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Presentation by Judy Willis at Berkshire Community College Summer Institute, May 26, 2010

Presentation by Judy Willis at Berkshire Community College Summer Institute, May 26, 2010

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  • 1. Using the Developments of Neuroscience for<br />Neuro-logical Teaching Strategies <br />Using the Developments of Neuroscience for<br />Berkshire Community College<br />May 26, 2010<br />Judy Willis, MD, M.Ed <br />www.RADteach.com<br />With thanks to Dori Digenti, MSOD, Director, Center for Teaching and Learning, for her dedication to teaching and learning and support, suggestions, and planning to make this presentation possible and pertinent<br />,<br />
  • 2. 9-10:30 Session A<br />10:30 Break <br />10:45 – 12:00 Session B<br />12:00 – 1:00 Lunch<br />1-2:30 Session C<br />2:30 Break<br />2:45-4:00 Session D<br />
  • 3. Goals for This Presentation<br />Learn Neuroscience <br />Research- Compatible Strategies to:<br />Sustain students’ attention & memory with curiosity & prediction<br />Motivating sustained interest<br />Increase participation for memory<br />
  • 4. Knowing the Neuroscience <br />Helps You <br />Evaluate “Brain-Based” Claims <br />AVOID SELECTING BAD CURRICULUM<br />RECOGNIZE NEUROMYTHS<br />
  • 5. Brain Oxygen-Boosting Miracle Pill Energizes <br />Mind, Mood, & Memory<br />
  • 6. “Brain Oxygen-Boosting Miracle Pill Energizes <br />Mind, Mood, & Memory. Memory pill lights up aging <br />brain like a Christmas Tree. 100% Energizing.”<br />
  • 7. Teacher Myths & NeuroMyths<br />TEACHER MYTHS<br />Great hours: Finished at 3pm<br />Summers off – with pay<br />“Those who can, do<br />Those who can’t, teach”<br />
  • 8. Which of the following possible Neuromyths do you think is TRUE ?<br />Predict with magic pad<br />
  • 9. Possible<br />NEUROMYTHS<br />
  • 10. Hold up magic pad with the first letter of a possible neuromyths do you think is TRUE and not a neuromyth?<br />
  • 11. They are all neuromyths<br />
  • 12. Knowing the Neuroscience <br />Helps You <br />Use strategies more effectively & flexibly <br />
  • 13. BECAUSE YOU KNOW MOST OF THESE <br />NEURO-LOGICAL<br /> STRATEGIES ALREADY,<br />YOU WILL WORK <br />SMARTER, <br />NOT HARDER<br />
  • 14. Judy’s “Advertisement”<br />
  • 15.
  • 16. Are You Curious? <br />
  • 17. Is Your Brain Personally<br />Connected? <br />Not Yet<br />
  • 18. Two Tasks to <br />Prepare for<br />Active Listening<br />because<br />The person who thinks,<br />LEARNS<br />
  • 19. 1. Look through your handout to see the detail of the notes and locate major sections <br />You will be prepared to find pages that coincide with the slides<br />
  • 20. 2. Write down in your notes a topic or unit you teach (consult, supervise) for which students have difficulty sustaining attention<br />Then hold up a “magic pad”with the first letter what you wrote in your notes <br />
  • 21. R.A.D.<br />R = REACH ATTENTION<br />RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM<br />A = ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR<br />AMYGDALA<br />D = DEVELOP MOTIVATON WITH DOPAMINE<br />
  • 22. Where We Are<br />Where We’re Going <br />Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 23. Reaching<br />Problem: Reaching students’ focused attention & engagement<br />Solution: Get through RAS filter <br />  <br />
  • 24. Before anything can be learned and retained in memory it needs to be attended to (selected) by the brain<br />
  • 25. All learning comes through the senses<br />
  • 26. The input must then reach the “higher brain” for long-term conscious memory to be constructed<br />
  • 27. Prefrontal cortex<br />33<br />
  • 28. Pathway to Conscious Thinking in the Prefrontal Cortex<br />
  • 29. Let’s see what your RAS chooses and edits to let into your conscious brain<br />
  • 30. Attention is a process of selection.<br />The things you don’t attend to, don’t are unlikely to become retrievable memory <br />
  • 31.
  • 32. YOU DIDN’T “SEE” <br />THE SENSORY INPUT <br />YOUR RAS DIDN’T SELECT <br />
  • 33.
