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  • 1. Chapter 9 The Staff World: Managing the Prison PopulationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Staff Roles - The normal patterns of behavior expected of those holding particular social positions. Staff Roles - The patterns of behavior expected of correctional staff members in particular jobs. 9-2
  • 3. Four Main Goals of Correctional Staff Members1. Provide for the security of the community2. Promote the smooth and effective functioning of the institution3. Ensure that incarceration is secure, but humane4. Give inmates the opportunity to develop a positive lifestyle while incarcerated and gain the personal and employment skills they need for a positive lifestyle after release. 9-3
  • 4. Staff Hierarchy Administrative staff Clerical personnel Program staff  Concerned with encouraging prisoners to participate in educational, vocational, and treatment programs Custodial staff  Most directly involved in managing the inmate population Service and maintenance staff Volunteers 9-4
  • 5. Bases of Power Legitimate Power: derived from the correction officers’ (CO) positions in the organization Coercive Power: based on the inmates’ belief that COs can and will punish disobedience Reward Power: the COs’ ability to dispense both formal and informal rewards  Gain time – Time taken off an inmate’s sentence for participating in certain activities 9-5
  • 6. Bases of Power Expert Power: based on inmates’ perception that certain COs have valuable skills Referent Power: based on the inmates’ respect for a particular fair and non- abusive CO 9-6
  • 7. The Staff Subculture Structured conflict - The tensions between prison staff members and inmates that arise out of the correctional setting Subculture - The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular group of people within a larger society Staff subculture - The beliefs, values, and behavior of staff; they differ greatly from those of the inmate subculture 9-7
  • 8. The “Officer Code” Always go to the aid of an officer in distress Do not “lug” (bring in) drugs for inmate use Do not rat on other officers Never make a fellow officer look bad in front of inmates Always support an officer in a dispute with an inmate Always support officer sanctions against inmates Do not be a “white hat” or a “Goody Two-Shoes” Maintain officer solidarity in dealings with all outside groups Show positive concern for fellow officers 9-8
  • 9. Correctional Officer Personalities The Dictator: Enjoys giving orders and the feeling of power derived from doing so The Friend: Tries to befriend inmates, who, in turn, try to gain special treatment The Merchant: Provides commodities to inmates, often in violation of institutional rules The Turnkey: Unmotivated and bored, does little beyond the basic job requirements 9-9
  • 10. Correctional Officer Personalities - Continued The Climber: Usually a diligent worker who respects the corrections profession and is focused on rapid professional advancement The Reformer: The know-it-all who constantly complains and endlessly criticizes institutional policies, procedures, and rules The Do-Gooder: Another type of reformer, but one who is motivated by a personal agenda such as religious proselytizing 9-10
  • 11. Job Assignments Block Officers - supervise inmates in housing areas Work Detail Supervisors - oversee the work of individual inmates and inmate work crews Industrial Shop and School Officers - ensure efficient use of training and educational resources within the prison Yard Officers - supervise inmates in the prison yard 9-11
  • 12. Job Assignments - Continued Administrative Officers - control keys and weapons and sometimes oversee visitation Perimeter Security Officers - fill security (gun) tower, wall, and perimeter patrol posts to prevent escapes and intrusions Relief Officers - temporarily replace absent officers or filling staffing vacancies  These are experienced COs who know and can perform any custody role in the institution 9-12
  • 13. Female Officers Face special problems in male-dominated profession Typically perform with a less aggressive style than men Rely more on established disciplinary rules Another issue concerning women in today’s workplace is personal and sexual harassment. Studies show that few female correctional officers personally experience unwanted touching or other forms of sexual harassment. The forms of harassment women most commonly experience are physical (nonsexual) assaults, threats, unfounded graphic sexual rumors about them, and demeaning remarks from peers, inmates, and supervisors. 9-13
  • 14. Female Officers - Continued Take job due to interest in human service work and rehabilitation Less likely to be assaulted than male officers Most male officers are supportive of female officers Sexual harassment not always taken seriously 9-14
  • 15. Stress Tension in a person’s body or mind, resulting from physical, chemical, or emotional factors Factors that create stress:  Feelings of powerlessness  Feelings of meaninglessness  Social isolation  Self-estrangement 9-15
  • 16. Stress Continued Correctional officers frequently deny that they are under stress, fearing that admitting to feelings of stress might be interpreted unfavorably. 9-16
  • 17. Staff Safety Safety is a major stressor for COs and a primary management concern for correctional administrators Comprehensive planning and effective training are essential Safety concerns permeate every task, especially the ordinary or routine 9-17
  • 18. Job Satisfaction High levels of stress reduce the satisfaction correctional officers get from their jobs. Correctional officers often feel alienated from policymaking. This reduces satisfaction with the job. Officers who feel that they have some control over the institution and over their jobs seem much more satisfied than officers who believe they have no control. 9-18
  • 19. Professionalism Training Supervisory role models Leadership Correctional Officer’s Creed 9-19
  • 20. The Impact of Terrorism on Corrections Threats in the communities and institutions from both outsiders and inmates “Prison Islam” Bioterrorism Those convicted of terrorism present new challenges for administrators 9-20
  • 21. Terrorism The FBI says that al-Qaeda continues to actively recruit followers inside American correctional institutions. Islamic terrorists are keenly aware of the 9,600 Muslims held in the federal prison system and see them as potential converts. 9-21
  • 22. Kevin James Sentenced in federal court in Santa Ana, California, to 16 years in prison. James had pleaded guilty in 2007 to conspiracy to wage war against the United States 56 and had been accused of plotting terrorist attacks on Jewish and military targets throughout California. Among those targets were Los Angeles International Airport, the Israeli Consulate, and Army recruiting centers. Those who investigated James’s background found that he had formed an Islamic terrorist group in California’s Tehachapi Prison in 1997. While serving a 10-year sentence for robbery, James joined the Nation of Islam— a traditional American Islamic faith. Soon, however, he became engaged terrorist activates. 9-22