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Presentation by Judy Willis at Berkshire Community College Summer Institute, May 26, 2010

Presentation by Judy Willis at Berkshire Community College Summer Institute, May 26, 2010

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    Willis Willis Presentation Transcript

    • Using the Developments of Neuroscience for
      Neuro-logical Teaching Strategies
      Using the Developments of Neuroscience for
      Berkshire Community College
      May 26, 2010
      Judy Willis, MD, M.Ed
      www.RADteach.com
      With thanks to Dori Digenti, MSOD, Director, Center for Teaching and Learning, for her dedication to teaching and learning and support, suggestions, and planning to make this presentation possible and pertinent
      ,
    • 9-10:30 Session A
      10:30 Break
      10:45 – 12:00 Session B
      12:00 – 1:00 Lunch
      1-2:30 Session C
      2:30 Break
      2:45-4:00 Session D
    • Goals for This Presentation
      Learn Neuroscience
      Research- Compatible Strategies to:
      Sustain students’ attention & memory with curiosity & prediction
      Motivating sustained interest
      Increase participation for memory
    • Knowing the Neuroscience
      Helps You
      Evaluate “Brain-Based” Claims
      AVOID SELECTING BAD CURRICULUM
      RECOGNIZE NEUROMYTHS
    • Brain Oxygen-Boosting Miracle Pill Energizes
      Mind, Mood, & Memory
    • “Brain Oxygen-Boosting Miracle Pill Energizes
      Mind, Mood, & Memory. Memory pill lights up aging
      brain like a Christmas Tree. 100% Energizing.”
    • Teacher Myths & NeuroMyths
      TEACHER MYTHS
      Great hours: Finished at 3pm
      Summers off – with pay
      “Those who can, do
      Those who can’t, teach”
    • Which of the following possible Neuromyths do you think is TRUE ?
      Predict with magic pad
    • Possible
      NEUROMYTHS
    • Hold up magic pad with the first letter of a possible neuromyths do you think is TRUE and not a neuromyth?
    • They are all neuromyths
    • Knowing the Neuroscience
      Helps You
      Use strategies more effectively & flexibly
    • BECAUSE YOU KNOW MOST OF THESE
      NEURO-LOGICAL
      STRATEGIES ALREADY,
      YOU WILL WORK
      SMARTER,
      NOT HARDER
    • Judy’s “Advertisement”
    • Are You Curious?
    • Is Your Brain Personally
      Connected?
      Not Yet
    • Two Tasks to
      Prepare for
      Active Listening
      because
      The person who thinks,
      LEARNS
    • 1. Look through your handout to see the detail of the notes and locate major sections
      You will be prepared to find pages that coincide with the slides
    • 2. Write down in your notes a topic or unit you teach (consult, supervise) for which students have difficulty sustaining attention
      Then hold up a “magic pad”with the first letter what you wrote in your notes
    • R.A.D.
      R = REACH ATTENTION
      RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
      A = ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR
      AMYGDALA
      D = DEVELOP MOTIVATON WITH DOPAMINE
    • Where We Are
      Where We’re Going
      Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Reaching
      Problem: Reaching students’ focused attention & engagement
      Solution: Get through RAS filter
        
    • Before anything can be learned and retained in memory it needs to be attended to (selected) by the brain
    • All learning comes through the senses
    • The input must then reach the “higher brain” for long-term conscious memory to be constructed
    • Prefrontal cortex
      33
    • Pathway to Conscious Thinking in the Prefrontal Cortex
    • Let’s see what your RAS chooses and edits to let into your conscious brain
    • Attention is a process of selection.
      The things you don’t attend to, don’t are unlikely to become retrievable memory
    • YOU DIDN’T “SEE”
      THE SENSORY INPUT
      YOUR RAS DIDN’T SELECT
    • Count the number of times the letter “F” appears in the following slide
    • FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS
    • 6 times. Your RAS didn’t care about the “f’s” in “of”
    • FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS
    • Your RAS edited which sensory input got your attention
    • Millions of bits of sensory data available every second
      a basil gimlet Ray of Light
      Only about 2000 bits of sensory data can get
      through the RAS each second
    • To get to the conscious brain, sensory input must be R.A.S. “selected”
      35
    • What is primary purpose of a brain?
      Keep the body alive
      Preserve the species
    • For Survival
      Why a sensory filter?
      To limit information intake
      Preserve the brain’s survival function
    • For Survival
      What would that filter select for sensory intake?
