track and come across a snake that appears dead (asleep or alive), what should you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Hit it with a stick </li></ul><ul><li>Jump over it </li></ul><ul><li>Throw a rock on it </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp loudly from a distance until it moves away, and then give it a wide birth. </li></ul>
    68. 69. Water We paddle in it We go camping next to it It is our water supply
    69. 70. Water Quality I can cause diarrhea I can make you sick What kind of circumstances lead to my existence? Not washing hands after toileting Not washing dishes Drinking untreated water
    70. 71. Water Quality Take the time to filter, it could stop you becoming very ill
    71. 72. Cooking with your Trangia Stove Metho Fuel When cooking no one is allowed inside the circle Cooking is one of the great activities you do on hike however there are some safety rules you need to follow No washing up in the river. Clean up before fire
    72. 73. River Crossing Awareness
    73. 74. Water Crossings <ul><li>The most likely cause of death in bush walking accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers are dynamic and change rapidly after rain </li></ul><ul><li>What is safe one day could be a death trap the next </li></ul><ul><li>Never cross flooded rivers by any means </li></ul><ul><li>IE) Swimming, across logs, walking, with ropes </li></ul>Sit and wait for help, you will be late, but alive
    74. 75. Summary <ul><li>Safety of students and staff is a joint effort. </li></ul><ul><li>We will train you to the best of our ability. </li></ul><ul><li>In return you MUST ensure all the training, rules and guidelines are followed. </li></ul><ul><li>These are in place for your safety. </li></ul>