First sino japanese war


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  • First sino japanese war

    1. 1. Beginning in August of 1894, The MAJDAAA CAUSES Sino-Japanese War was a war JAJAJAJA PEOPLE fought between The Qing Dynasty JAJAJAJhj BATTLES of China and Meiji Japan. Although hhghhAJA THE END there was smaller reasons the main Jfjfjfjfjfjffjfjfj STATS cause of the Sino-Japanese War f was over control of Korea. The war lasted less than a year ending in April of 1895. Although the physical war had ended it was not but 40 years later that both countries were at war again in the Second Sino-Japanese War
    2. 2. MAIN CAUSE  The Tonghak Rebellion (1894-1895) Ancillary Causes  Japanese aggression toward Chinese in Korea  Japanese desire for a unified, and modern Asia
    3. 3. The Tonghak Rebellion (1894-1895) The Tonghak Rebellion took it’s name from the teachings of Ch’oe Che-u. A demonstration by 20,000 Tonghak in 1893, in front of the royal palace in Seoul gives the first clues to peasant disapproval of the Korean government, specifically the yangban’s involvement with foreign powers. This sentiment against the government allowed Chon Pong-jun, leader of the Tonghak Parish in Kobu county, to take action. After the Korean government reacted to the action taken by the rebels in Kobu (dispersion of tax collected rice to peasants, seizure of weapons, and the taking of the county office) the Tonghaks released a call to arms among the peasantry of Korea. The rebellion achieved multiple early victories, and with each victory, their numbers increased. The Korean government quickly called for military aid from Yuan Shi-kai and the Chinese.
    4. 4. Japanese Aggression Via the Tientsin Convention of April 18, 1885, the “recognition of an equal right for Japan with China to send in troops in the case of necessity,” was achieved. When China informed Japan of her intention to aid in the suppression of the Tonghak Rebellion, the Meiji court offered Japanese assistance. China declined, and the Japanese decided to send their troops to the Korean peninsula anyway. The Japanese chose to attack Chinese forces without a formal declaration of war, thus starting the first Sino-Japanese War. Payson J. Treat, “China and Korea, 1885-1894,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Dec., 1934): 506-543, JSTOR (accessed April 15, 2010).
    5. 5. The Japanese Agenda? The Japanese absolutely had ulterior motives in taking part in the first Sino-Japanese war. As a recently modernized nation, they clearly desired to gain the respect of the western powers, however, the reputation of the East Asians was one of a weak and inferior people who presented no threat to the western powers. Perhaps the Japanese took it upon themselves to civilize both China and Korea, through warfare, in an effort to unify a modern East Asia, similar to Europe. To further this argument, the Japanese feared foreign control over Korea, which functioned as a “dagger pointing at the heart of Japan.” If the fellow East Asian nations were as weak as the foreigners viewed them, then the western powers would have no trouble taking the “dagger” and imposing their will upon Japan.
    6. 6. Tonghak Tonghak, and indigenous Korean religion, emerged in the 1860’s under the guidance of Ch’oe Che-u. Che-u’s teachings were based on “the main religious or philosophical ideas of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean spirit worship, plus some limited Christian aspects.” These teachings were focused toward the fair treatment of peasant farmers. Robert A. Kinney, “Students, Intellectuals, and the Churches: Their Roles in Korean Politics,” Asian Affairs, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Jan. - Feb., 1981): 180-195, JSTOR (accessed April 15, 2010).
    7. 7. Tonghak Call to Arms  The people are the root of the nation. If the root withers, the nation will be enfeebled. Heedless of their responsibility for sustaining the state and pro-viding for its people, the officials build lavish residences in the countryside, scheming to ensure their own well- being at the expense of the resources of the nation. How can this be viewed as proper? We are wretched village people far from the capital, yet we feed and clothe ourselves with the bounty from the sovereign's land. We cannot sit by and watch our nation perish. The whole nation is as one, its multitudes united in their determination to raise the right-eous standard of revolt, and to pledge their lives to sustain the state and provide for the livelihood of the people. However startling the action we take today may seem, you must not be troubled by it. For as we felicitously live out the tranquil years ahead, each man secure in his occupation - when all the people can enjoy the blessings of benevolent kingly rule, how immeasurably joyful will we be! Korean, “The Tonghak (Donghak) Rebellion, 1894,” (accessed April 15, 2010).
