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White7e ppt ch14

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  • 1. Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter 14:An Introduction to Homeland Security Rosemary Arway Hodges University
  • 2. Defining Homeland Security Searching for Defined Roles o While not completely defined, agencies have made progress over the last few years, especially in the area of information sharing and cooperation. The reason for the confusion about policy: America had no common definition of homeland security o The new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was responsible for protecting the borders and the country’s interior. o A host of private businesses, nonprofit organizations, and health care systems were involved in security efforts.
  • 3. Defining Homeland Security Keeping the country safe o Agencies are beginning to understand their roles and the concept of homeland security. o Homeland security protects lives, property, and infrastructure. o Divided into three functions:  preventing terrorism  responding to attacks  providing technical support to local agencies Critics maintain that confusion remains and that the country is not prepared.
  • 4. Security Missions The policy guiding homeland security has not been fully developed. Executives are not quite sure of the way that all the missions of various agencies fit together. Homeland security involves civil defense. Homeland security is much more than the sum of agencies charged with protecting the United States. A major portion of security is a civic responsibility.
  • 5. Agencies Charged with Preventing and Interdicting Terrorism The Department of Homeland Security o Created from the Office of Homeland Security in 2003 as a direct result of the 9-11 attacks. o Has several different missions. o Many DHS agencies are involved in intelligence.  Office of Intelligence and Analysis coordinates these efforts. o Many DHS employees are employed in law enforcement tasks.  They have arrest powers.  The are trained in the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC).
  • 6. Agencies Charged with Preventing and Interdicting Terrorism The Department of Justice o DOJ maintains several functions in the realm of terrorism and the most noted agency is the FBI. o The Department of Justice is involved in other areas.  The U.S. Marshall’s Service  The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF)
  • 7. Agencies Charged with Preventing and Interdicting Terrorism The Department of Defense o In time of war, the military organizations in the Department of Defense (DOD) play the leading role. o DOD operates the United States Northern Command for the purpose of homeland security. o In times of emergency military forces can provide much needed assistance to local units of government.
  • 8. Agencies Charged with Preventing and Interdicting Terrorism The Intelligence Community o Underwent massive changes after 9-11 and the failure to find WMD after the invasion of Iraq. o The purpose of the ODNI:  To unite America’s national security intelligence under one umbrella.  To coordinate information from national security and military intelligence.  To run intelligence operations from the Department of State.  To incorporate federal law enforcement intelligence under its umbrella.
  • 9. Agencies Charged with Preventing and Interdicting Terrorism State, Local, and Tribal Enforcement o Collect tactical intelligence for the prevention of terrorism and other crimes. o Utilize intelligence for planning and the deployment of resources. o Enhance counterterrorism efforts through the information sharing. o When it comes to terrorism, state, local, and tribal agencies are crucial to homeland security.
  • 10. Rethinking Conflict Networks and Law Enforcement o Homeland security is more than counterterrorism. o Law enforcement has a major role in stopping international networks that wage modern conflict. o The primary job of law enforcement in preventing terrorism is to stop criminal activity within networks. o Arquilla and Ronfeldt: five factors must be in place for networks to operate.  Technology  Social support  Narrative  Organizational structure  Tactical doctrine
  • 11. Rethinking Conflict Rethinking conflict: o Networks have changed the tactical structure of conflict. o The principles of conflict remain the same. o Terrorist group have to have a structure units for operations. o Terrorists have to effectively communicate with one another. o Terrorists must:  Move material  Seize and maintain the initiative  Sass at the enemy’s weak point  Psychologically convince the enemy that there is no point in fighting The rule set has changed; not the nature of war.
  • 12. Blurring War and Peace Blurring War and Peace o The practice of terrorism has blurred the distinction between war and peace. o The Constitution states that only Congress has the power to declare war. o Terrorism is changing the nature of conflict. o Law enforcement agencies, courts, and corrections joined in the battle, even though they are not constitutionally associated with military power.
  • 13. Networks and Classical Theories of Conflict Carl von Clausewitz o Prussian general and military philosopher o Studied the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) and Frederick the Great (1740 –1786). o Joined the Russian Army in 1812 to fight Napoleon and the German War of Liberation. o Emphasized that the purpose of military action is to seek a decisive engagement. Terrorism, however, is designed to produce the opposite effect, seeking to avoid direct confrontation with force.
  • 14. Networks and Classical Theories of Conflict American law enforcement o Does not seek a decisive battle with enemy forces. o Its purpose can never be the imposition of political will. o Will be involved in combating terrorism.  Because the goals of terrorism are to create panic and cause social systems to break. Sun Tzu, a Chinese philosopher o Produced a treatise on the paradoxes of war. o War and politics were psychological forces held together by the belief in power. o Concept of strength-to-weakness  In modern military parlance this is called asymmetry.  It means competing forces are out of balance, a weak force fights a much stronger power.
  • 15. Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two Different Worlds Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two Different Worlds o Indicated that America was vulnerable to attack o Occurred with no formal declaration of war o Involved civilian casualties The purpose of the Japanese surprise attack was to destroy U.S. military capabilities in the Pacific The purposes of the September 11 terrorists were o To temporarily destroy America’s capacity to wage war o To achieve political objectives with military might o To negotiate a truce from a position of strength o To create drama and fear o To persuade Western institutions to change their behavior o To attack globalization
  • 16. Operating Deeply in Our Society Arthur Cebrowski the U.S. armed forces need to: o Develop the ability to operate “deeply” in society o Fully understand, accept, and defend America with a complete comprehension of American culture combined with the willingness to completely understand any enemy society in depth o Create a new defense culture that permeates all levels of society and that breaks down barriers between organizations Martin van Creveld: o A war for existence changes the nature of conflict because the strategic rules of war and the rational extension of policy are thrown out the window. o If military forces approach homeland security as a continuation of national policy, they will bring the wrong weapons to the wrong war.