      Something that changed, is novel
    • For Survival
      First, is the novel input a danger?
      If not, can it improve survival in the future?
    • When students are not paying attention to the lesson it doesn’t mean they are inattentive
    • They are paying attention to sensory input, just not the sensory input of the lesson
    • What sensory
      input gets in the fox’s RAS?
    • Survival RAS filter is programed to alert to novel input because it correlates with survival
    • Only when threat is not perceived is other change/novelty admitted through the RAS
    • Now curiosity alerts the RAS
      to attend to other changes and novel input
      Because changes and novel input may also improve survival
    • When students are not paying attention to the lesson it doesn’t mean they are inattentive
    • They are paying attention to sensory input, just not the sensory input of the lesson
    • RAS
      The RAS gives priority to threatening input
      Therefore, if students feel threatened or stressed, their RAS prioritizes the threatening input at the expense of any academic content you would prefer they absorb.
    • RAS
      Summarize with choice of
      method such as a narrative
      first an example,
      then Your Turn-Collaborate and try several if time permits
    • RAS
      1. Pair-Share: What is the RAS and why is it important.
      or
      2. Sketch your image of the RAS
      or
      3. Create a simile
      The RAS is to ......
      as ....... as to .......
    • Summarize
      with
      COMIX.com
    • Strategies that
      influence RAS information
      intake and flow
    • What information gets through
      the RAS and where does it go?
    • How can you influence what gets through your students’ RAS?
    • RAS Interventions
      Help students feel SAFE!
      Then stimulate their curiosity with change & novelty
      S
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Using Novelty or Change to promote memory associations
    • Music
      Changed room
      Costume
    • CURIOSITY
      is necessary to persue new experiences
    • PERSUIT OF NEW EXPERIENCES & EXPLORING
      IS NECESSARY FOR
      SURVIVAL
      Text
      LEARNING ONE’S ENVIRONMENT
    • Prediction Increases
      Curiosity, Attention, & Memory
    • Prediction builds curiosity and motivation to know if their prediction is correct
      Prediction invests TOP DOWN ATTENTION
      THE INFORMATION IS SELECTED FOR RAS INTAKE & SUBSEQUENTLY for MEMORY
    • CURIOSITY and DISCOVERY
      promote the brain to
      acquire new information, correct inaccurate networks,
      andpredict the best
      future responses
    • Participation with Prediction =
      Active Learning &
      Memory Building
    • To be surprised by or interested in the curiosity provoking experience or question, students must make a prediction in the first place
      Then when predictions are wrong there is a true element of surprise.
      The unexpected results are powerful stimuli to curiosity so...
      There is more value/memory placed on the feedback of the correct information
    • ADVERTISE
      to promote
      CURIOSITY
      &
      PREDICTION
    • CURIOSITY ABOUT ADVERTISEMENTS
      Predict what ADVERTISEMENTS have to do with a coming lesson
      Attention investment to find out if prediction is correct
      The INFORMATION that supports or refutes the prediction IS VALUED FOR INTAKE & MEMORY
    • Advertise in Advance
      for Curiosity
    • “The force will be with you”
      TOMORROW
    • Hold up your
      magic pad with
      first letter of your
      idea
    • Forceful
      verbs
      opening sentences
      exclamation points forces of nature forces that change history
    • Your Turn
      to
      Predict
    • What topic could these photos advertise?
    • Hold up your
      magic pad with
      first letter of your
      idea
    • Time (What a Split Second Looks Like)
      Gravity
      Probability
      Motion
    • Advertise
      for curiosity and prediction with videos
    • Video
      advertising
      science or
      math formulas
    • Advertise
      slope
    • Advertise
      water
      cycle
    • Animoto
      to make your own videos
      http://animoto.com/education
    • Discrepant
      Events
      Are Novel & Unexpected so RAS lets & they Promote Prediction
    • Show or tell things that challenge students’ assumptions or prior beliefs.
    • HOW MANY FINGERS
      DO YOU THINK YOU HAVE?
    • Allowance Question
      Would you rather have one cent doubled everyday for 30 days or $100,000.00 ?
      HOLD UP MAGIC PAD
    • One cent because...