  • 34. Count the number of times the letter “F” appears in the following slide<br />
  • 35. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS<br />
  • 36. 6 times. Your RAS didn’t care about the “f’s” in “of”<br />
  • 37. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS<br />
  • 38. Your RAS edited which sensory input got your attention<br />
  • 39. Millions of bits of sensory data available every second<br />a basil gimlet Ray of Light<br />Only about 2000 bits of sensory data can get <br />through the RAS each second<br />
  • 40. To get to the conscious brain, sensory input must be R.A.S. “selected”<br />35<br />
  • 41. What is primary purpose of a brain?<br />Keep the body alive<br />Preserve the species <br />
  • 42. For Survival<br />Why a sensory filter?<br />To limit information intake<br />Preserve the brain’s survival function<br />
  • 43. For Survival<br />What would that filter select for sensory intake? <br />Something that changed, is novel<br />
  • 44. For Survival<br />First, is the novel input a danger?<br />If not, can it improve survival in the future? <br />
  • 45. When students are not paying attention to the lesson it doesn’t mean they are inattentive<br />
  • 46. They are paying attention to sensory input, just not the sensory input of the lesson<br />
  • 47. What sensory<br />input gets in the fox’s RAS?<br />
  • 48. Survival RAS filter is programed to alert to novel input because it correlates with survival<br />
  • 49. Only when threat is not perceived is other change/novelty admitted through the RAS <br />
  • 50. Now curiosity alerts the RAS<br />to attend to other changes and novel input<br />Because changes and novel input may also improve survival<br />
  • 51. When students are not paying attention to the lesson it doesn’t mean they are inattentive<br />
  • 52. They are paying attention to sensory input, just not the sensory input of the lesson<br />
  • 53. RAS<br />The RAS gives priority to threatening input <br />Therefore, if students feel threatened or stressed, their RAS prioritizes the threatening input at the expense of any academic content you would prefer they absorb.<br />
  • 54. RAS<br />Summarize with choice of<br />method such as a narrative<br />first an example, <br />then Your Turn-Collaborate and try several if time permits<br />
  • 55. RAS<br />1. Pair-Share: What is the RAS and why is it important.<br />or<br />2. Sketch your image of the RAS <br />or<br />3. Create a simile<br />The RAS is to ......<br /> as ....... as to .......<br />
  • 56. Summarize<br />with<br />COMIX.com<br />
  • 57.
  • 58. Strategies that <br />influence RAS information <br />intake and flow<br />
  • 59. What information gets through <br />the RAS and where does it go?<br />
  • 60. How can you influence what gets through your students’ RAS?<br />
  • 61. RAS Interventions<br />Help students feel SAFE!<br />Then stimulate their curiosity with change & novelty<br />S <br />
  • 62. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 63. Using Novelty or Change to promote memory associations<br />
  • 64. Music<br />Changed room<br />Costume<br />
  • 65. CURIOSITY<br />is necessary to persue new experiences<br />
  • 66. PERSUIT OF NEW EXPERIENCES & EXPLORING<br />IS NECESSARY FOR<br />SURVIVAL<br />Text<br />LEARNING ONE’S ENVIRONMENT<br />
  • 67.
  • 68. Prediction Increases<br />Curiosity, Attention, & Memory<br />
  • 69. Prediction builds curiosity and motivation to know if their prediction is correct<br />Prediction invests TOP DOWN ATTENTION<br />THE INFORMATION IS SELECTED FOR RAS INTAKE & SUBSEQUENTLY for MEMORY<br />
  • 70. CURIOSITY and DISCOVERY <br />promote the brain to <br />acquire new information, correct inaccurate networks, <br />andpredict the best<br /> future responses<br />
  • 71. Participation with Prediction = <br />Active Learning & <br />Memory Building<br />
  • 72. To be surprised by or interested in the curiosity provoking experience or question, students must make a prediction in the first place <br />Then when predictions are wrong there is a true element of surprise.<br /> The unexpected results are powerful stimuli to curiosity so...<br />There is more value/memory placed on the feedback of the correct information <br />
  • 73.
  • 74. ADVERTISE<br />to promote<br />CURIOSITY<br />&<br />PREDICTION<br />
  • 75. CURIOSITY ABOUT ADVERTISEMENTS<br />Predict what ADVERTISEMENTS have to do with a coming lesson<br />Attention investment to find out if prediction is correct<br />The INFORMATION that supports or refutes the prediction IS VALUED FOR INTAKE & MEMORY <br />
  • 76. Advertise in Advance<br />for Curiosity<br />
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.
  • 80. “The force will be with you”<br />TOMORROW<br />
  • 81.
