White7e ppt ch06


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White7e ppt ch06

  1. 1. Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter 6:Recent History: The Roots of Modern Terrorism Rosemary Arway Hodges University
  2. 2. Social Revolution and the Enlightenment  18th Century considered Age of Reason or the Period of Enlightenment.  Europeans began to question the manner in which they were governed during the Enlightenment: o Sought to increase the power of the lower classes. o Forces of change brought a new way of thinking about citizenship.  Enlightenment was an international intellectual movement.
  3. 3. Social Revolution and the Enlightenment  Philosophers produced a common idea about government. o Governments should exist to protect individual rights. o Best form of government was democracy: ▪ Citizens had rights. ▪ Governments were created to protect those rights. o Common people should control the government through social contract or constitution. ▪ Increased demand for democracy ▪ Tension between ruling class the governed ▪ Tension spilled into violence
  4. 4. The American Revolution Reasons why the colonist revolted against England: o British taxation laws, enforced through:  Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), and Townshend Act (1767)  Those acts affected American citizens (merchants and consumers), so they boycotted them, and British imports to America were cut in a half. • The famous quote comes from this period: “No taxation without representation.”  Those acts sparked a protest and British answered by sending troops. • Boston Massacre (1770)
  5. 5. The American Revolution Reasons why colonies in North America objected to British rule included: o „Tea law‟ – proclamation that cut off the colonies from trade (resulting in the Boston Tea Party). o Lack of American representation in the British Parliament. After publication of Tom Paine‟s Common Sense pamphlet, public opinion swung toward the cause of independence (half a million copies sold!)
  6. 6. The American Revolution On July 1776, The Second Continental Congress declared independence from Great Britain: o American Revolution transferred power from British upper class to American upper class. o American Revolution represented long-term evolutionary process toward democracy. o Americans created a republic based on a representative democracy.
  7. 7. The French Revolution French Revolution (1789-1799) was based on same enlightened principles as American Revolution. o French Revolution different and more deadly in tone. o Extremely bloody – Guillotine, genocide of Nante‟s rebels, massacres, slaughter, assasinations, reven ge killings o First revolution in the modern sense of the word. French Revolution was a transfer of power between classes. French Revolution represented a radical shift in power structures.
  8. 8. The Reign of Terror Term terrorism appeared during the French Revolution. Burke: Referred to Government‟s violence as “Reign of Terror,” using the word terrorism to describe actions of the new government (cold-blooded reign of Jacobins). As the government consolidate power, the would-be democracy gave way to Napoleon Bonaparte and military authoritarianism.
  9. 9. Guerrillas and the Spanish Peninsula Meaning of terrorism underwent a subtle change during Napoleon‟s invasion of Spain. o Spanish partisans attacked French troops in unconventional manners. ▪ Spanish called it patriotism. ▪ French referred to Spanish partisans as terrorists. Definition shifted away from government repression and toward those who resisted government. Definitional transformation continued throughout 19th century.
  10. 10. 1848 and the Radical Democrats Radical Democrats o Demanded immediate drastic change: ▪ Democracy should be based on economic equality as well as freedom. ▪ Class revolution. ▪ Political power should be held in common. ▪ Interest in developing constitution. ▪ Distribute wealth created by trade and manufacturing evenly. Socialists o Argued for centralized control of the economy. Anarchists o Sought to reduce or to eliminate centralized government. Capitalists o Sought to reduce or to eliminate centralized government.
  11. 11. Socialists Wanted to completely democratize society. Wanted control of industrial production. Emphasized the right to form labor unions, to bargain work conditions and to strike. Emphasized democracy over the centralized power of communism. Believed that a strong state would ensure profits from industry were distributed in an egalitarian manner.
  12. 12. Socialists Socialism o Karl Marx, founder of communism, stated that: ▪ Social structure is arranged by the material circumstances surrounding existence. ▪ Humans shape the environment through work and even produce more than they need. Communists – a form of Socialism o Advocated strong centralized government. o Elimination of all classes save the working class. o Complete state monopoly over all forms of industrial and agricultural production.