    8. 8. Born: November 12, 1866 Died: March 12, 1925 Nationality: Chinese Dr. Sun Yatsen is best known as “The Father of the Republic.”* Dr. Sun, at the age of 13, came to the United States to study; he then returned to China at the age of 18 to finish his schooling. ** In 1905, he formed the Tongmenghui, or Sworn Chinese Brotherhood. This group would help him in 1911. In 1911, Dr. Sun lead a revolution, based on nationalism, democracy, and the peoples’ livelihood, to overthrow the Chinese emperor.* He succeeded , and was declared provisional President of the Republic of China. This title was revoked, however, after Yuan Shikai was able to seize control from him. ***
    9. 9. After Yuan gained power, Dr. Sun had to flee to Japan, where he joined the KMT. He returned to China with the KMT and tried to gain the Western countries’ support, but to no avail. He then turned to the Russian government for help and they agree.** The Russian involvement in China would forever change the course of Chinese history. With the Russian government’s help, Dr . Sun was able to begin a military conquest in Southern China, which he succeeded in gaining control of. Although he started the 1912 revolution based on democracy, the Russians and Dr. Sun believed that the Chinese people were not able to handle the responsibility to vote yet. He decided to implement a three part plan in which the Chinese people would learn how to use the power to vote.* Unfortunately, the plan never got past the first stage in which Dr. Sun was the dictator. In 1925, Dr. Sun died due to liver cancer. ****After his death, Dr. Sun’s ideas would become the basis of the Nationalist government established by Chiang Kai-shek in 1928. Since his death, Dr. Sun has evolved into a heroic symbol for modern China. ***
    10. 10. Born: September 16, 1859 Died: June 6, 1916 Nationality: Chinese General Yuan Shi-kai is best known as the 1st President of the Republic of China. During the 1st Sino-Japanese War, General Shi-kai was the leader of the Beiyang Army, the first modern Chinese army, during the 1st Sino Japanese War. After the War, he used the Army to take control of the Chinese government from Dr. Sun Yatsen. From March 10, 1912 to January 1, 1916, General Shi-kai was the President of China. During this time, however, he tried to turn the republican government into an imperial one, which caused many Chinese to hate him. To futher hurt matters, on the 1st of January 1916, he declared himself Emperor of China. On March 22, 1916, General Shi-kai decided to reinstate the republican government, after many problems with both internal and external affairs. From this point on until his death in June, he began losing political power.
    11. 11. Born: 1854 Died: 1895 Nationality: Korean Chon Pong-jun was the leader of the Tonghak movement in Cholla-do province. In 1984, the farmers of the Cholla-do province of Korea, protested against the unfair treatment they were receiving from government officials. When the government ignored their protest, the farmers turned to violence, which in turn led to government ordered executions. In response to this, a group of farmers, which included Chon Pong-jun, led a large uprising to Chonjo, where the Korean government army was defeated. Chon and the Korean government tried to work out a solution. Unfortunately, the Chinese responded to the plea the Korean government had issued, asking for their help, days before by sending in their military. This rebellion caused the Sino- Japanese War. Once the Japanese had control of Korea and had driven out China, the Japanese went looking for Chon and found him. He was arrested and then sentenced to death by beheading for his involvement and leadership role in the Tonahak unrising.
    12. 12. Creation: In the late 1800 by the Qing government Alliance: China Leader During the Sino Japanese War: General Yuan Shi-kai The Beiyang Army was the first modern military of China. It was the prime army of the Chinese during the 1st Sino-Japanese War. After the War, the army was used to modernized the rest of the Chinese military. It would continue to control most of China until 1928, when it lost power due to warlordism.
    13. 13. Creation: in 1871 by Li Hongzhang Alliance: China Leader During the Sino Japanese War: Admiral Ding Juchang, The Beiyang Fleet came about due to the Chinese defeat during the 2nd Opium War, during which the Chinese were defeated. It was one of the four modern Chinese navies. Each navy was in charge of a certain area; the Beiyang Fleet was in charge of protecting Northern China and Korea. Because this was the area the Fleet was to control, the Fleet was the only navy to fight the Japanese during the 1st Sino-Japanese War.
    14. 14. Creation: 1869 Alliance: Japan Leader During the Sino Japanese War: Major-General Oshima Yoshimasa The Imperial Japanese Army was formed by Emperor Meiji, because the emperor understood the need for Japan’s military to modernize. The Army was modeled of the German Army. The fact that the Japanese Army was modernized earlier than their Chinese counterparts would play a large part in their success during the 1st Sino-Japanese War.
