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Dierk  Raabe  M R S  Fall  X  Lecture   The X Files Of Materials Science
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Dierk Raabe M R S Fall X Lecture The X Files Of Materials Science

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  • 1. Sym'po|si|on, Sym'po|si|um <n.; -s, -si·en>
    Drinking party of aristocratics in ancient Athens with strict rules. A symposiarch supervised the mixing of the wine with water, insuring a mix that would be conducive to conversation but (theoretically) not strong enough to lead to debauchery. As they drank, guests would give speeches, recite poetry, and sing about subjects proper to the symposium - love, eros, drink, and the like. Hired entertainment might also be present, at the discretion of the host. .....
  • 2. The X-files of materials science - unsolved riddles from the dawn
    of research
    Dierk Raabe
    Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, Germany
    MRS 2006
  • 3. metallurgy 2000 B.C.
    metallurgy 2000 A.C.
    Travel through time
    beer can 2000
    beer can 1820
  • 4. Carbon
    Copper
    A brief history through
    some stories and riddles in material science
    Steel
    Aluminium
    Nickel
    Titanium
  • 5. Some Mythology
    and Etymology
  • 6. Aldebaranium, Austrium, Cassiopeium, Didymium, Erythronium, Florentinum, Glucinium, Helvetium, Illinium, Klaprothium, Krokoit, Masurium, Menachit, Plumbum-Candidum, Plumbum-Nigrum, Thoron, Unnilpentium
  • 7. Alchimist symbol for gold
    Titanium
    GOLD
    egypt new empire
    (18. –20. dynasty):
    Amenophis I – III, Thutmosis I – IV, Hatschepsut, Echnaton, Ramses I – IX, Tut-ench-Amun
    Echnaton replaces Amun by sun god Aton (gold as symbol)
  • 8. Gold as a symbol for sun, power, and gods
  • 9. Gold helmet (sumer); Amulet (Monte-Alban);
    Sun-carriage of Trundholm (Denmark)
  • 10.
  • 11. Gold, wealth and stupidity :
    King Midas and God Dionysos (Bachus)
    Midas of Phrygien, Satyr, wish, Gold-on-touch, nearly starve,
    bath in river Paktolos (Phrygien / Lydien), carries gold since then
  • 12. El Dorado
    treasure hunting
    ( Central America )
    priests, gold dust
  • 13. treasure island
    coconut island (Costa Rica)
    4,5 km X 6 km
    Robert Luis Stevenson
    Edward Davis, 1702
    Benito Bonito, 1819
  • 14. Mythology after
    the early empires
  • 15. Using metals: big change between man and environment
    Good harvest and conditions were imparted from the gods not provided by technology
    Using metals introduced strong change in man‘s world view and his view of the gods
    Man became a more independent actor; was no longer a mere object of the gods: growth of self-confidence; master of his own luck
    See: Euripides, Plinius, Ovid, Horaz, Vergil: Gods become angry because of mining and metallurgy. It was assumed that everything that was meant for man was available on the surface of the earth. The gods hid the minerals by purpose.
    “Aurea prima sata est etas… “ the 4 world ages: Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron
    Central figure: titan Prometheus
    This discussion lasted until Rennaissance (Leonardo; Georg Agricola)
  • 16. Prometheus
    regenerative medicine in old Greece
  • 17. Hephaistos (see also: Vulcan, Wieland, Ikaros and Dedalos myth)
    son of Zeus and Hera, disabaled person, sea, saved,
    greek god of mining, metallurgy, engineers
    (Achilles weapons of Athenes and Achilles, Helios wagon, arrows of Eros), married to Aphrodite
  • 18. Copper
    "cuprum" (name of cyprus in latin)
    world largest copper industry
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Copper
    what do these species have in common ?
    guys from planet vulvan (Spock),
    octopus,
    snails,
    spides,
    ..
  • 22. Titanium
    Titanium
    The titans (Hyperion, Iapetos, Okeanos, Koios, Krios, Rhea, Kronos .... Prometheus)
    Children of Gaja and Uranos (greek: earth and sky)
    1795, Klaproth
  • 23. Oscar II - class
  • 24. Titanium in the body
    20 GPa as opposed to 110 GPa
    – quo vadis Titan ?