  • 82. Hold up your<br />magic pad with <br />first letter of your<br />idea<br />
  • 83. Forceful<br />verbs<br />opening sentences<br />exclamation points forces of nature forces that change history<br />
  • 84. Your Turn <br />to <br />Predict<br />
  • 85. What topic could these photos advertise?<br />
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 93.
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. Hold up your<br />magic pad with <br />first letter of your<br />idea<br />
  • 97. Time (What a Split Second Looks Like)<br />Gravity<br />Probability<br />Motion<br />
  • 98. Advertise <br />for curiosity and prediction with videos<br />
  • 99.
  • 100. Video<br />advertising<br />science or<br />math formulas<br />
  • 101.
  • 102. Advertise <br />slope<br />
  • 103.
  • 104. Advertise <br />water<br />cycle<br />
  • 105.
  • 106. Animoto<br />to make your own videos<br />http://animoto.com/education<br />
  • 107. Discrepant <br />Events<br />Are Novel & Unexpected so RAS lets & they Promote Prediction<br />
  • 108. Show or tell things that challenge students’ assumptions or prior beliefs. <br />
  • 109. HOW MANY FINGERS <br />DO YOU THINK YOU HAVE?<br />
  • 110. Allowance Question<br />Would you rather have one cent doubled everyday for 30 days or $100,000.00 ?<br />HOLD UP MAGIC PAD<br />
  • 111. One cent because...<br />Day 15: $163.84<br />Day 16: $327.68<br />Day 17: $655.36<br />Day 18: $1,310.72<br />Day 19: $2,621.44<br />Day 20: $5,242.88<br />Day 21: $10,485.76<br />Day 22: $20,971.52<br />Day 23: $41,943.04<br />Day 24: $83,386.08<br />Day 25: $167,772.16<br />Day 26: $335,544.32<br />Day 27: $671,088.64<br />Day 28: $1,342,177.28<br />Day 29: $2,684,354.56<br />Day 1: $.01<br />Day 2: $.02<br />Day 3: $.04<br />Day 4: $.08<br />Day 5: $.16<br />Day 6: $.32<br />Day 7: $.64<br />Day 8: $1.28<br />Day 9: $2.56<br />Day 10: $5.12<br />Day 11: $10.24<br />Day 12: $20.48<br />Day 13: $40.96<br />Day 14: $81.92<br />Day 30: $5,368,709.12<br />
  • 112.
  • 113. PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY<br />Pair Share: Something you have done or could do to promote student curiosity and prediction? <br />
  • 114. Sustain<br />Attention<br />
  • 115. Syn-naps <br />Relate new information with something unusual<br />
  • 116. Write the first letter of a lesson you could connect with one of the next photos. <br />Hold up the card when ready<br />iceberg.jpg<br />iceberg.jpg<br />
  • 117.
  • 118. 52<br />
  • 119.
  • 120.
  • 121. Bingo<br />
  • 122. BINGO<br />Activation of Prior Knowledge<br />Sustained Curiosity/Attention Personal Interest<br />Content Specific Vocabulary<br />
  • 123. Students copy 25 words onto individual boxes on your grid in any order for BINGO<br />
  • 124.
  • 125. synapse<br />amygdala<br />
  • 126. When they hear one of the words spoken or see it projected on the screen they cross it out on their BINGO grid<br />When they have 5 in a row (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal) they call out BINGO <br />
  • 127.
  • 128. AS WE GO THROUGH THE UNIT,<br />MAKE PREDICTIONS ABOUT<br />WHAT THE RADISH HAS TO<br /> DO WITH WHAT YOU LEARN.<br />MAKE PREDICTIONS ANY TIME AND CHANGE THEM IF YOU’D LIKE.<br />
  • 129. Investigation:<br />Grow Radishes and Observe<br />Influence of Planting Distance, Sun Exposure, Soil, Water<br />
  • 130. Cross-Curricular-Science & Math of Agriculture Influences Historical Events<br />TRIBES THAT FARMED NEEDED GOOD SOIL AND RAIN, BUT WERE GIVEN THE WORST LAND. THEIR HARVESTS MADE THEM BITTER LIKE RADISHES.<br />THE NEW WORLD PEOPLE KEPT THE BEST LAND FOR THEIR OWN FARMING AND GREW GREEN, LEAFY CROPS LIKE THE LEAVES NEXT TO THE RADISHES. <br />
  • 131. TRIBES THAT NEEDED LARGE TERRITORIES TO HUNT WERE FORCED TO LIVE CLOSE TOGETHER, BUNCHED UP LIKE THE RADISHES.<br />IN THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT, THE NATIVE AMERICANS WERE TREATED UNFAIRLY. LIKE THE RADISHES, THEY WERE CALLED MEAN NAMES LIKE “RED SKINS.”<br />
  • 132. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 133. Predict: What Memory Challenge common to most educators and students could be represented by the following 3 photos?<br />
  • 134.