    15. 15. Creation: 1869 Alliance: Japan Leader During the Sino Japanese War: Itoh Sukeyuki In 1869, Emperor Mejij formed the Imperial Japanese Navy. This navy was the first modern navy of Japan. The INJ was modeled of the British navies. It was responsible for the destruction of the Beiyang Navy during the Sino-Japanese War.
    16. 16.  The sinking of the Kowshing  The British-owned ship the Kowshing, transporting Chinese troops to Korea, was stopped on July 25th, 1894 by the Japanese ship Naniwa.  The captain of the Kowshing agreed to the capture, but the Chinese on board eventually mutinied rather than be captured.  The Naniwa opened fire and sunk the Kowshing.  The battle of Seonghwan  Chinese took most of their forces to a location near Seonghwan, and fortified it heavily  July 29, the Japanese forces attack shortly after midnight to avoid being seen  The Chinese retreated at 5:30 AM  Casualties (according to the Japanese): Chinese had 500 killed or wounded, Japanese had 82 killed or wounded.
    17. 17.  War was officially declared on August 1st, 1894.  Battle of Pyongyang  Chinese forces arrived in Pyongyang on August 4th and repaired the walls for fortifications. th  On September 15 , the Japanese began an attack in the morning from multiple directions  Eventually the Chinese were overwhelmed by an attack from the rear  The Chinese sent up a white flag at 4:30  Casualties: Chinese had 2,700 killed, more than 14,000 wounded or captured. Japanese had 30 killed and 269 wounded.
    18. 18.  The Japanese fleet, which was trying to prevent Chinese troops from landing, had twelve ships, and the Chinese fleet had fourteen.  The Japanese had the advantage because of experience, technology, and Chinese corruption.  Chinese shells were discovered to be duds because the charge had been sold on the black market and replaced with sand or water.  The Japanese sank five of the Chinese ships and severely damaged three more. The Chinese sank no Japanese ships and severely damaged four.  The Chinese landing was successfully covered despite the heavy losses.  Chinese forces retreated to their side of the Yalu river, and Japanese forces soon followed, moving the conflict into Manchuria
    19. 19.  Battle of Lushunkou (Port Arthur)  Chinese had retreated there after a series of minor battles in the Liaodong Peninsula.  On November 21st, in the early morning.  By the night of November 22nd, Chinese forces had abandoned their positions.  Port Arthur Massacre  After Lushunkou was captured, the Japanese reportedly stormed the city and massacred thousands of Chinese military men and civilians alike.  Reports vary widely  Some sources say it was prompted by the sight of the mutilated bodies of captured Japanese soldiers, while others say it had no prompting. Others even insist that it did not happen at all
    20. 20.  Land battle  The Japanese army split in two and approached Weihai under fire.  A nine-hour battle on February 1st, 1895 resulted in the Japanese capture of the town and its forts.  Naval battle  The Chinese forces had 15 warships as the Weihaiwei naval base, and the Japanese had 25 warships and 16 torpedo boats.  The Japanese fleet began to attack on February 7 th, which ultimately resulted in the sinking of eleven Chinese vessels and the capture of seven more.  On February 12th, the fleet was surrendered.  Final large battle of the war
    21. 21.  The Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed April 17th, 1895, formally ended the war with China’s defeat.
    22. 22. The war finally came to an end on April 17th, 1895 when China was forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki concluding in Japan’s victory. The aftermath of the war hit China hard. The Chinese were defeated by a country they had always looked down upon and virtually opened themselves to any foreign exploitation. Contrary wise, the war obviously had a positive effect on Japan, allowing them to be seen as a newer, greater power. A key role in Japan’s success in this war was their opening to western influence. It was because of all the new technology and war tactics that Japan triumphed and China failed. Through this, Japan hoped that other asian countries would learn that modernization was not as bad as they thought; and if they sought respect and status throughout the world, they would need to accept western influence. Not only did the war have a great effect on its main participants, but the aftermath had International implications as well as it greatly effected Korea and Russia. The Sino-Japanese War brought about the end of the old Confucian order and its tributary system when regulating far Eastern Relations. This war headed a new era in which Asian events would be of greater influence in world politics and have a greater impact on Europe. 1 1 "Sino-Japanese War: Consequences." TheCorner. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <>.