      Day 15: $163.84
      Day 16: $327.68
      Day 17: $655.36
      Day 18: $1,310.72
      Day 19: $2,621.44
      Day 20: $5,242.88
      Day 21: $10,485.76
      Day 22: $20,971.52
      Day 23: $41,943.04
      Day 24: $83,386.08
      Day 25: $167,772.16
      Day 26: $335,544.32
      Day 27: $671,088.64
      Day 28: $1,342,177.28
      Day 29: $2,684,354.56
      Day 1: $.01
      Day 2: $.02
      Day 3: $.04
      Day 4: $.08
      Day 5: $.16
      Day 6: $.32
      Day 7: $.64
      Day 8: $1.28
      Day 9: $2.56
      Day 10: $5.12
      Day 11: $10.24
      Day 12: $20.48
      Day 13: $40.96
      Day 14: $81.92
      Day 30: $5,368,709.12
    • PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY
      Pair Share: Something you have done or could do to promote student curiosity and prediction?
    • Sustain
      Attention
    • Syn-naps
      Relate new information with something unusual
    • Write the first letter of a lesson you could connect with one of the next photos.
      Hold up the card when ready
      iceberg.jpg
      iceberg.jpg
    • 52
    • Bingo
    • BINGO
      Activation of Prior Knowledge
      Sustained Curiosity/Attention Personal Interest
      Content Specific Vocabulary
    • Students copy 25 words onto individual boxes on your grid in any order for BINGO
    • synapse
      amygdala
    • When they hear one of the words spoken or see it projected on the screen they cross it out on their BINGO grid
      When they have 5 in a row (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal) they call out BINGO
    • AS WE GO THROUGH THE UNIT,
      MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT
      WHAT THE RADISH HAS TO
      DO WITH WHAT YOU LEARN.
      MAKE PREDICTIONS ANY TIME AND CHANGE THEM IF YOU’D LIKE.
    • Investigation:
      Grow Radishes and Observe
      Influence of Planting Distance, Sun Exposure, Soil, Water
    • Cross-Curricular-Science & Math of Agriculture Influences Historical Events
      TRIBES THAT FARMED NEEDED GOOD SOIL AND RAIN, BUT WERE GIVEN THE WORST LAND. THEIR HARVESTS MADE THEM BITTER LIKE RADISHES.
      THE NEW WORLD PEOPLE KEPT THE BEST LAND FOR THEIR OWN FARMING AND GREW GREEN, LEAFY CROPS LIKE THE LEAVES NEXT TO THE RADISHES.
    • TRIBES THAT NEEDED LARGE TERRITORIES TO HUNT WERE FORCED TO LIVE CLOSE TOGETHER, BUNCHED UP LIKE THE RADISHES.
      IN THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT, THE NATIVE AMERICANS WERE TREATED UNFAIRLY. LIKE THE RADISHES, THEY WERE CALLED MEAN NAMES LIKE “RED SKINS.”
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Predict: What Memory Challenge common to most educators and students could be represented by the following 3 photos?
    • Hold up your
      magic pad with
      first letter of your
      idea
    • OVERPACKED CURRICULUM
    • Survival and Safety First
      Participating in new learning requires students to take risks beyond their comfort zones
      Before students can attend to higher-order thinking they must meet lower-level needs like
      survival and safety (MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS)
    • Amygdala -Directs input flow
    • Information (sensory input) destination isdetermined by metabolic state of the amygdala
      Reflective PFC or Reactive Lower Brain
    • Amygdala determines where input goes
      PFC
      Reflectivebrain
      Reactivebrain
      Amygdala
    • Prefrontal Cortex
      Conscious, Reflective,
      “THINKING”
      Brain
      Reactive, Lower Brain
      Fight/Flight/Freeze
    • Students’ emotional states (comfort or stress) impact pathway through amygdala
      Reflective or
      Reactivebrain
    • Negativity & Stress block information transport for processing in the thinking brain (PFC) so students are not engaged in & don’t remember the lesson
        
    • Images of threatening faces or friendly faces viewed before memory task.
    • PFC
      AMYGDALA
      Subjects performing a memory recognition activity
      A: During the relaxed state increased activity in prefrontal cortex and memory storage regions.
      B: Stressed subjects show heightened activity in the amygdala and much less cortical activity.
      Wang, J., et al (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 17804-9.