  • 135.
  • 136.
  • 137. Hold up your<br />magic pad with <br />first letter of your<br />idea<br />
  • 138. OVERPACKED CURRICULUM<br />
  • 139. Survival and Safety First<br />Participating in new learning requires students to take risks beyond their comfort zones<br />Before students can attend to higher-order thinking they must meet lower-level needs like <br />survival and safety (MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS)<br />
  • 140. Amygdala -Directs input flow<br />
  • 141. Information (sensory input) destination isdetermined by metabolic state of the amygdala<br />Reflective PFC or Reactive Lower Brain<br />
  • 142. Amygdala determines where input goes<br />PFC<br />Reflectivebrain<br />Reactivebrain<br />Amygdala <br />
  • 143. Prefrontal Cortex<br />Conscious, Reflective,<br />“THINKING”<br />Brain<br />Reactive, Lower Brain<br />Fight/Flight/Freeze<br />
  • 144. Students’ emotional states (comfort or stress) impact pathway through amygdala<br />Reflective or <br />Reactivebrain<br />
  • 145. Negativity & Stress block information transport for processing in the thinking brain (PFC) so students are not engaged in & don’t remember the lesson<br />  <br />
  • 146. Images of threatening faces or friendly faces viewed before memory task.<br />
  • 147. PFC<br />AMYGDALA<br />Subjects performing a memory recognition activity<br />A: During the relaxed state increased activity in prefrontal cortex and memory storage regions.<br />B: Stressed subjects show heightened activity in the amygdala and much less cortical activity.<br />Wang, J., et al (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 17804-9.<br />
  • 148. PFC<br />AMYGDALA<br />A: Positive emotional state – opens amygdala to PFC = memory<br />B: Stressed state – no passage to PFC <br />= Low MemoryAdapted from Hamman, et al., Cognitive Neuroscience<br />
  • 149. AMYGDALA blocks Entry to PFC in Response to<br />NEGATIVE EMOTIONS<br />Fear<br /> STRESS FROM frustration <br /> Stress from boredoM<br />
  • 150. Prefrontal cortex<br />
  • 151. Survival First:<br />React with<br />Fight-Flight-Freeze<br />
  • 152. Fear/Stress<br />Amygdala to Lower Brain for Fight, Flight, or Freeze<br />
  • 153. The Brain In Stress/Fear State Admits Sensory Input<br />to Lower Involuntary, Reactive Brain for SURVIVAL<br />Stressed Brain<br />flight<br />fight<br />freeze<br />
  • 154. 82<br />
  • 155. Causes of Stress in School<br />fear of being wrong<br />test-taking anxiety <br />physical and language differences<br />frustration with difficult material <br />boredom from lack of stimulation<br />
  • 156. Frustration IS STRESSFUL<br />
  • 157. BOREDOM IS STRESSFUL<br />
  • 158. Consequences of flight from<br />Boredom or<br />Frustration<br />
  • 159. The U.S. is now the only country in the developed world where young people are less likely to graduate than their parents<br />
  • 160. Dropouts Reason #1 <br />BOREDOM<br />75% “Material wasn’t interesting” <br />39% “Material wasn’t relevant to me” <br />31% Bored in class because they have “No interactions” <br />
  • 161. 40% of U.S. high school students don’t take any science beyond general biology<br />55% of U.S. h.s. students don’t take math beyond geometry<br /> Donald McCabe and Jason Stephens<br />
  • 162. Consequences of<br />Passive Learning <br />Where Facts and Procedures are memorized without the engagement to achieve conceptual understanding<br />
  • 163. 25 divided by 5 <br />= 14<br />
  • 164.
