Dierk Raabe M R S Fall X Lecture The X Files Of Materials Science

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  • it is not kutub(Qutub) column, please get your facts right...
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Dierk Raabe M R S Fall X Lecture The X Files Of Materials Science

  1. 1. Sym'po|si|on, Sym'po|si|um <n.; -s, -si·en><br />Drinking party of aristocratics in ancient Athens with strict rules. A symposiarch supervised the mixing of the wine with water, insuring a mix that would be conducive to conversation but (theoretically) not strong enough to lead to debauchery. As they drank, guests would give speeches, recite poetry, and sing about subjects proper to the symposium - love, eros, drink, and the like. Hired entertainment might also be present, at the discretion of the host. .....<br />
  2. 2. The X-files of materials science - unsolved riddles from the dawn <br />of research<br />Dierk Raabe<br />Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, Germany<br />MRS 2006<br />
  3. 3. metallurgy 2000 B.C.<br />metallurgy 2000 A.C.<br />Travel through time<br />beer can 2000<br />beer can 1820 <br />
  4. 4. Carbon<br />Copper<br />A brief history through <br />some stories and riddles in material science<br />Steel<br />Aluminium<br />Nickel<br />Titanium<br />
  5. 5. Some Mythology <br />and Etymology<br />
  6. 6. Aldebaranium, Austrium, Cassiopeium, Didymium, Erythronium, Florentinum, Glucinium, Helvetium, Illinium, Klaprothium, Krokoit, Masurium, Menachit, Plumbum-Candidum, Plumbum-Nigrum, Thoron, Unnilpentium<br />
  7. 7. Alchimist symbol for gold<br />Titanium<br />GOLD<br />egypt new empire <br />(18. –20. dynasty): <br />Amenophis I – III, Thutmosis I – IV, Hatschepsut, Echnaton, Ramses I – IX, Tut-ench-Amun<br />Echnaton replaces Amun by sun god Aton (gold as symbol)<br />
  8. 8. Gold as a symbol for sun, power, and gods<br />
  9. 9. Gold helmet (sumer); Amulet (Monte-Alban); <br />Sun-carriage of Trundholm (Denmark)<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Gold, wealth and stupidity : <br />King Midas and God Dionysos (Bachus)<br />Midas of Phrygien, Satyr, wish, Gold-on-touch, nearly starve,<br />bath in river Paktolos (Phrygien / Lydien), carries gold since then<br />
  12. 12. El Dorado<br />treasure hunting <br />( Central America )<br />priests, gold dust<br />
  13. 13. treasure island<br />coconut island (Costa Rica)<br />4,5 km X 6 km<br />Robert Luis Stevenson<br />Edward Davis, 1702<br />Benito Bonito, 1819<br />
  14. 14. Mythology after <br />the early empires<br />
  15. 15. Using metals: big change between man and environment<br />Good harvest and conditions were imparted from the gods not provided by technology<br />Using metals introduced strong change in man‘s world view and his view of the gods<br />Man became a more independent actor; was no longer a mere object of the gods: growth of self-confidence; master of his own luck<br />See: Euripides, Plinius, Ovid, Horaz, Vergil: Gods become angry because of mining and metallurgy. It was assumed that everything that was meant for man was available on the surface of the earth. The gods hid the minerals by purpose.<br />“Aurea prima sata est etas… “ the 4 world ages: Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron<br />Central figure: titan Prometheus<br />This discussion lasted until Rennaissance (Leonardo; Georg Agricola)<br />
  16. 16. Prometheus<br />regenerative medicine in old Greece<br />
  17. 17. Hephaistos (see also: Vulcan, Wieland, Ikaros and Dedalos myth)<br />son of Zeus and Hera, disabaled person, sea, saved,<br />greek god of mining, metallurgy, engineers <br />(Achilles weapons of Athenes and Achilles, Helios wagon, arrows of Eros), married to Aphrodite<br />
  18. 18. Copper<br />"cuprum" (name of cyprus in latin)<br />world largest copper industry<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Copper<br />what do these species have in common ?<br />guys from planet vulvan (Spock), <br />octopus, <br />snails, <br />spides,<br />.. <br />
  22. 22. Titanium<br />Titanium<br />The titans (Hyperion, Iapetos, Okeanos, Koios, Krios, Rhea, Kronos .... Prometheus)<br />Children of Gaja and Uranos (greek: earth and sky)<br />1795, Klaproth<br />
  23. 23. Oscar II - class<br />
  24. 24. Titanium in the body<br />20 GPa as opposed to 110 GPa <br />– quo vadis Titan ?<br />