    • PFC
      AMYGDALA
      A: Positive emotional state – opens amygdala to PFC = memory
      B: Stressed state – no passage to PFC
      = Low MemoryAdapted from Hamman, et al., Cognitive Neuroscience
    • AMYGDALA blocks Entry to PFC in Response to
      NEGATIVE EMOTIONS
      Fear
      STRESS FROM frustration
      Stress from boredoM
    • Prefrontal cortex
    • Survival First:
      React with
      Fight-Flight-Freeze
    • Fear/Stress
      Amygdala to Lower Brain for Fight, Flight, or Freeze
    • The Brain In Stress/Fear State Admits Sensory Input
      to Lower Involuntary, Reactive Brain for SURVIVAL
      Stressed Brain
      flight
      fight
      freeze
    • 82
    • Causes of Stress in School
      fear of being wrong
      test-taking anxiety
      physical and language differences
      frustration with difficult material
      boredom from lack of stimulation
    • Frustration IS STRESSFUL
    • BOREDOM IS STRESSFUL
    • Consequences of flight from
      Boredom or
      Frustration
    • The U.S. is now the only country in the developed world where young people are less likely to graduate than their parents
    • Dropouts Reason #1
      BOREDOM
      75% “Material wasn’t interesting”
      39% “Material wasn’t relevant to me”
      31% Bored in class because they have “No interactions”
    • 40% of U.S. high school students don’t take any science beyond general biology
      55% of U.S. h.s. students don’t take math beyond geometry
      Donald McCabe and Jason Stephens
    • Consequences of
      Passive Learning
      Where Facts and Procedures are memorized without the engagement to achieve conceptual understanding
    • 25 divided by 5
      = 14
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Achievable Challenge &
      Awareness of Incremental Progress
      Personalization
      Emotional Positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
    • The PULL of the Achievable Challenge of Video Games
      He’s so close to Level 10 to even care about going for pizza
    • Like video games
      achievable challenge
      with incremental progress
      is motivating
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Planning Units for
      Achievable Challenge
      Preassess
      Frequent Sustained Assessment
      Timely Feedback
    • Benefits of Pre-tests of Content Knowledge
      Preview of key concepts
      Predictions (hypotheses, answers) motivate interest in knowing if they are correct
      Memory of correct answer more sustained because of prediction
      Stimulate circuits with related prior knowledge to connect with subsequent new learning
    • You Have Information for Planning
      Misconceptions
      Mastery or deficiency in prerequisite concepts, facts, procedures and/or skills
    • Students correct their own quizzes in class
      - Immediate corrective feedback
      - Insight about their own foundational knowledge - what they need to review in preparation for the unit
      - Accountability: possibility of same quiz
    • Preassessment RAD
      WITHOUT Your Handout
      Write a word that relates to the each of the letters of RAD
      1. R
      2. A
      3. D
      4. Sensory input that is __________ alerts attention and that input passes the first filter to enter the brain.
    • 5. During high stress, information is conducted through the emotion sensitive affective filter to the lower, reactive brain. There are limited sets of instructions this involuntary brain uses to direct behavior. These include: ___ ____ _____?
      6. Syn-naps (brain breaks) are needed to _______?
      7. The prefrontal cortex is place we want our input to reach because this 17% of the brain controls ____________________ ?
    • Preassessment Answers
      RReach Your Students (input must pass through the Reticular Activating System or RAS)
      AAttitude that aims information toward thinking brain through the Amygdala
      D Develop Memory with Dopamine: Dopamine is associated with pleasurable experiences and increases focus and memory
      4. Sensory input that is novel (threatening, curiousity provoking) alerts attention and that input passes the first filter to enter the brain.
    • 5. During high stress, information is conducted through the emotion sensitive affective filter to the lower, reactive brain. In that lower brain there are limited sets of instructions this involuntary brain uses to direct behavior. These include: Fight, Flight, Freeze
      6. Syn-naps (brain breaks) are needed to replenish neurotransmitters, cool down amygdala, process new learning for memory
      7. The prefrontal cortex is place we want our input to reach because this 17% of the brain controls higher thinking, long-term memory, executive functions, emotional control
    • Personalization for
      Active, Memorable LEARNING
      PARTICIPATION
      MOTIVATION
    • Personalization
      Students need to value the information so they
      Want to Learn
      what you
      Have to Teach
    • The “So What?”
      In planning your lessons, consider:
      “How can I help students value the information?”
    • PERSONALIZE
      A
      PERSON OR PLACE
      CONNECTED TO
      THE UNIT
    • Book author anecdote
      about Charlie
    • Charles Dickens
      Oliver Twist
    • ratio and proportion
      Dubai Towers 2000 ft
      Empire
      State Building
      1250 feet
      Crown Plaza
      Pittsfield
      140 feet
    • Active Personalized Reading (It’s all about “me”...Talk back to the Text)
      Before Reading Predict
      What do I already know about this topic?