  • 165. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Achievable Challenge &<br /> Awareness of Incremental Progress<br />Personalization <br />Emotional Positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />
  • 166. The PULL of the Achievable Challenge of Video Games<br />He’s so close to Level 10 to even care about going for pizza<br />
  • 167. Like video games <br />achievable challenge <br />with incremental progress<br />is motivating <br />
  • 168. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 169. Planning Units for<br />Achievable Challenge<br />Preassess<br />Frequent Sustained Assessment <br />Timely Feedback<br />
  • 170. Benefits of Pre-tests of Content Knowledge <br />Preview of key concepts<br />Predictions (hypotheses, answers) motivate interest in knowing if they are correct <br />Memory of correct answer more sustained because of prediction<br />Stimulate circuits with related prior knowledge to connect with subsequent new learning<br />
  • 171. You Have Information for Planning<br />Misconceptions <br />Mastery or deficiency in prerequisite concepts, facts, procedures and/or skills<br />
  • 172. Students correct their own quizzes in class<br />- Immediate corrective feedback <br />- Insight about their own foundational knowledge - what they need to review in preparation for the unit<br />- Accountability: possibility of same quiz<br />
  • 173. Preassessment RAD <br />WITHOUT Your Handout<br />Write a word that relates to the each of the letters of RAD <br />1. R <br />2. A <br />3. D <br />4. Sensory input that is __________ alerts attention and that input passes the first filter to enter the brain. <br />
  • 174. 5. During high stress, information is conducted through the emotion sensitive affective filter to the lower, reactive brain. There are limited sets of instructions this involuntary brain uses to direct behavior. These include: ___ ____ _____?<br />6. Syn-naps (brain breaks) are needed to _______?<br />7. The prefrontal cortex is place we want our input to reach because this 17% of the brain controls ____________________ ?<br />
  • 175. Preassessment Answers<br />RReach Your Students (input must pass through the Reticular Activating System or RAS) <br />AAttitude that aims information toward thinking brain through the Amygdala <br />D Develop Memory with Dopamine: Dopamine is associated with pleasurable experiences and increases focus and memory <br />4. Sensory input that is novel (threatening, curiousity provoking) alerts attention and that input passes the first filter to enter the brain.<br />
  • 176. 5. During high stress, information is conducted through the emotion sensitive affective filter to the lower, reactive brain. In that lower brain there are limited sets of instructions this involuntary brain uses to direct behavior. These include: Fight, Flight, Freeze<br />6. Syn-naps (brain breaks) are needed to replenish neurotransmitters, cool down amygdala, process new learning for memory<br />7. The prefrontal cortex is place we want our input to reach because this 17% of the brain controls higher thinking, long-term memory, executive functions, emotional control<br />
  • 177. Personalization for<br />Active, Memorable LEARNING<br />PARTICIPATION<br />MOTIVATION<br />
  • 178. Personalization <br />Students need to value the information so they<br />Want to Learn <br />what you<br />Have to Teach<br />
  • 179. The “So What?”<br />In planning your lessons, consider:<br />“How can I help students value the information?”<br />
  • 180. PERSONALIZE<br />A<br />PERSON OR PLACE<br />CONNECTED TO <br />THE UNIT<br />
  • 181. Book author anecdote <br />about Charlie <br />
  • 182. Charles Dickens<br />Oliver Twist<br />
  • 183. ratio and proportion<br />Dubai Towers 2000 ft<br />Empire <br />State Building<br />1250 feet<br />Crown Plaza<br />Pittsfield<br />140 feet<br />
  • 184. Active Personalized Reading (It’s all about “me”...Talk back to the Text)<br />Before Reading Predict<br />What do I already know about this topic?<br /> As You Read Interact <br />How is this different from what I already know? <br /> What new ideas are here for me to consider?<br />Make notes in the margin or on a post-it when <br />You disagree <br /> Something is not what you expected<br /> You get an idea or new insight<br /> What you predict comes next <br />
  • 185. PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY <br />
  • 186. PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY More Open Ended: <br />1. As a group, select a stress reducing or motivation enhancing strategy related to the amygdala you LIKE. <br />2. With your group develop a plan to apply the strategy to your work (especially a challenge)<br />3. Individually: Fill in ideas in the “A” section RAD for your “challenge” topic in your notes<br />
  • 187. AMYGDALA opens pathway to PFC in response to<br />activation of prior knowledge<br />prediction Curiosity<br /> Personal relevance <br />pOSITIVE MOOD INDUCTION<br />aCHIEVEMENT PRIMING<br />....AND THE BRAIN REsponds WITH LEARNING AND MEMORY<br />
  • 188. Positive Mood Induction<br />In an experiment students were asked to think about the happiest day of their lives and then given math problems. <br />The number of math problems solved accurately in five minutes was greater in the group that remembered the happy time.<br />
