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  • 1. Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter: 5Practicing Terrorism: Gender Roles, Tactics and Force Multipliers Rosemary Arway Hodges University
  • 2. Gender and Mission Gender and Mission o Ideology draws certain types of recruits to a movement, and it influences the tactics terrorist groups employ. ▪ Gender impacts tactics and is often related to ideology. o Women active through the evolution of terrorism ▪ Role of women has often been overlooked ▪ Women were active in terrorism: ▪ at the time of the French Revolution, ▪ in 19th century Russia, ▪ in racial terrorism in the United States, ▪ in revolutionary terrorism in Ireland and leftist movements after 1968. The role of women is more closely related to political orientation than tactics.
  • 3. Gender and Mission Gonzalez-Perez: o Women are more drawn to domestic terrorist groups. o Women in domestic groups gravitate toward combat and leadership. o Women in international groups are more likely to be employed as supporters, sympathizers and spies. Ness: o Women relegated to support and service in religious terrorist groups. ▪ This will change as women become more involved. o Women developed combat and leadership positions in secular organizations.
  • 4. Gender and Mission Blee: o The role of women in racial terrorism in the United States: ▪ In the post-Civil War era, they served as inspiration for male violence. ▪ In the 20th century women became actively involved in lynching. ▪ In the late twentieth century, White Supremacy groups recruited women in support roles.
  • 5. Gender and Mission Overlooking Female terrorists o Stack-O’Connor: ▪ Female terrorism is overlooked for the same reason that female criminality has been underplayed: researchers do not think of women as criminals, but rather, as victims. o Ness: ▪ Popular culture does not accept the idea of female terrorists. o von Knop: ▪ Women used as attackers or suicide bombers are following male model. o Sjoberg: ▪ Studies of women in terrorism are generally ignored. ▪ Media presentations follow the same track.
  • 6. Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force  Jenkins reports six tactics of terrorism: o Bombing o Hijacking o Arson o Assault o Kidnapping o Hostage taking  Terrorism includes threats from weapons of mass destruction and virtual attacks through computer systems.
  • 7. Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force  This tactics of terrorism can be enhanced by force multipliers.  Force multipliers o increase striking power without increasing the strength of a unit  Force multipliers giving terrorists more striking power include: o Technology o Media coverage o Transnational support networks o Religious fanaticism
  • 8. Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force  Most common weapon of terrorism is the bomb.  Anarchists in 1848 – philosophy of the bomb o Only way to communicate with the social order was to destroy it.  Irish Republican Army found the bomb to be the most important weapon after 1969.  Groups throughout the world found bombs could be delivered by suicide attackers o Suicide bombings and road side bombs are weapons of choice against U.S. military in Iraq.
  • 9. Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force  Terrorists increase effectiveness by applying explosive technology to weapons.  Middle Eastern type of military-style weapon o Thermobaric bomb o Mini-nuke  Force multipliers enhance destructive power while innovation is used to achieve shock and surprise.  Purpose of a terrorist attack – send a message of chaos and destruction to a larger audience. o Victims are not the target; they are killed to send a message.
  • 10. Technology Terrorism is influenced by technology Cyberterrorism o Cyberterrorists threaten to interrupt or confuse the flow of information. o Cyberterrorism refers to use of computers to attack technological targets of physical attacks on computer networks. o Targets for cyberterrorism: ▪ Computers ▪ Computer networks ▪ Information storage and retrieval systems o There has been a sharp rise in such attacks, with the Internet providing the vehicle for launching most of the strikes.
  • 11. WMD: Biological Agents Weapons of Mass Destruction – WMD – are biological arsenals containing bacterial and viral weapons. o Microbes weaponized to increase their ability to kill o Difficult to control but relatively easy to produce Biological agents include: o Natural poisons or toxins o Viruses o Bacteria o Plagues Most threatening according to CDC are: o Smallpox o Anthrax o Plague o Botulism o Tularemia o Hemorrhagic fever
  • 12. WMD: Biological Agents Two biological attacks in America o 1984 religious group in Oregon ▪ Bacteria on a salad bar ▪ Elect religious followers to local office o Anthrax in the wake of 9-11 ▪ Two tabloid writers infected thru the mail ▪ Followed by numerous anthrax attacks throughout the United States o The Commission on the Prevention of weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism (2010) found that the United States still had no structure in place to respond to a biological attack.
  • 13. WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Forms of chemical alterations include: o Radiological poisoning and “dirty” radioactive devices Chemicals: o Generally easier to deliver than biological weapons o Faster acting Radiological devices: o Slower than most chemicals o Longer lasting o Can be spread like chemicals
  • 14. WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Four types of chemical agents: o Nerve agents ▪ Ingestion, respiration, or contact o Blood agents ▪ Absorbed through the respiratory system o Choking agents ▪ Absorbed through the respiratory system o Blistering agents ▪ Burn skin and internal tissue areas upon contact
  • 15. WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Chemicals are attractive to terrorists. o Easy to control o Users can avoid area they attack Chemical weapons are problematic. o Delivery mechanism o Need for large quantities of chemicals o Chemicals can be neutralized by weather patterns, air, and water. Dirty bomb o Explosive used to spread a chemical or radioactive agent around a large area o Drawback of the dirty bomb ▪ The heat produced by the explosion may destroy the chemicals attached to the bomb
  • 16. WMD: Nuclear Weapons Nuclear weapons o Available on the black market from sources in the former Soviet Union. o It is much easier for terrorists to use a conventional weapon or to spread chemicals than to build a nuclear weapon. o The U.S. Congress has designated a site in Nevada as the repository for all the radioactive waste used in America’s nuclear power plants, and all this material must be shipped across the country.  This nuclear waste is a ready-made dirty bomb
  • 17. WMD: Nuclear Weapons Nuclear terrorism: o Two methods for obtaining a nuclear device: ▪ Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) ▪ Plutonium Levi: o The United States is not ready for an attack. o Problems associated with terrorist’s attempts to obtain a weapon:  Sophisticated security mechanisms  National arsenals are secured  Weapons are heavy and difficult to transport o The United States should approach nuclear terrorism in two manners:  debunking popular myths and focusing on a comprehensive approach to a terrorist group and all its activities;  revamp defense systems.