  25. 25. the materials science of Terminator IV<br /><ul><li> very bio-compatible</li></ul>Hi,<br />some of us made it even into politics<br />
  26. 26. the world‘s first implant<br />Tantalos and the meal of the gods<br />was angry<br />was killed<br />and grilled<br />shoulder<br />replaced by ivory<br />
  27. 27. speaking of bone ….endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton<br />Hi, I am the traditional version<br />Hi, I am the new California version<br />
  28. 28. speaking of bone ….endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton<br />mineral content<br />
  29. 29. particle<br />matrix<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37. modern exoskeleton<br />
  38. 38. modern<br />exoskeleton<br />
  39. 39. STEEL<br />
  40. 40. anglo-saxon: iren<br />celtic: isarnon<br />old german: isarn, isen<br />latin, Fe: ferrum<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. some history<br />Cave-men : Hematite : “Leonardo‘s“ choice<br />First ore reduction: since 3000 b.c. (Anatolia, Turkey, Syria)<br />From ca. 1000-1500 b.c. : Standard product for weapons<br />Mid-Europe: Hallstadt (Austria), Latène (Switzerland)<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Eiffel tower<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. softer<br />hard<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Adolph v Menzel<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52. UFG Steels<br />
  53. 53. TRIP, TWIP and Triplex Steels<br />
  54. 54. g e a<br />TRIP<br />g e a Martensite<br />transformation<br />TWIP<br />deformation twinning<br />Austenitic FeMn [Al, Si]Steels<br />Austenitic / Ferritic FeMn [Al, Si] Steels<br />
  55. 55. characteristic stress-strain-curves of TRIP-, TWIP- <br />and TRIPLEX-steels (strain rate 10-4s-1)<br />Transformation Induced Plasticity<br />Twinning Induced Plasticity<br />Brüx, Frommeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf<br />
  56. 56. TWIP steel (X5 Mn Al Si 25 3 3)<br />Undeformed sample <br />Sample after twisting by 1080° (T = 20 °C)<br />Brüx, Frommeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf<br />
  57. 57. Fe-Mn-Al-SiTWIP<br />Fe-Mn-Al-C<br />Fe P06<br />austenitic stainless<br />HSLA BH (P)<br />Fe-Mn-Al-SiTRIP<br />Fe P01-P05<br /> TRIP(Mn+Al) (Mn+Si) Mn+Si+Nb<br />Al-alloys<br />HSLA<br />Dual Phase (DP)<br />Martensitic<br />CP<br />Ductility/Strength combinations of steels for automotive applications<br />
  58. 58. High Strength Steels<br />
  59. 59. weight of truck : 96 t<br />modern steels carry 800 t<br />conventional steels carry 140 t<br />
  60. 60. 9 a.c.: Wiehen mountains, Tetoburg Forrest<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Kutub column: 900 B.C., 17 t, 16 m<br />Strauss<br />Maurer<br />
  63. 63.
  64. 64. <ul><li> water too cold
  65. 65. brittle-to-ductile transition
  66. 66. small cracks around each rivet
  67. 67. crack progagation along perforated sheets</li></li></ul><li>Napoleon: <br />George III <br />continental barrier against England <br />- Chance for companies like Krupp<br />( .....zum Zweck der Verfertigung des <br />englischen Gußstahls und aller daraus <br />resultierenden Fabrikate…..)<br />
  68. 68. Napoleon and the Can<br />food supply to troops<br />La revolution:<br />Nicolas Appert of Paris<br />jokes about british bajonetts<br />received can food on St. Helena<br />1858: Ezra J.Warner ?<br />
  69. 69. Nickel<br />1751, Cronstedt <br />Ni in Cu ores (red Nickel stone, Nickelarsenide)<br />Cu devil (St. Nicholaus-Cu)<br />Mountain Nickel: <br />“dwarf, hobbit“ <br />
  70. 70. 35% Ni, no thermal expansion, memory-effect<br />Invar, Guillaume, 1920 Nobel price<br />
  71. 71.
  72. 72. 1808, Iglau (Austrian Empire), meteorite shower, <br />investigate by Karl von Schreibers (Vienna Mineral Collection, Alois von Widmmannstätten (Porcelain manufacturer); more than 100 metorites (some weighed 12 pounds); Widmmannstätten discovered the characteristic microstructure:<br /><ul><li> stone (Aerolithe)
  73. 73. iron (Siderithe)
  74. 74. iron and stone (Siderolithe)
  75. 75. glas (Tektite)</li></ul>Siderithe: ca. 6% of all, polycrystals, Fe and Ni (natural stainless steel)<br />since 4000 b.c. (Amundsen)<br />
  76. 76. Thanks<br />

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