    23. 23. The Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17th, 1895 deeming Japan the winner of The Sino-Japanese War. This treaty held many terms in which China was forced to agree too. For starters, China was to acknowledge Korea’s independence, in which it had previously held control over. China was then to cede Taiwan, the Liaodong Peninsula, Port Arthur and the Pescadores Islands to Japan. It was then to open the ports of Chongqing, Hangzhou, Shashi, and Suzhou to Japanese trade. Finally, China was to pay an indemnity of 200 million taels to Japan. 1 A week later, however, France, Germany, and Russia demanded that Japan relinquish Port Arthur and the Liaodong Peninsula back to China. Japan agreed and gave them back, but China had to pay an additional indemnity for this to happen. 2 1. "Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895, China-Japan) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <>. 2. "Treaty of Shimonoseki Facts, Information, Pictures | Articles about Treaty of Shimonoseki." Encyclopedia - Online Dictionary | Get Facts, Articles, Pictures, Video. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <>.
    24. 24. The defeat of China by Japan sparked a new low for China, the Chinese government’s weakness was now exposed to the world. China was unable to resist anyone, no matter who demanded what. There was a mad scramble to exploit China in any way possible in their weakened state. Knowing their great country was in danger, the Chinese started many reforms to rebuild China. The reform movements of K’ang Yu-Wei and Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao lead to the Hundred Days Reform; which demanded a full reform of the Ch’ing Government and any resistance to this change was considered detrimental to the Chinese society. Sun Yat-Sen’s reforms also gained new momentum after the Sino-Japanese War; demanding many reforms, most importantly the expunction of the Manchus. The Sino-Japanese War head started this new revolutionary movement and was crucial in determining the future of China. Anti-Foreignism rapidly increased in China after the War which attributed to the greater erosion of Chinese Sovereignty. Because Japan was now allowed to build factories in China, their domestic industries were negatively affected due to this new power in the market. As more foreign counterparts took part in building new enterprises in the Chinese market, China’s own industries were hampered due to the overwhelming strength of these new organizations. Western powers had now begun creating spheres of influence within China. Chinese anit-imperialism became more normal in their society and was a large factor in any future development in Chinese nationalism. 1 1 "Sino-Japanese War: Consequences." TheCorner. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. < war.htm>.
    25. 25. The success of the Japanese was directly related to the industrialization and modernization that had taken place decades earlier. Their adoption of a western-style military resulted in new tactics and training that simply over powered the old ways of the Chinese. 1 With the defeat of China in the war, Japan became the leading power in East Asia especially now with the new territories Japan received in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Along with it’s new territory, Japan was able to open factories in China which would be tariff free, which would enhance Japan’s commercial position in the global community. However, some tensions arose from the Japanese victory. Japan, as stated in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, was to gain control over Taiwan, however the Taiwanese tried to resist their take over at first. Taiwan’s attempts to become independent were stopped short after a five month campaign after realizing they were no match for Japan and surrendered in October 1895. There was also some tension between Russia and Japan as Russia felt that Japan could become too powerful from this victory. Russian expansion into Manchuria and Japan’s growing power would eventually lead to the Russo- Japanese War. 2 1 "The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 (SRC News No. 10)." Slavic Research News Center. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <http://src->. 2 "Sino-Japanese War: Consequences." TheCorner. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <>.
    26. 26. The Sino-Japanese War did not only have a great impact on China and Japan, but also on the rest of the world. Most countries predicted China would come out victorious, but Japan proved them other wise, and it was now a mad scramble to set up spheres of influence in a now weak China. Russia reinforced it’s position in controlling Manchuria; France got a hold of Kwangsi, Kwangtung, and Yunnan; Germany took control of Shangtung; and Britain set up strong positions along the Yangtse River. Korea was also greatly influenced by the war. While both China and Japan recognized Korea’s new independence, Japan did attempt, and succeed a bit, in influencing Korea. Japan initiated internal reforms in hopes of making Korea more westernized like itself. Japan’s hopes were to show Korea that modernization and western influence were beneficial in gaining global respect. Japan, then, began to take over the Korean economy, starting with banking and shipping.1 Even with Japan’s supervision over Korea, Korea did not submit to Japan; it instead sought assistance in Russia in hopes of counterbalancing Japan’s influence. This then became a contest between Japan and Russia in influencing Korea. This, along with Russia’s control over Manchuria, would eventually lead to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. 2 1 "Sino-Japanese War: Consequences." TheCorner. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <>. 2 "The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 (SRC News No. 10)." Slavic Research News Center. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <http://src->.
    27. 27. 700,000 600,000 China Japan Army 630,000 240,000 500,000 Dead or Wounded 35,000 20,796 Percentage of Soldiers Lost 18 11.540681 400,000 300,000 China Japan 200,000 100,000 0 Army Dead or Percentage of Wounded Soldiers Lost