  • 189. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 190. Achievement Priming<br />Activates a goal to achieve and inhibits a goal to have fun in individuals with high-achievement motivation<br />In students with low-achievement motivation, a goal to have fun was activated and a goal to achieve inhibited <br />Hart, W. (2009). The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 97, No. 6, 1129–1141<br />
  • 191. Appropriate Challenge Selection is <br />Neuro-logical for Survival<br />Expending effort only when there is a reasonably high probability of success is more adaptive than indiscriminately expending effort<br />
  • 192. Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of <br />making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 193. Progress & Motivation <br />A Harvard Business School analysis of nearly 12,000 diary entries, together with the writers’ daily ratings of their motivation and emotions, showed that awareness of making progress—even incremental progress—had more impact on positive emotions and motivation than any other workday event <br />
  • 194. Facilitate Motivation<br />Provide meaningful goals<br />Support with resources, rubrics, guidance<br />Encouragement: Help students recognize and acknowledge their incremental progress<br />
  • 195. Note YOUR incremental progress<br />
  • 196. Covered<br />Novelty & curiosity<br />Prediction for Participation<br />Stress of boredom/frustration<br />Emotional positivity<br />Achievement Priming<br />Awareness of making progress<br />Preassessment<br />Personalization<br />
  • 197. NEXT<br />Dopamine Boosting<br />Neuroplasticity <br />Narrative Memory<br />Making Mistakes for Memory<br />
  • 198. Sign up<br />for<br />newsletter<br />
  • 199. My Articles Especially Useful <br />for College Level Teaching<br />Memory Enhancing Teaching and Learning. Solutions, Kappa Delta Pi Journal <br /> Brain-Based Teaching Strategies for Improving Students’ Memory, Learning, and Test Taking Success. Childhood Education..<br />Highlighting for Understanding of Complex College Text. The National Teaching and Learning Forum. 14(6): <br />Collaboration is a Brain Turn On (2006)<br />
  • 200. R.A.D.<br />R = REACHING ATTENTION (RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM)<br />A = ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR (AMYGDALA)<br />D = Develop Memory<br /> & Motivation with<br />Dopamine<br />
  • 201. Dopamine-Pleasure<br />The brain remembers best when LEARNING is accompanied<br />by positive emotion!<br />
  • 202. Dopamine Produces/Stimulates<br />Positive feelings<br />Creative imagination<br /> Inspiration<br /> Motivation<br /> Curiosity<br /> Persistence <br /> Perseverance<br />
  • 203. Dopamine Produces/Stimulates<br />Pleasure<br />Curiosity & Inspiration<br />Motivation<br /> Persistence and perseverance<br /> Creative imagination<br />
  • 204. Dopamine Release <br />Increases<br />With...<br />
  • 205. Moving<br />Enjoying music<br />Being read to<br />Feeling self-appreciation<br />
  • 206. Acting kindly<br />Interacting well with peers<br />Expressing gratitude<br />Experiencing humor<br />Optimism<br />Choice<br />
  • 207. Examples of Increasing<br />Dopamine with<br />Choice <br />Movement <br />Positive peer interactions<br />
  • 208. CHOICE<br />Two groups of students were given a battery of tests to take. <br />Experimental group: option to select which tests to take in what order. <br />That group reported less anxiety and scores were higher.<br />STOTLAND E, BLUMENTHAL A. THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY AS A RESULT OF THE EXPECTATION OF MAKING A CHOICE. Canadian Journal of Psychology.<br />
  • 209. CHOICE =<br />Ownership on the part of the learner<br />Allowing students choice, even small choices, will increase dopamine. For example:<br />Students choose how they will demonstrate mastery<br />Choose a goal to connect learning to doing<br />
  • 210. See if you can recognize three ways humor increases dopamine.<br />
  • 211.
  • 212.
  • 213.
  • 214. Humor increases dopamine in 3 ways<br />Movement<br />Positive Interaction With Peers<br />Intrinsic Reinforcement<br />
  • 215. MOVEMENT for<br />dopamine<br />MEMORY BOOST<br />
  • 216. Moving Multiple Choice<br />Each wall in the classroom is an answer to a question.<br />Students move to the region of the room that has the answer they think is correct.<br />
  • 217. Let’s do a Ball-tossto review dopamine activating activities<br />Scaffolding on next slide<br />
  • 218. Moving<br />Enjoying music<br />Being read to<br />Feeling intrinsic satisfaction<br />Acting kindly<br />Interacting well with peers<br />Expressing gratitude<br />Experiencing humor<br />Optimism<br />Choice<br />
  • 219. PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY<br />Collaborate about a<br />DOPAMINE RAISING STRATEGY <br />that could be applied to one of your challenge topics <br />
  • 220. SYN-NAPS<br />
  • 221. May I be<br />excused?<br />My brain<br />is FULL.<br />
  • 222. Brain breaks are needed after about ten minutes of intense concentration <br />Amygdala has a chance to “cool down” <br />Neurotransmitters replenished<br />
  • 223. SYN-NAPS Activity:Consensus Building for active engagement<br />Increase Achievement Priming<br /> Activate Prior Knowledge <br />Review Previous Material<br />
  • 224. Consensus Building <br />also increases communication skills, tolerance, and memory<br />
  • 225. Text<br />
  • 226. MEMORY<br />Encoding<br />
  • 227. NEXT TO THE AMYGDALA<br />IS THE<br />HIPPOCAMPUS<br />
  • 228.