  • 18. WMD WMD …. an international problem o All countries should encourage their nuclear companies to control their trade. ▪ Prohibit sales of nuclear goods to those countries that sponsor or support terrorism. ▪ For example Uzbekistan, the biggest exporter of nuclear materials (uranium) and fuels (natural gas, petroleum), must regulate their nuclear industry.
  • 19. The Media as A Force Multiplier Governments and terrorists benefit from media portrayal of terrorist activity. Everyone involved in terrorist conflict tries to manipulate images of terrorist activities. o Continuous reporting amplifies the aura of small groups o Striking power of the group is magnified o Wilkins: terrorists try to multiply force through communication
  • 20. The Media as A Force Multiplier Nacos: Most terrorist groups have objectives beyond publicity o Groups want recognition Wolfsfeld: Media victories are crucial for terrorism o How battles are reported as important as battlefield combat o Neither side wants to be portrayed as aggressor o Media primary tool for demonizing the enemy Terrorist groups will attempt to portray respectability in all forms of media.
  • 21. The Media as A Force Multiplier All forms of media can be used to multiply force. o Internet is gaining attention of security forces  Online communication brings measure of freedom when media is heavily controlled  Emerging as a major source of information  Krasnoboka: The Internet does not have an overwhelming impact in democratic countries, but it is a powerful tool for opposition forces in authoritarian régimes. o Movies assist terrorism and distort issues • Create popular images of propaganda • Responsible for strong emotional projections • Presents another venue for examination, for both assisting terrorism and distorting issues
  • 22. Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Transnational support or operations can be used as a force multiplier. o Striking transnational or international economic targets increases the effectiveness of terrorist operations. Three types of transnational attacks: o Tourism o Energy o Shipping
  • 23. Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Tourism o Attacks on tourism have a negative economic consequences (ETA). Energy o Interest in oil and gas production o Fossil fuels present tempting targets.  Represent power and strengths of industrialized world.  Strikes against oil refineries or transfer facilities have economic impact on the West.  Examples: Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan
  • 24. Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Endemic terrorism o Form of violence occurring in Africa where arbitrary national boundaries have been drawn through ethnic and tribal divisions Niger Delta o Oil plays crucial role  Used to fund endemic terrorism and corrupt governments o Becomes target for those who cannot control production  Oil companies investing in the area have greater incentive to focus on security than poverty engulfing the region. If poverty, endemic terrorism and criminalized policies are not addressed it will: o Become base for emergence of new international terrorist groups o Provide resources for training and eluding detection
  • 25. Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Transportation o Provide tempting economic target as they produce mass casualties with minimal effort. o Protection of transportation is very expensive. Major feature of homeland security o Critics of homeland security policies argue that ports remain unsecured due to costs of increased protection. Attacks on aviation, shipping and transportation increase cost of security.
  • 26. Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions Gambetta’s three types of suicide attacks: o Suicide in warfare o Suicide for a principle without killing others o Suicide terrorism Altruistic suicide: suicide terrorists frequently believe they are sacrificing their lives for a greater good. Pape: o Attackers are so diverse, it may not be possible to find a single profile. o Suicide terrorism should be considered as a strategic tool. o Suicide terrorism gives a small group the power to coerce large governments. o Suicide terrorists tend to be more lethal than other types of attacks. o They strike greater fear in the target audience. o Each attack hints at future horrific violence. o It is a strategy designed to multiply expectations of political victory.
  • 27. Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions  Theory of suicide terrorism  Pape: o Three factors must be in place prior to a suicide terror campaign:  Nationalistic or ethnic group must be resisting the occupation of a foreign power.  Foreign power must represent a democratic government whose voters will not allow indiscriminate slaughter and total repression of the people in occupied area.  Difference in religions of the occupying power and the people living under occupation.
  • 28. Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions  Suicide terrorism is not caused by a single religion; it is caused by differences between two religions.  Pape’s evidence from case studies: o Israeli occupation of the Shi’ite areas of Lebanon o The Sinhalese (Buddhist) control of the Tamil (Hindu) region of Sri Lanka o The fighting between Sunni Kurds and Sunni Turks in Eastern Turkey o The Indian (Hindu) struggle with the occupied Sikhs
  • 29. Models for Suicide Bombing Tosini : o Suicide bombings are based on a strategic logic; a rational choice perspective. o This neglects the study of the social structure and culture of the group engaged in suicide terrorism. Wade and Reiter: o Suicide attacks are not used mainly against democracies. o Muslim states suffer more suicide attacks than Western democracies. Gunaratna: o All suicide bombing attacks have three things in common:  Secrecy  Reconnaissance  Rehearsal

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