  • 17. Building Intelligence Systems The Intelligence Process o Police intelligence systems can be modeled after academic research o Involves general information about a subject and its sub-disciplines o Involves gathering basic information about a target and real-time information about current activities o Involves collecting, analyzing, and forwarding information National Security and Criminal Intelligence o In network-to-network conflict, bureaucracies should not change their role. o Each organization in a network has its own function. o The key to success in a network is sharing information.
  • 18. Building Intelligence Systemso National security intelligence  Gathered to defend the nation  Is not used in criminal prosecutions  Is not subject to legal scrutinyo Criminal intelligence  Gathered by law enforcement and prosecuting attorneys  Cannot be gathered, analyzed, or stored without reason to believe that a crime is about to or has taken placeo Law enforcement should plan and develop two channels for information  Aimed at law enforcement intelligence  Prepared to pass information along to defense sources
  • 19. Building Intelligence Systems A Checkered Past o Law enforcement and national defense intelligence came under difficult times during the administration of President Jimmy Carter. o The president tried to correct the abuse of power and end the scandal of using covert operations against American citizens. o The USA Patriot Act increases the ability of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to share information. o The abuses of the past cannot be repeated if police agencies want to develop effective intelligence systems.
  • 20. Building Intelligence Systems The New Jersey Intelligence System o The NJSP Intelligence Service Section is made up of three main divisions.  The Intelligence Bureau, composed of six units:  The Analytical Unit  The Casino Intelligence Unit  The Electronic Surveillance Unit  The Liaison Computerized Services Unit  The Services Unit  The Street Gang Unit  The Central Security Unit  The Solid Waste Unit
  • 21. Building Intelligence Systems The California Intelligence System o The center linked federal, state, and local information services in one system and divided operational zones into five administrative areas. o Trained intelligence analysts operated within civil rights guidelines and utilized information in a secure communications system. o It combined intelligence  Gathered by computers and other automated devices  Gathered from a variety of police agencies o California created new systems under the tight control of regional law enforcement agencies and in partnership with four regional Joint Terrorism Task Forces.
  • 22. Building Intelligence Systems The NYPD Intelligence System o Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly created two new units:  One for counterterrorism and  One for intelligence o Kelly stated that he wanted the NYPD to do a better job of intelligence analysis and to work more closely with the federal government.
  • 23. Building Intelligence Systems US Attorneys and the JTTFs o The DOJ has created two intelligence systems  One in federal prosecutors’ offices  The other in law enforcement o Each U.S. Attorney’s office has an Anti-Terrorist Assistance Coordinator (ATAC)  Coordinate the collection of criminal intelligence  To share intelligence among federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies  That hold security clearances o Each Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) is made up of:  Officers from all levels of American law enforcement  Officers from a variety of different types of agencies  Agents that received a national security intelligence clearance
  • 24. Building Intelligence Systems Plans, Networks, and Fusion Centers The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) o Created by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the Department of Justice o The purpose of the plan:  To establish norms for collecting, analyzing, and storing criminal intelligence within legal guidelines.  To suggest manners in which information could be shared among agencies
  • 25. Issues in Homeland Security Criminal intelligence networks in operation after 9-11: o The Regional Information Sharing System (RISS) o The Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange (ATIX) o FBI’s Law Enforcement Online (LEO) o The Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) o The Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN)
  • 26. Law Enforcement’s Special Role Law Enforcement’s Special Role o Responsible for breaking some of America’s most formidable terrorist cells. o If state and local agencies shift to offensive thinking and action, two results will inevitably develop:  Police contact with potential terrorists will increase.  Proactive measures demand increased intelligence gathering, and much of the information will have no relation to criminal activity. o Police intelligence operations and drug enforcement units can add counterterrorism to their agendas. o Patrol and investigative units can be trained to look for terrorist activities in the course of their normal duties.
  • 27. The Role of Symbols and Structures The Role of Symbols and Structures o Asymmetrical war is waged against symbolic targets o Homeland security is designed to secure symbols o Americans represent symbolic targets of military value Styles of terrorism o Symbolic terrorism is a dramatic attack to show vulnerability. o Pragmatic terrorism involves a practical attempt to destroy political power. o Systematic terrorism is waged over a period of time to change social conditions. Terrorists use symbolic attacks or attacks on symbols to achieve pragmatic or systematic results.
  • 28. Creating a Culture of Information Sharing The National Strategy for Homeland Security calls for increased information sharing among law enforcement agencies. Intelligence is not properly analyzed, and agencies do not coordinate information. Despite criticism, information sharing is growing into a law enforcement norm. Police agencies should: o Adopt community policing strategies o Developed skills in problem solving o Build community partnerships o Gather and analyze the information needed to deal with crime and social problems in a local community
  • 29.  The 9-11 Commission Report suggested several reforms for restructuring government: o Focus on defense, intelligence, information sharing, homeland security, and law enforcement o The current position of Director of Central Intelligence should be replaced by a National Intelligence Director o Integrating the U.S. border security system into a larger network The central question for criminal justice focuses on the role of law enforcement. The question of balancing security with freedom is delicate, and the new intelligence infrastructure has not dealt with all the issues.

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