  13. 13. Anarchists Shared ideas about egalitarian nature of society with socialists; disagreed on function of the state. All forms of governmental domination are harmful and unnecessary. Proudhon: o Extension of the democracy to all classes should be accomplished through the elimination of property and government. o Anarchy would develop peacefully as people learned about the structure of governments and the capitalist economy. Anarchism is believed to be an inspiration for a terrorism.
  14. 14. Violent Anarchism Violent anarchism propaganda: No industrialist is safe and capitalist order would crumble. Jensen: o Several factors merged to create a culture of terrorism among members of the anarchists movement: ▪ Growing number of people attracted to the movement ▪ Economic change ▪ Economic consolidation accompanied with the social stress ▪ Nationalistic factors Invention of dynamite (Nobel) fostered the philosophy of bombs and influenced the adoption of violence.
  15. 15. Rhetoric, Internal Debates, Action Prokoptin o Humanity existed between two competing tendencies: cooperation and authoritarianism. o Call for non-violent revolution. Bakunin o Revolutionaries could not use the state as an instrument of emancipation because it was inherently oppressive. o Bombings and individual assassinations as a means of awakening the masses to reality. Heinzen o Advocated political murder. Most… o did not believe capitalistic societies would change peacefully and called for violent action.
  16. 16. Modern Terrorists and Their Historical Counterparts Laqueur: Modern terrorists are more ruthless than their historical counterparts. o Terrorism of historical terrorists was mainly rhetorical. o Anarchists were selective about their targets. o Modern terrorism has been typified by indiscriminate violence and intentional targeting of civilian population. o Modern terrorist strike at governments by killing citizens.
  17. 17. Anarchism and Nationalism Nationalists under foreign control adopted tactics of anarchists to fight foreign powers occupying their lands. o Nationalists believed they were fighting patriotic wars not that they were anarchists (IRA). o Groups throughout Europe turned to the philosophy of the bomb. o Nationalistic terrorists followed patterns set by violent anarchists. o The moral justification for anarchists and nationalists is essentially the same.
  18. 18. A Contemporary Analogy Woodcock: Anarchism was not revolutionary. o Reaction to economic consolidation and centralized state. o Strongest where industrialization was weakest. Early 1900s witnessed events culminating in measures that resulted in a violation of the civil liberties of several Americans. o Assassination of President McKinley. o Red Scare of 1919. Could the reactive measures of 9-11 be considered parallel to the over-reactive measures taken in the early 1900s?
  19. 19. Terrorism and Revolution in Russia  Russia in the 19th century differed significantly from the other great powers of Europe (class distinction was greater and peasants lived in poverty).  The Peoples‟ Will (Narodnaya Voyla) represented violent socialist revolution. o Members believed it was necessary to terrorize subversive organizations into submission. o Peoples‟ Will evolved from Russian revolutionary thought. ▪ Bakunin ▪ Nechaev
  20. 20. Terrorism and Revolution in Russia  Three approaches of how to modernize the Russian state: o From the top down: Tsar Alexander II o Creation of modern Russia as a liberal Western Democracy: The Intellectuals o Revolution: Violent Anarchists ▪ The People‟s Will propaganda won sympathy among the peasantry.  The Peoples Will Campaign: o Bombings, assassinations and murders o 1881 – murder of Tsar Alexander II
  21. 21. Terrorism and Revolution in Russia  National Disasters that created atmosphere for „1914 Revolution‟ in Russia: o Loosing the war to Japan o Economic problems o Bureaucratic inefficiency o 1905 Revolution o Entering I World War  After 1914 revolution new Russian Government was formed by Mensheviks.
  22. 22. Terrorism and Revolution in Russia  Russian revolution utilized terrorism in a new manner. o Created an impact on peoples‟ view of terrorism in the 20th century.  Lenin and Trotsky believed terrorism should be used as an instrument for overthrowing the bourgeois governments. o Advocated terrorism as a means of controlling internal enemies and as a method for coping with internal strife. o By threatening to export terror, Lenin and Trotsky effectively placed fear of communism in the minds of many in the West.  Lenin‟s victory and subsequent writings have inspired terrorists from 1917 to the present.