      As You Read Interact
      How is this different from what I already know?
      What new ideas are here for me to consider?
      Make notes in the margin or on a post-it when
      You disagree
      Something is not what you expected
      You get an idea or new insight
      What you predict comes next
    • PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY
    • PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY More Open Ended:
      1. As a group, select a stress reducing or motivation enhancing strategy related to the amygdala you LIKE.
      2. With your group develop a plan to apply the strategy to your work (especially a challenge)
      3. Individually: Fill in ideas in the “A” section RAD for your “challenge” topic in your notes
    • AMYGDALA opens pathway to PFC in response to
      activation of prior knowledge
      prediction Curiosity
      Personal relevance
      pOSITIVE MOOD INDUCTION
      aCHIEVEMENT PRIMING
      ....AND THE BRAIN REsponds WITH LEARNING AND MEMORY
    • Positive Mood Induction
      In an experiment students were asked to think about the happiest day of their lives and then given math problems.
      The number of math problems solved accurately in five minutes was greater in the group that remembered the happy time.
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Achievement Priming
      Activates a goal to achieve and inhibits a goal to have fun in individuals with high-achievement motivation
      In students with low-achievement motivation, a goal to have fun was activated and a goal to achieve inhibited
      Hart, W. (2009). The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 97, No. 6, 1129–1141
    • Appropriate Challenge Selection is
      Neuro-logical for Survival
      Expending effort only when there is a reasonably high probability of success is more adaptive than indiscriminately expending effort
    • Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of
      making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • Progress & Motivation
      A Harvard Business School analysis of nearly 12,000 diary entries, together with the writers’ daily ratings of their motivation and emotions, showed that awareness of making progress—even incremental progress—had more impact on positive emotions and motivation than any other workday event
    • Facilitate Motivation
      Provide meaningful goals
      Support with resources, rubrics, guidance
      Encouragement: Help students recognize and acknowledge their incremental progress
    • Note YOUR incremental progress
    • Covered
      Novelty & curiosity
      Prediction for Participation
      Stress of boredom/frustration
      Emotional positivity
      Achievement Priming
      Awareness of making progress
      Preassessment
      Personalization
    • NEXT
      Dopamine Boosting
      Neuroplasticity
      Narrative Memory
      Making Mistakes for Memory
    • Sign up
      for
      newsletter
    • My Articles Especially Useful
      for College Level Teaching
      Memory Enhancing Teaching and Learning. Solutions, Kappa Delta Pi Journal
      Brain-Based Teaching Strategies for Improving Students’ Memory, Learning, and Test Taking Success. Childhood Education..
      Highlighting for Understanding of Complex College Text. The National Teaching and Learning Forum. 14(6):
      Collaboration is a Brain Turn On (2006)
    • R.A.D.
      R = REACHING ATTENTION (RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM)
      A = ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR (AMYGDALA)
      D = Develop Memory
      & Motivation with
      Dopamine
    • Dopamine-Pleasure
      The brain remembers best when LEARNING is accompanied
      by positive emotion!
    • Dopamine Produces/Stimulates
      Positive feelings
      Creative imagination
      Inspiration
      Motivation
      Curiosity
      Persistence
      Perseverance
    • Dopamine Produces/Stimulates
      Pleasure
      Curiosity & Inspiration
      Motivation
      Persistence and perseverance
      Creative imagination
    • Dopamine Release
      Increases
      With...
    • Moving
      Enjoying music
      Being read to
      Feeling self-appreciation
    • Acting kindly
      Interacting well with peers
      Expressing gratitude
      Experiencing humor
      Optimism
      Choice
    • Examples of Increasing
      Dopamine with
      Choice
      Movement
      Positive peer interactions
    • CHOICE
      Two groups of students were given a battery of tests to take.
      Experimental group: option to select which tests to take in what order.
      That group reported less anxiety and scores were higher.
      STOTLAND E, BLUMENTHAL A. THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY AS A RESULT OF THE EXPECTATION OF MAKING A CHOICE. Canadian Journal of Psychology.
    • CHOICE =
      Ownership on the part of the learner
      Allowing students choice, even small choices, will increase dopamine. For example:
      Students choose how they will demonstrate mastery
      Choose a goal to connect learning to doing
    • See if you can recognize three ways humor increases dopamine.
