Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter 6:Recent History: The Roots of Modern Terrorism Rosemary Arway Hodges University
Social Revolution and the Enlightenment 18th Century considered Age of Reason or the Period of Enlightenment. Europeans began to question the manner in which they were governed during the Enlightenment: o Sought to increase the power of the lower classes. o Forces of change brought a new way of thinking about citizenship. Enlightenment was an international intellectual movement.
Social Revolution and the Enlightenment Philosophers produced a common idea about government. o Governments should exist to protect individual rights. o Best form of government was democracy: ▪ Citizens had rights. ▪ Governments were created to protect those rights. o Common people should control the government through social contract or constitution. ▪ Increased demand for democracy ▪ Tension between ruling class the governed ▪ Tension spilled into violence
The American Revolution Reasons why the colonist revolted against England: o British taxation laws, enforced through: Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act (1765), and Townshend Act (1767) Those acts affected American citizens (merchants and consumers), so they boycotted them, and British imports to America were cut in a half. • The famous quote comes from this period: “No taxation without representation.” Those acts sparked a protest and British answered by sending troops. • Boston Massacre (1770)
The American Revolution Reasons why colonies in North America objected to British rule included: o „Tea law‟ – proclamation that cut off the colonies from trade (resulting in the Boston Tea Party). o Lack of American representation in the British Parliament. After publication of Tom Paine‟s Common Sense pamphlet, public opinion swung toward the cause of independence (half a million copies sold!)
The American Revolution On July 1776, The Second Continental Congress declared independence from Great Britain: o American Revolution transferred power from British upper class to American upper class. o American Revolution represented long-term evolutionary process toward democracy. o Americans created a republic based on a representative democracy.
The French Revolution French Revolution (1789-1799) was based on same enlightened principles as American Revolution. o French Revolution different and more deadly in tone. o Extremely bloody – Guillotine, genocide of Nante‟s rebels, massacres, slaughter, assasinations, reven ge killings o First revolution in the modern sense of the word. French Revolution was a transfer of power between classes. French Revolution represented a radical shift in power structures.
The Reign of Terror Term terrorism appeared during the French Revolution. Burke: Referred to Government‟s violence as “Reign of Terror,” using the word terrorism to describe actions of the new government (cold-blooded reign of Jacobins). As the government consolidate power, the would-be democracy gave way to Napoleon Bonaparte and military authoritarianism.
Guerrillas and the Spanish Peninsula Meaning of terrorism underwent a subtle change during Napoleon‟s invasion of Spain. o Spanish partisans attacked French troops in unconventional manners. ▪ Spanish called it patriotism. ▪ French referred to Spanish partisans as terrorists. Definition shifted away from government repression and toward those who resisted government. Definitional transformation continued throughout 19th century.
1848 and the Radical Democrats Radical Democrats o Demanded immediate drastic change: ▪ Democracy should be based on economic equality as well as freedom. ▪ Class revolution. ▪ Political power should be held in common. ▪ Interest in developing constitution. ▪ Distribute wealth created by trade and manufacturing evenly. Socialists o Argued for centralized control of the economy. Anarchists o Sought to reduce or to eliminate centralized government. Capitalists o Sought to reduce or to eliminate centralized government.
Socialists Wanted to completely democratize society. Wanted control of industrial production. Emphasized the right to form labor unions, to bargain work conditions and to strike. Emphasized democracy over the centralized power of communism. Believed that a strong state would ensure profits from industry were distributed in an egalitarian manner.
Socialists Socialism o Karl Marx, founder of communism, stated that: ▪ Social structure is arranged by the material circumstances surrounding existence. ▪ Humans shape the environment through work and even produce more than they need. Communists – a form of Socialism o Advocated strong centralized government. o Elimination of all classes save the working class. o Complete state monopoly over all forms of industrial and agricultural production.
