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Composición del Universo
Las Pléyades
Gran explosión

                 Tras una pequeña
                 fracción de segundo

                        Tras 380.0...
10-4 s
100 s


10-4 s
400.000 años



    3 min
Hoy




Temperatura   Tiempo
Fondo Cósmico de microondas (1964)

                                                    hoy
400.000 años
Arno Penzias   Robert Wilson
RADIACIÓN NO HOMOGÉNEA




    Mapa Fondo Cósmico de Microondas: COBE
3 min
Hace 13.000 millones de años

Grumos de materia = gérmenes de galaxias
Stars start from clouds
Clouds provide the gas and dust from which stars form.
But what kind of dust ?
Stars begin with slow accumulation of gas and dust.
• Contraction causes Temperature and
     Pressure to slowly increase.
Rather: Irregular Grains of Carbon or Silicon
• Gravitational attraction of Clumps attracts
                more material.
G m1 m 2
F          2
       r
The Life Cycles of Stars
Collapse to Protostar
Nuclear Fusion !
All Types of Stars
   E = mc2
Where does the energy come from ?




At 15 million degrees Celsius in the center
        of the star, fusion ignites !
Mass of four 1H > Mass of one 4He
4 (1H) --> 4He + 2 e+ + 2 neutrinos + energy




At 100 million degrees Celsius, Helium fuses:
Energy released = 25 MeV= 4 x 10 -12 Joules=
             1 x 10 -15 Calories




   But the sun does this 1038 times a se...
Edad 50001 de años
  5.800º   en la superficie




151 º en el núcleo
Solar Heliospheric Observatory
New Stars are not quiet !
Throughout its life, these two forces determine
         the stages of a star’s life.
Expulsion of gas from a young binary star system




   Energy released from nuclear fusion
     counter-acts inward force...
After Helium exhausted, outer layers of star expelled
The end for solar type stars
LA COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS ASTROS MÁS ANTIGUOS



                   75 % hidrógeno




                          25 % helio


...
The Beginning of the End: Red Giants
The End of the Line for Massive Stars
4He    + 16O      20Ne   + energy

4 (1H)         4He   + energy

3(4He)         12C   + energy

12C    + 12C         24Mg...
Supernova !
  a   b       SN1987A




                a): optical
                b): radio
  c   d         c): X Ray
    ...
http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/lifecycles/stars.html
Annie J Cannon
    (1863-1941)
Oh! Be a Fine Girl - Kiss Me Right Now Sweetheart !




Out Beyond Andromeda, Fiery Gases Kindle Many Red New Stars
Vía Láctea
What is a Galaxy ?
                 Distance from Earth to Sun = 8 light-minutes




Solar System




           Size of S...
What is a Galaxy?

Stellar Region



        Sun
    (solar system           30
   too small to be     light-years
 seen o...
What is a Galaxy?

Galaxy


                                                    Sun’s Stellar Region




a massive collect...
What is a Galaxy?


    If our solar system was the size of a cell in the human body, our galaxy
    would still measure o...
Types of Galaxies
M 33
Cúmulos de Galaxias
M 100
NGC 1365
M 31
M 51
M 51
M 109
M 91
M 33
NGC 5128
NGC 7742
NGC 4319
M 100
La Vía Láctea




Grupo Local



                La Tierra   El Sistema Solar
Brazos de la Vía Láctea
Brazo de Sagitario

                              Brazo de Perseo

Brazo de Orión
                                     Núc...
Edwin Hubble
   1889-1953
M 82´s Middle Mass Black hole
Agujeros negros
Hace 4.600 millones de años




Nace el sistema Solar
Increasing Temperature and Pressure ...
More Fusion !
Masa del Sol (M)=1
Hace 4.000 millones de años
Hace 200   millones de años
Hace 3.5 millones de años
Hace 5.000 años
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Transcript of "Ccmc Universo"