    • Humor increases dopamine in 3 ways
      Movement
      Positive Interaction With Peers
      Intrinsic Reinforcement
    • MOVEMENT for
      dopamine
      MEMORY BOOST
    • Moving Multiple Choice
      Each wall in the classroom is an answer to a question.
      Students move to the region of the room that has the answer they think is correct.
    • Let’s do a Ball-tossto review dopamine activating activities
      Scaffolding on next slide
    • Moving
      Enjoying music
      Being read to
      Feeling intrinsic satisfaction
      Acting kindly
      Interacting well with peers
      Expressing gratitude
      Experiencing humor
      Optimism
      Choice
    • PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY
      Collaborate about a
      DOPAMINE RAISING STRATEGY
      that could be applied to one of your challenge topics
    • SYN-NAPS
    • May I be
      excused?
      My brain
      is FULL.
    • Brain breaks are needed after about ten minutes of intense concentration
      Amygdala has a chance to “cool down”
      Neurotransmitters replenished
    • SYN-NAPS Activity:Consensus Building for active engagement
      Increase Achievement Priming
      Activate Prior Knowledge
      Review Previous Material
    • Consensus Building
      also increases communication skills, tolerance, and memory
    • Text
    • MEMORY
      Encoding
    • NEXT TO THE AMYGDALA
      IS THE
      HIPPOCAMPUS
    • IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS NEW INFORMATION IS ENCODED WITH PREVIOUSLY STORED RELATED KNOWLEDGE
      CONSOLIDATION
    • The brain finds relational memories using
      PATTERNING
      See for yourself.....
    • You can help PATTERNING when you activate prior knowledge
    • WHEN PATTERN MATCHING IS SUCCESSFUL
      THE HIPPOCAMPUS ENCODES
      SENSORY INPUT INTO RELATIONAL MEMORY
    • Prediction Activities
      Make Stronger and More Accurate MEMORIES
    • New experience
      Pattern extension
      Better prediction, answers
      Better survival
    • The survival function of these networks is accurate prediction.
      Neuroplasticity strengthens networks that are used most.
      The strongest networks are the patterns the brain uses to predict.
    • Prediction increases memory encoding
      ACTIVATION OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX PREDICTION REGION (LEFT)
      RESULTED IN GREATER ACTIVITY IN MEMORY FORMING HIPPOCAMPI
      Hippocampus
      PFC
    • Which is greater?
      The number of six-letter
      English words having n as their fifth letter or......
      The number of six-letter English words ending in “ing”?
      __ __ __ __ __ __
    • Allsix-letter words ending in “ing” have “n” as their fifth letter.
      __ __ __ _I_ _N_ _G_
      _
    • Why did you predict “ing”?
      Prediction uses existing patterns (categories of prior related knowledge) to analyze new information
    • Using past experience to predict outcomes the brain gives more importance tomemories that are:
      -Most frequently used
      -Most available for retrieval
    • The brain uses prior knowledge to PREDICT best response to new experiences
    • Intelligence is the superior use of prior knowledge to predict the future
      (answers/solutions/hypotheses)
    • ACTIVITIES FOR
      PRIMING-PREVIEWING- PREDICTION-PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ACTIVATION
    • Class discussion starting with current events of high interest that connect to the unit or topic
      Ask (or find out in advance) what they learned about the topic in other courses taught at the college
    • BOOK CHAPTER PREVIEW
      ESTIMATION
      SCIENCE HYPOTHESES
      PLOT PREDICTION
      Bulletin Boards
      Guest speakers
      ASSESSMENTS THAT PREVIEW
      PRIMING-PREVIEWING- PREDICTION
    • Judy’s Neuroplasticity “Advertisement”
    • Neuroplasticity
      Mental Manipulation Strengthens Neural Pathways (more myelin, dendrites, and synapses)
      Memories are more durable and stored information is more efficiently retrieved.