Anarchists Shared ideas about egalitarian nature of society with socialists; disagreed on function of the state. All forms of governmental domination are harmful and unnecessary. Proudhon: o Extension of the democracy to all classes should be accomplished through the elimination of property and government. o Anarchy would develop peacefully as people learned about the structure of governments and the capitalist economy. Anarchism is believed to be an inspiration for a terrorism.
Violent Anarchism Violent anarchism propaganda: No industrialist is safe and capitalist order would crumble. Jensen: o Several factors merged to create a culture of terrorism among members of the anarchists movement: ▪ Growing number of people attracted to the movement ▪ Economic change ▪ Economic consolidation accompanied with the social stress ▪ Nationalistic factors Invention of dynamite (Nobel) fostered the philosophy of bombs and influenced the adoption of violence.
Rhetoric, Internal Debates, Action Prokoptin o Humanity existed between two competing tendencies: cooperation and authoritarianism. o Call for non-violent revolution. Bakunin o Revolutionaries could not use the state as an instrument of emancipation because it was inherently oppressive. o Bombings and individual assassinations as a means of awakening the masses to reality. Heinzen o Advocated political murder. Most… o did not believe capitalistic societies would change peacefully and called for violent action.
Modern Terrorists and Their Historical Counterparts Laqueur: Modern terrorists are more ruthless than their historical counterparts. o Terrorism of historical terrorists was mainly rhetorical. o Anarchists were selective about their targets. o Modern terrorism has been typified by indiscriminate violence and intentional targeting of civilian population. o Modern terrorist strike at governments by killing citizens.
Anarchism and Nationalism Nationalists under foreign control adopted tactics of anarchists to fight foreign powers occupying their lands. o Nationalists believed they were fighting patriotic wars not that they were anarchists (IRA). o Groups throughout Europe turned to the philosophy of the bomb. o Nationalistic terrorists followed patterns set by violent anarchists. o The moral justification for anarchists and nationalists is essentially the same.
A Contemporary Analogy Woodcock: Anarchism was not revolutionary. o Reaction to economic consolidation and centralized state. o Strongest where industrialization was weakest. Early 1900s witnessed events culminating in measures that resulted in a violation of the civil liberties of several Americans. o Assassination of President McKinley. o Red Scare of 1919. Could the reactive measures of 9-11 be considered parallel to the over-reactive measures taken in the early 1900s?
Terrorism and Revolution in Russia Russia in the 19th century differed significantly from the other great powers of Europe (class distinction was greater and peasants lived in poverty). The Peoples‟ Will (Narodnaya Voyla) represented violent socialist revolution. o Members believed it was necessary to terrorize subversive organizations into submission. o Peoples‟ Will evolved from Russian revolutionary thought. ▪ Bakunin ▪ Nechaev
Terrorism and Revolution in Russia Three approaches of how to modernize the Russian state: o From the top down: Tsar Alexander II o Creation of modern Russia as a liberal Western Democracy: The Intellectuals o Revolution: Violent Anarchists ▪ The People‟s Will propaganda won sympathy among the peasantry. The Peoples Will Campaign: o Bombings, assassinations and murders o 1881 – murder of Tsar Alexander II
Terrorism and Revolution in Russia National Disasters that created atmosphere for „1914 Revolution‟ in Russia: o Loosing the war to Japan o Economic problems o Bureaucratic inefficiency o 1905 Revolution o Entering I World War After 1914 revolution new Russian Government was formed by Mensheviks.
Terrorism and Revolution in Russia Russian revolution utilized terrorism in a new manner. o Created an impact on peoples‟ view of terrorism in the 20th century. Lenin and Trotsky believed terrorism should be used as an instrument for overthrowing the bourgeois governments. o Advocated terrorism as a means of controlling internal enemies and as a method for coping with internal strife. o By threatening to export terror, Lenin and Trotsky effectively placed fear of communism in the minds of many in the West. Lenin‟s victory and subsequent writings have inspired terrorists from 1917 to the present.