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Ccmc Universo

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  • 1. Composición del Universo
  • 2. Las Pléyades
  • 3. Gran explosión Tras una pequeña fracción de segundo Tras 380.000 años Tras 13.700 millones de años
  • 4. 10-4 s
  • 5. 100 s 10-4 s
  • 6. 400.000 años 3 min
  • 7. Hoy Temperatura Tiempo
  • 8. Fondo Cósmico de microondas (1964) hoy 400.000 años
  • 9. Arno Penzias Robert Wilson
  • 10. RADIACIÓN NO HOMOGÉNEA Mapa Fondo Cósmico de Microondas: COBE
  • 11. 3 min
  • 12. Hace 13.000 millones de años Grumos de materia = gérmenes de galaxias
  • 13. Stars start from clouds
  • 14. Clouds provide the gas and dust from which stars form.
  • 15. But what kind of dust ?
  • 16. Stars begin with slow accumulation of gas and dust.
  • 17. • Contraction causes Temperature and Pressure to slowly increase.
  • 18. Rather: Irregular Grains of Carbon or Silicon
  • 19. • Gravitational attraction of Clumps attracts more material.
  • 20. G m1 m 2 F 2 r
  • 21. The Life Cycles of Stars
  • 22. Collapse to Protostar
  • 23. Nuclear Fusion !
  • 24. All Types of Stars E = mc2
  • 25. Where does the energy come from ? At 15 million degrees Celsius in the center of the star, fusion ignites !
  • 26. Mass of four 1H > Mass of one 4He
  • 27. 4 (1H) --> 4He + 2 e+ + 2 neutrinos + energy At 100 million degrees Celsius, Helium fuses:
  • 28. Energy released = 25 MeV= 4 x 10 -12 Joules= 1 x 10 -15 Calories But the sun does this 1038 times a second ! Sun has 1056 H atoms to burn !
  • 29. Edad 50001 de años 5.800º en la superficie 151 º en el núcleo
  • 30. Solar Heliospheric Observatory
  • 31. New Stars are not quiet !
  • 32. Throughout its life, these two forces determine the stages of a star’s life.
  • 33. Expulsion of gas from a young binary star system Energy released from nuclear fusion counter-acts inward force of gravity.
  • 34. After Helium exhausted, outer layers of star expelled
  • 35. The end for solar type stars
  • 36. LA COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS ASTROS MÁS ANTIGUOS 75 % hidrógeno 25 % helio <0.01 % litio
  • 37. The Beginning of the End: Red Giants
  • 38. The End of the Line for Massive Stars
  • 39. 4He + 16O 20Ne + energy 4 (1H) 4He + energy 3(4He) 12C + energy 12C + 12C 24Mg + energy 28Si + 7(4He) 56Ni + energy 56Fe 4He + 12C 16O + energy 16O + 16O 32S + energy
  • 40. Supernova ! a b SN1987A a): optical b): radio c d c): X Ray d): X Ray
  • 41. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/lifecycles/stars.html
  • 42. Annie J Cannon (1863-1941)
  • 43. Oh! Be a Fine Girl - Kiss Me Right Now Sweetheart ! Out Beyond Andromeda, Fiery Gases Kindle Many Red New Stars
  • 44. Vía Láctea
  • 45. What is a Galaxy ? Distance from Earth to Sun = 8 light-minutes Solar System Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours
  • 46. What is a Galaxy? Stellar Region Sun (solar system 30 too small to be light-years seen on this scale)
  • 47. What is a Galaxy? Galaxy Sun’s Stellar Region a massive collection of stars, gas, and dust kept together by gravity 200,000 light-years
  • 48. What is a Galaxy? If our solar system was the size of a cell in the human body, our galaxy would still measure over one mile across. Using this same analogy, the Andromeda Galaxy would be 22 miles away.
  • 49. Types of Galaxies
  • 50. M 33
  • 51. Cúmulos de Galaxias
  • 52. M 100
  • 53. NGC 1365
  • 54. M 31
  • 55. M 51
  • 56. M 51
  • 57. M 109
  • 58. M 91
  • 59. M 33
  • 60. NGC 5128
  • 61. NGC 7742
  • 62. NGC 4319
  • 63. M 100
  • 64. La Vía Láctea Grupo Local La Tierra El Sistema Solar
  • 65. Brazos de la Vía Láctea
  • 66. Brazo de Sagitario Brazo de Perseo Brazo de Orión Núcleo Brazo a 3 Kpc Cúmulos globulares Sistema Solar
  • 67. Edwin Hubble 1889-1953
  • 68. M 82´s Middle Mass Black hole
  • 69. Agujeros negros
  • 70. Hace 4.600 millones de años Nace el sistema Solar
  • 71. Increasing Temperature and Pressure ...
  • 72. More Fusion !
  • 73. Masa del Sol (M)=1
  • 74. Hace 4.000 millones de años
  • 75. Hace 200 millones de años
  • 76. Hace 3.5 millones de años
  • 77. Hace 5.000 años