      Practice Makes Permanent
    • Neurons that fire together,
      wire together
      = plasticity
    • Experience Your Neurons that
      are WIRED TOGETHER
      1. While sitting, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles
      2. Now, while doing this, draw the number '6' in the air with your right hand.
      Your foot changed direction, and it will do it again if you try again
    • Your foot changed direction, and it will do it again if you try again
    • Long-Term Memory Making
      1. Incorporation of new learning into a neural network with related information (pattern matching and other mental manipulation)
      2. Repeated stimulation of that network to strenghen and increase the connections....and the memory
    • Long-term Memory builds when new information is linked to existing
      neural networks of related information (categories, concepts)
    • Repeatedly activating those networks (mental manipulation, practice) increases strength and permanence
    • Narrative Transport MEMORY
      POSITIVE MOOD
      EMPATHY
      NARRATIVE PATTERN IS STRONG SINCE CHILDHOOD
      PREDICTION IS PART OF THAT PATTERNED RESPONSE TO STORIES
    • Example of narrative to increase memory
      MEET MY FRIEND OLI
    • Oligodendrocyte
      Oligodendrocyte
      or “Oligo” lays down new myelin in response to increased activity in the neural network
      Myelin wrapped around axon
    • OLI HELPS OUT
    • ACTIVE LEARNING REQUIRES PARTICIPATION
    • WHAT DO YOU THINK IS
      THE GREATEST FEAR REPORTED BY STUDENTS?
    • MAKING A MISTAKE
      IN WHOLE CLASS SETTING
    • Neuroplasticity constructs neural networks, but without active participation and making mistakes, faulty networks will not be revised
      That faulty foundation can severely restrict future learning.
      Mistakes are critical to learning
    • Nucleus Accumbens
      Dopamine
      Reward-Center
      Dopamine release to PFC drops with error recognition
      Dopamine release to PFC increases from intrinsic reward of correct response
    • Neuroplasticity constructs or prunes faulty neural networks
    • Correct Predictions
      Dopamine related pleasure increases
      Networks used for that prediction are reinforced
    • Incorrect Predictions
      Dopamine related pleasure dips
      Mistake negativity (when not extreme such as with support) reconstructs networks
      Timely corrective feedback allows networks to be accurately revised
    • The drop in dopamine-pleasure with a recognized mistake is the way the brain changes itself to avoid future mistakes
    • •Timely feedbackis needed to provide students with the accurate information with which to change their misdirecting neural networks.
      Then they need opportunities to use the revised network & build understanding to maintain the correct long-term memory.
    • Mistake Video Advertisement
    • You miss 100% of all the shots you don’t take
      Wayne Gretzky
    • Increasing Participation
      Changes the
      BRAIN but...
    • How can we increase active learning when
      Students
      Fear
      Mistakes?
    • Reduce Mistake Fear
      To Increase the Risk-taking of Participation
    • Reduce Mistake Participation Fear
      with no wrong answer
      questions such as.....
    • How many legs?
    • 282
      bird head or rabbit head?
    • 283
      Is the next slide a
      PROFILE OF MAN
      OR
      A Man on Horseback?
    • 286
      PROFILE OF MAN & WOMAN OR SEATED COUPLE WEARING SOMBREROS?
    • HOW MANY HORSES DO YOU SEE?
    • Students need opportunities to develop multiple and flexible perspectives.
    • People or houses watching the guitar player?
      Text
    • To Increase the Risk-taking of Participation
      Explain the brain changes that let us learn from mistakes
    • Brain Owners Manual Explain the brain changes that let us learn from mistakes
      (its how they learned to walk, talk, ride a bike)
    • Once the information gets to the conscious, cognitive brain - PFC
      it must can be mentally manipulated to become
      • Preserved, Retrievable Long-term Memory
      2. Conceptual, Transferable Knowledge
    • Mental ManipulationRecognizing PATTERNS & making associations meshes withNEUROPLASTICITY
      Similarities and differences
      Put data into Categories
      Analogies
      Graphic Organizers
    • Transfer of knowledge
      photos
    • IF SOMETHING IS MOVING
      IT IS TIME FOR A
      SYN-NAPS
    • 299
      Concentrate on the cross in the middle, after a while you will notice the moving purple dot will turn green!
      Look at the cross
      a bit longer and
      all dots except
      the green one
      will disappear.
    • MY WEBSITE FOR ACCESS TO ARTICLES I’VE WRITTEN, BOOK CHAPTERS, AND TO MY EMAIL
      www.RADTeach.com
      WEBSITE FOR VISUAL ILLUSIONS
      www.weirdomatic.com
    • Video Addresses
      A Vision of Students Today –Cultural Anthropology class at Kansas State Universityhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o
      Ball Pass Video:www.dothetest.co.uk/basketball.html
    • The End...
      for now