  • 25. the materials science of Terminator IV
    • very bio-compatible
    Hi,
    some of us made it even into politics
  • 26. the world‘s first implant
    Tantalos and the meal of the gods
    was angry
    was killed
    and grilled
    shoulder
    replaced by ivory
  • 27. speaking of bone ….endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton
    Hi, I am the traditional version
    Hi, I am the new California version
  • 28. speaking of bone ….endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton
    mineral content
  • 29. particle
    matrix
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. modern exoskeleton
  • 38. modern
    exoskeleton
  • 39. STEEL
  • 40. anglo-saxon: iren
    celtic: isarnon
    old german: isarn, isen
    latin, Fe: ferrum
  • 41.
  • 42. some history
    Cave-men : Hematite : “Leonardo‘s“ choice
    First ore reduction: since 3000 b.c. (Anatolia, Turkey, Syria)
    From ca. 1000-1500 b.c. : Standard product for weapons
    Mid-Europe: Hallstadt (Austria), Latène (Switzerland)
  • 43.
  • 44. Eiffel tower
  • 45.
  • 46. softer
    hard
  • 47.
  • 48. Adolph v Menzel
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52. UFG Steels
  • 53. TRIP, TWIP and Triplex Steels
  • 54. g e a
    TRIP
    g e a Martensite
    transformation
    TWIP
    deformation twinning
    Austenitic FeMn [Al, Si]Steels
    Austenitic / Ferritic FeMn [Al, Si] Steels
  • 55. characteristic stress-strain-curves of TRIP-, TWIP-
    and TRIPLEX-steels (strain rate 10-4s-1)
    Transformation Induced Plasticity
    Twinning Induced Plasticity
    Brüx, Frommeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf
  • 56. TWIP steel (X5 Mn Al Si 25 3 3)
    Undeformed sample
    Sample after twisting by 1080° (T = 20 °C)
    Brüx, Frommeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf
  • 57. Fe-Mn-Al-SiTWIP
    Fe-Mn-Al-C
    Fe P06
    austenitic stainless
    HSLA BH (P)
    Fe-Mn-Al-SiTRIP
    Fe P01-P05
    TRIP(Mn+Al) (Mn+Si) Mn+Si+Nb
    Al-alloys
    HSLA
    Dual Phase (DP)
    Martensitic
    CP
    Ductility/Strength combinations of steels for automotive applications
  • 58. High Strength Steels
  • 59. weight of truck : 96 t
    modern steels carry 800 t
    conventional steels carry 140 t
  • 60. 9 a.c.: Wiehen mountains, Tetoburg Forrest
  • 61.
  • 62. Kutub column: 900 B.C., 17 t, 16 m
    Strauss
    Maurer
  • 63.
  • 64.
    • water too cold
    • 65. brittle-to-ductile transition
    • 66. small cracks around each rivet
    • 67. crack progagation along perforated sheets
  • Napoleon:
    George III
    continental barrier against England
    - Chance for companies like Krupp
    ( .....zum Zweck der Verfertigung des
    englischen Gußstahls und aller daraus
    resultierenden Fabrikate…..)
  • 68. Napoleon and the Can
    food supply to troops
    La revolution:
    Nicolas Appert of Paris
    jokes about british bajonetts
    received can food on St. Helena
    1858: Ezra J.Warner ?
  • 69. Nickel
    1751, Cronstedt
    Ni in Cu ores (red Nickel stone, Nickelarsenide)
    Cu devil (St. Nicholaus-Cu)
    Mountain Nickel:
    “dwarf, hobbit“
  • 70. 35% Ni, no thermal expansion, memory-effect
    Invar, Guillaume, 1920 Nobel price
  • 71.
  • 72. 1808, Iglau (Austrian Empire), meteorite shower,
    investigate by Karl von Schreibers (Vienna Mineral Collection, Alois von Widmmannstätten (Porcelain manufacturer); more than 100 metorites (some weighed 12 pounds); Widmmannstätten discovered the characteristic microstructure:
    • stone (Aerolithe)
    • 73. iron (Siderithe)
    • 74. iron and stone (Siderolithe)
    • 75. glas (Tektite)
    Siderithe: ca. 6% of all, polycrystals, Fe and Ni (natural stainless steel)
    since 4000 b.c. (Amundsen)
  • 76. Thanks