Bluetooth Aplication


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Bluetooth Aplication

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: Debasmita Banerjee Diganta Bhaduri Debjyoti Bhattacharya
  2. 2. WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?  Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices.  The transmission/exchange takes place by building personal area networks (PANs).
  3. 3. BLUETOOTH IN ACTION In the house In the Office
  4. 4. Home Security On the Road
  5. 5. On our Car
  6. 6. HISTORY  Bluetooth was invented in 1994 by Ericsson.  The company later started working with a larger group of companies called the Bluetooth Special Interests Group, or "SIG”, to develop the technology into what it is today.  Bluetooth is not owned by any one company and is developed and maintained by SIG.  The name Bluetooth came from a code name originally used by SIG for the project and is a reference to a 10th century Danish king named Harold Bluetooth, who was responsible for uniting Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
  7. 7. THINGS YOU MUST HAVE FOR BLUETOOTH  Transceivers and Receivers that can send and receive data because they use Radio Waves.  MAC Address (Physical Address): - Burnt on the NIC card by the manufacturer.  PIN Number - To identify the user using the device.  A Piconet  A FHSS protocol
  9. 9. WHAT IS A PICONET?  A Piconet session is a communication link that must be created between devices for devices to communicate with each other.  This is done when the MAC address and the PIN number match.  If two devices come onto contact with each other( 32 feet) the user will be prompted to initiate a communication session.  Users then can either deny or accept the request to initiate a session.  Only devices approved by the user can take part in the session.  Data will appear as noise to unauthorized devices. (A great security feature).
  10. 10. MASTER – SLAVE CONCEPT  MASTER: - Device in Piconet whose clock and hopping sequence are used to synchronize all other devices (slaves) in it. - It also carries out Paging procedure and also Connection Establishment. o SLAVE: - Units within the Piconet that are synchronized to the master via its clock and hopping sequence. - After connection establishment, Slaves are assigned a temporary 3 bit member address to reduce the no. of addressing bits required.
  11. 11. PICONET STRUCTURE Master Active Slave Parked Slave Standby
  12. 12. “FHSS” PROTOCOL  Bluetooth devices use a protocol called (FHSS) Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum .  Uses packet-switching to send data.  Bluetooth sends packets of data on a range of frequencies.  In each session one device is a master and the others are slaves.  The master device decides at which frequency data will travel.
  13. 13.  Transceivers “hop” among 79 different frequencies in the 2.4 GHz baud at a rate of 1600 frequency hops per second.  The master device tells the slaves at what frequency data will be sent.  This technique allows devices to communicate with each other more securely.
  14. 14. TIME DIVISION DUPLEX SCHEME  Bluetooth devices use a Time-Division Duplex (TDD) scheme.  Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 s) .  One packet can be transmitted per slot.  Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving. - Strict alternation of slots b/t the master and the slaves. - Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots. - Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots.
  15. 15. THE PROTOCOL STACK Baseband Link Manager L2CAP RFCOMM/SDP TCP/IP Applications Transport Protocol Group Middleware Protocol Group Application Group
  16. 16. TRANSPORT PROTOCOL GROUP  Radio Frequency(RF): - Sending and receiving modulated bit streams.  Baseband: - Defines the timing & framing. - Flow control on the link.  Link Manager: - Managing the connection states. - Enforcing Fairness among slaves. - Power Management.  Logical Link Control &Adaptation Protocol: - Handles multiplexing of higher level protocols. - Segmentation & reassembly of large packets. - Device discovery & Operations.
  17. 17. MIDDLEWARE PROTOCOL GROUP  Service Discovery Protocol (SDP): - Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics.  RFCOMM: - Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network.  TCP/IP: - Network Protocols for packet data communication & routing.
  18. 18. APPLICATION GROUP Consists of Bluetooth aware as well as un-aware applications.
  19. 19. PHYSICAL LINK TYPES  Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO): - Point to Point Full Duplex between Master & Slave. - Established once by master & kept alive till released by Master. -Typically used for Voice connection (to guarantee continuity). - Master reserves slots used for SCO link on the channel to preserve time sensitive information .  Asynchronous Connection Link (ACL): - It is a momentary link between master and slave. - No slots are reserved. - It is a Point to Multipoint connection. - Symmetric & Asymmetric links possible.
  20. 20. SECURITY  Security Measures: - Limited/Restricted Access to authorized users. - Both Link Level Encryption & Authentication. - Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access. - Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys). - These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys. - Further encryption can be done at the application layer.
  21. 21. BLUETOOTH IN THE MARKET... PC cards, Cell phones, Head sets, Chip sets,… Features Cost 20 dBm (~100 m) Point-to-multipoint No Scatternet Applications File Transfer, Dial-Up Networking LAN access, Fax, … 169 $ --- 200 $ 0 dBm (~10 m) Point-to-multipoint No Scatternet File Transfer, Dial-Up Networking LAN access, Fax, … 169 $ --- Company Toshiba, Motorola, Digianswer IBM, TDK 3COM 10 m user-user; 100 m user-Base Station Point-to-multipoint SW- & FW- upgradeable File Transfer, Dial-Up Networking LAN access, Fax, E-mail Unconscious connection 149 $ Nokia 10 m user-user; Point-to-point Connectivity Battery for the cell phone File Transfer, Dial-Up Networking LAN access, Fax, E-mail Unconscious connection 149 $ Ericsson, Sigma 10 m user-user; Point-to-point; ARM processor; USB; RFCOMM ports Basic BT Radio stack Embedded or Host stack Programmable 500 $ 1500$
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH  These have Replaced cables for transferring Information from one Electronic Device to another one.  These have decreased Strain like carrying phones while talking, making hands free to do another work.  This is cheaply Available.  It’s Mobility is also very Important as it doesn’t need any power outlet or Internet connection or any other items.
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH  Data sent between two Bluetooth devices is very slow compared with Wi-Fi transfer Rate.  Range Of a Bluetooth Device is 15-30 feet depending upon the Device.  Security is Biggest Disadvantage as transfer takes place through radio waves and a hacker can easily hack it.  Battery usage is also a problem, it will make device out of power before it would have if Bluetooth was not powered on.
  24. 24. CONCLUSION  A new global standard for data and voice.  Eliminate Cables.  Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices.  Delivers Automatic synchronicity between devices.  Future Improvements: - Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization. - Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.
  25. 25. REFERENCES [1] Bluetooth Consortium : [2] Bluetooth Tutorial : [3] G.F.Pedersen, P.Eggers, “Initial Investigation of the Bluetooth Link”, VTC, pp 64 – 70
  26. 26. THANK YOU