  • 229.
  • 230. IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS NEW INFORMATION IS ENCODED WITH PREVIOUSLY STORED RELATED KNOWLEDGE <br />CONSOLIDATION<br />
  • 231. The brain finds relational memories using<br />PATTERNING<br />See for yourself.....<br />
  • 232.
  • 233. You can help PATTERNING when you activate prior knowledge<br />
  • 234. WHEN PATTERN MATCHING IS SUCCESSFUL<br />THE HIPPOCAMPUS ENCODES<br />SENSORY INPUT INTO RELATIONAL MEMORY<br />
  • 235. Prediction Activities <br />Make Stronger and More Accurate MEMORIES<br />
  • 236. New experience<br />Pattern extension<br />Better prediction, answers <br />Better survival<br />
  • 237. The survival function of these networks is accurate prediction. <br />Neuroplasticity strengthens networks that are used most. <br />The strongest networks are the patterns the brain uses to predict.<br />
  • 238. Prediction increases memory encoding<br />ACTIVATION OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX PREDICTION REGION (LEFT)<br /> RESULTED IN GREATER ACTIVITY IN MEMORY FORMING HIPPOCAMPI<br />Hippocampus<br />PFC<br />
  • 239. Which is greater? <br />The number of six-letter<br />English words having n as their fifth letter or......<br />The number of six-letter English words ending in “ing”? <br />__ __ __ __ __ __<br />
  • 240. Allsix-letter words ending in “ing” have “n” as their fifth letter. <br />__ __ __ _I_ _N_ _G_<br />_<br />
  • 241. Why did you predict “ing”?<br />Prediction uses existing patterns (categories of prior related knowledge) to analyze new information<br />
  • 242. Using past experience to predict outcomes the brain gives more importance tomemories that are: <br />-Most frequently used<br />-Most available for retrieval<br />
  • 243. The brain uses prior knowledge to PREDICT best response to new experiences<br />
  • 244. Intelligence is the superior use of prior knowledge to predict the future<br /> (answers/solutions/hypotheses)<br />
  • 245. ACTIVITIES FOR<br />PRIMING-PREVIEWING- PREDICTION-PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ACTIVATION<br />
  • 246. Class discussion starting with current events of high interest that connect to the unit or topic<br />Ask (or find out in advance) what they learned about the topic in other courses taught at the college<br />
  • 247. BOOK CHAPTER PREVIEW<br />ESTIMATION<br />SCIENCE HYPOTHESES<br />PLOT PREDICTION<br />Bulletin Boards<br />Guest speakers<br />ASSESSMENTS THAT PREVIEW<br />PRIMING-PREVIEWING- PREDICTION<br />
  • 248.
  • 249. Judy’s Neuroplasticity “Advertisement”<br />
  • 250.
  • 251. Neuroplasticity<br />Mental Manipulation Strengthens Neural Pathways (more myelin, dendrites, and synapses)<br />Memories are more durable and stored information is more efficiently retrieved.<br />Practice Makes Permanent <br />
  • 252. Neurons that fire together, <br /> wire together <br /> = plasticity<br />
  • 253. Experience Your Neurons that<br />are WIRED TOGETHER<br />1. While sitting, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles<br />2. Now, while doing this, draw the number '6' in the air with your right hand. <br />Your foot changed direction, and it will do it again if you try again<br />
  • 254. Your foot changed direction, and it will do it again if you try again<br />
  • 255. Long-Term Memory Making<br />1. Incorporation of new learning into a neural network with related information (pattern matching and other mental manipulation)<br />2. Repeated stimulation of that network to strenghen and increase the connections....and the memory<br />
  • 256. Long-term Memory builds when new information is linked to existing <br />neural networks of related information (categories, concepts)<br />
  • 257. Repeatedly activating those networks (mental manipulation, practice) increases strength and permanence<br />
  • 258.
  • 259.
