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Presentation panopticism Presentation panopticism Presentation Transcript

  • PanopticismARIN6903 Exploring Digital Cultures Nicola Giusto
  • Panopticon was first developed as an architecturework by J. Bentham (1748 - 1832)
  • Bentham’s building• Prisoners are constantly visible BUT they do not see. “visibility is a trap”• Prisoners are objects of information NEVER subjects of communication. “collection of separated individualities”• Control is unverifiable! No one see inside tower• Efficiency, Economy, Simplicity, Automation
  • M. Foucault (1926 - 1984)• The birth of the clinic, 1963• Discourse on language, 1970• Discipline & Punish: the birth of the prison, 1975• Lectures at Collège De France: Security, Territory, Population, 1977 - 78, & The birth of biopolitics, 1978 - 1979
  • Overall Foucaultian thought• Knowledge is Power. Information empowers action, action provokes new information (circular process)• Technology changes the model of power / knowledge• Active role of observation. Objectivation produces, evokes its own object• Contra Structuralist theory, analysis has to be related to a defined historical context
  • Panopticism as power• Embodied power relationships... “political anatomy” ... individual is fabricated “[...] the body is reduced as a political force at the least cost and maximezed as a useful force” p. 368• Exercised continuously “[...] these tiny, everyday, physical mechanisms, by all those systems of micro-power that are essentially non-egalitarian and asymmetrical that we call the discipline”
  • Panopticism as knowledge• Increase the utility of the penalty “the codified power to punish turns into a disciplinary power to observe” p. 369• Formation of “biographical” knowledge “the legal punishment bears upon act; the punitive technique on a life” p. 371
  • Panopticism as disciplinary society or ‘social laboratory’ Surveillance & Control in order to organise moltiplicities thru:• “continuos registration and perpetual assessment and classification”• “define tactics of distribution, reciprocal adjustment of bodies, gestures and rhythms, differentiation of capacities, reciprocal coordination in relation to apparatus or tasks”
  • Institutions object produced knowledge producedprison prisoner punishment psychopathology,asylum madman experimental psychiatryhospital patient medical treatment sociology of production,factory worker human resource managementschool student education army soldier performance, trainings family ... ...
  • To summarise
  • Control Discipline Society of Sovereignty XX XVIII - XIX (G. Deleuze) procedure, norm, Ceremonial, Mechanism number, signature, codes, protocols ritual, spectacle examination King, leader, Bodies and Who dividuals hangman relationships Light power: Corporal force, access to informationKind of power separation, inscription, power of death or exclusion subjection Institution, vast closed Networks - Space environment, fixed Striated vs Rhizomic structure spaces Manifest, public, Visibility Invisible, material Invisible, intangible catharsis
  • What’s up today?
  • Deleuze’s Postscript on the societies of control[...] In the societies of control, on the other hand, whatis important is no longer either a signature or anumber, but a code: the code is a password, while onthe other hand disciplinary societies are regulated bywatchwords (as much from the point of view ofintegration as from that of resistance). The numericallanguage of control is made of codes that mark accessto information, or reject it. We no longer findourselves dealing with the mass/individual pair.Individuals have become "dividuals," and masses,samples, data, markets, or "banks."
  • Internet and decentralised networksAsymmetry of informations: Server / Clients, Hub / nodes, Google, Facebook, Flickr,Apple, AT&T, Bing / End User Moglen, E. (2010), Freedom in the Cloud, Talk at New York ISOC meeting. : http://www.isoc-ny.org/?p=1338
  • Internet and decentralised networksAsymmetry of informations: Server / Clients, Hub / nodes, Google, Facebook, Flickr,Apple, AT&T, Bing / End User Moglen, E. (2010), Freedom in the Cloud, Talk at New York ISOC meeting. : http://www.isoc-ny.org/?p=1338
  • Mapping - make the social graph visible• map of security cameras in Venice Anoption project• participated cartography Biopolitics map Venice 2007• create & share data maps Targetmap
  • Thanks