  • 260. Narrative Transport MEMORY<br />POSITIVE MOOD<br />EMPATHY<br />NARRATIVE PATTERN IS STRONG SINCE CHILDHOOD<br />PREDICTION IS PART OF THAT PATTERNED RESPONSE TO STORIES<br />
  • 261. Example of narrative to increase memory<br />MEET MY FRIEND OLI<br />
  • 262. Oligodendrocyte<br />Oligodendrocyte<br />or “Oligo” lays down new myelin in response to increased activity in the neural network<br />Myelin wrapped around axon<br />
  • 263. OLI HELPS OUT<br />
  • 264. ACTIVE LEARNING REQUIRES PARTICIPATION<br />
  • 265. WHAT DO YOU THINK IS<br />THE GREATEST FEAR REPORTED BY STUDENTS?<br />
  • 266. MAKING A MISTAKE <br />IN WHOLE CLASS SETTING<br />
  • 267. Neuroplasticity constructs neural networks, but without active participation and making mistakes, faulty networks will not be revised<br />That faulty foundation can severely restrict future learning.<br />Mistakes are critical to learning<br />
  • 268. Nucleus Accumbens<br />Dopamine<br />Reward-Center<br />Dopamine release to PFC drops with error recognition<br />Dopamine release to PFC increases from intrinsic reward of correct response<br />
  • 269. Neuroplasticity constructs or prunes faulty neural networks<br />
  • 270. Correct Predictions<br />Dopamine related pleasure increases <br />Networks used for that prediction are reinforced <br />
  • 271. Incorrect Predictions<br />Dopamine related pleasure dips <br />Mistake negativity (when not extreme such as with support) reconstructs networks<br />Timely corrective feedback allows networks to be accurately revised <br />
  • 272. The drop in dopamine-pleasure with a recognized mistake is the way the brain changes itself to avoid future mistakes<br />
  • 273. •Timely feedbackis needed to provide students with the accurate information with which to change their misdirecting neural networks.<br />Then they need opportunities to use the revised network & build understanding to maintain the correct long-term memory. <br />
  • 274. Mistake Video Advertisement<br />
  • 275.
  • 276. You miss 100% of all the shots you don’t take<br />Wayne Gretzky<br />
  • 277. Increasing Participation<br />Changes the <br /> BRAIN but...<br />
  • 278. How can we increase active learning when<br />Students <br />Fear <br />Mistakes?<br />
  • 279. Reduce Mistake Fear<br />To Increase the Risk-taking of Participation<br />
  • 280. Reduce Mistake Participation Fear<br />with no wrong answer<br />questions such as.....<br />
  • 281. How many legs?<br />
  • 282. 282<br />bird head or rabbit head?<br />
  • 283. 283<br />Is the next slide a<br />PROFILE OF MAN <br />OR<br />A Man on Horseback?<br />
  • 284.
  • 285.
  • 286. 286<br />PROFILE OF MAN & WOMAN OR SEATED COUPLE WEARING SOMBREROS?<br />
  • 287. HOW MANY HORSES DO YOU SEE?<br />
  • 288. Students need opportunities to develop multiple and flexible perspectives. <br />
  • 289. People or houses watching the guitar player?<br />Text<br />
  • 290. To Increase the Risk-taking of Participation<br />Explain the brain changes that let us learn from mistakes <br />
  • 291. Brain Owners Manual Explain the brain changes that let us learn from mistakes<br />(its how they learned to walk, talk, ride a bike) <br />
  • 292. Once the information gets to the conscious, cognitive brain - PFC<br /> it must can be mentally manipulated to become<br /><ul><li>Preserved, Retrievable Long-term Memory</li></ul>2. Conceptual, Transferable Knowledge<br />
  • 293. Mental ManipulationRecognizing PATTERNS & making associations meshes withNEUROPLASTICITY<br />Similarities and differences<br />Put data into Categories<br />Analogies<br />Graphic Organizers<br />
  • 294. Transfer of knowledge<br />photos<br />
  • 295.
  • 296.
  • 297.
  • 298. IF SOMETHING IS MOVING<br />IT IS TIME FOR A <br />SYN-NAPS<br />
  • 299. 299<br />Concentrate on the cross in the middle, after a while you will notice the moving purple dot will turn green! <br />Look at the cross <br />a bit longer and <br />all dots except <br />the green one <br />will disappear.<br />
  • 300. MY WEBSITE FOR ACCESS TO ARTICLES I’VE WRITTEN, BOOK CHAPTERS, AND TO MY EMAIL<br />www.RADTeach.com<br />WEBSITE FOR VISUAL ILLUSIONS<br />www.weirdomatic.com<br />
  • 301. Video Addresses<br />A Vision of Students Today –Cultural Anthropology class at Kansas State Universityhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o<br />Ball Pass Video:www.dothetest.co.uk/basketball.html<br />
  • 302. The End...<br />for now<br />

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