  1. 1. Composición del Universo
  2. 2. Las Pléyades
  3. 3. Gran explosión Tras una pequeña fracción de segundo Tras 380.000 años Tras 13.700 millones de años
  4. 4. 10-4 s
  5. 5. 100 s 10-4 s
  6. 6. 400.000 años 3 min
  7. 7. Hoy Temperatura Tiempo
  8. 8. Fondo Cósmico de microondas (1964) hoy 400.000 años
  9. 9. Arno Penzias Robert Wilson
  10. 10. RADIACIÓN NO HOMOGÉNEA Mapa Fondo Cósmico de Microondas: COBE
  11. 11. 3 min
  12. 12. Hace 13.000 millones de años Grumos de materia = gérmenes de galaxias
  13. 13. Stars start from clouds
  14. 14. Clouds provide the gas and dust from which stars form.
  15. 15. But what kind of dust ?
  16. 16. Stars begin with slow accumulation of gas and dust.
  17. 17. • Contraction causes Temperature and Pressure to slowly increase.
  18. 18. Rather: Irregular Grains of Carbon or Silicon
  19. 19. • Gravitational attraction of Clumps attracts more material.
  20. 20. G m1 m 2 F 2 r
  21. 21. The Life Cycles of Stars
  22. 22. Collapse to Protostar
  23. 23. Nuclear Fusion !
  24. 24. All Types of Stars E = mc2
  25. 25. Where does the energy come from ? At 15 million degrees Celsius in the center of the star, fusion ignites !
  26. 26. Mass of four 1H > Mass of one 4He
  27. 27. 4 (1H) --> 4He + 2 e+ + 2 neutrinos + energy At 100 million degrees Celsius, Helium fuses:
  28. 28. Energy released = 25 MeV= 4 x 10 -12 Joules= 1 x 10 -15 Calories But the sun does this 1038 times a second ! Sun has 1056 H atoms to burn !
  29. 29. Edad 50001 de años 5.800º en la superficie 151 º en el núcleo
  30. 30. Solar Heliospheric Observatory
  31. 31. New Stars are not quiet !
  32. 32. Throughout its life, these two forces determine the stages of a star’s life.
  33. 33. Expulsion of gas from a young binary star system Energy released from nuclear fusion counter-acts inward force of gravity.
  34. 34. After Helium exhausted, outer layers of star expelled
  35. 35. The end for solar type stars
  36. 36. LA COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS ASTROS MÁS ANTIGUOS 75 % hidrógeno 25 % helio <0.01 % litio
  37. 37. The Beginning of the End: Red Giants
  38. 38. The End of the Line for Massive Stars
  39. 39. 4He + 16O 20Ne + energy 4 (1H) 4He + energy 3(4He) 12C + energy 12C + 12C 24Mg + energy 28Si + 7(4He) 56Ni + energy 56Fe 4He + 12C 16O + energy 16O + 16O 32S + energy
  40. 40. Supernova ! a b SN1987A a): optical b): radio c d c): X Ray d): X Ray
  41. 41. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/teachers/lifecycles/stars.html
  42. 42. Annie J Cannon (1863-1941)
  43. 43. Oh! Be a Fine Girl - Kiss Me Right Now Sweetheart ! Out Beyond Andromeda, Fiery Gases Kindle Many Red New Stars
  44. 44. Vía Láctea
  45. 45. What is a Galaxy ? Distance from Earth to Sun = 8 light-minutes Solar System Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours
  46. 46. What is a Galaxy? Stellar Region Sun (solar system 30 too small to be light-years seen on this scale)
  47. 47. What is a Galaxy? Galaxy Sun’s Stellar Region a massive collection of stars, gas, and dust kept together by gravity 200,000 light-years
  48. 48. What is a Galaxy? If our solar system was the size of a cell in the human body, our galaxy would still measure over one mile across. Using this same analogy, the Andromeda Galaxy would be 22 miles away.
  49. 49. Types of Galaxies
  50. 50. M 33
  51. 51. Cúmulos de Galaxias
  52. 52. M 100
  53. 53. NGC 1365
  54. 54. M 31
  55. 55. M 51
  56. 56. M 51
  57. 57. M 109
  58. 58. M 91
  59. 59. M 33
  60. 60. NGC 5128
  61. 61. NGC 7742
  62. 62. NGC 4319
  63. 63. M 100
  64. 64. La Vía Láctea Grupo Local La Tierra El Sistema Solar
  65. 65. Brazos de la Vía Láctea
  66. 66. Brazo de Sagitario Brazo de Perseo Brazo de Orión Núcleo Brazo a 3 Kpc Cúmulos globulares Sistema Solar
  67. 67. Edwin Hubble 1889-1953
  68. 68. M 82´s Middle Mass Black hole
  69. 69. Agujeros negros
  70. 70. Hace 4.600 millones de años Nace el sistema Solar
  71. 71. Increasing Temperature and Pressure ...
  72. 72. More Fusion !
  73. 73. Masa del Sol (M)=1
  74. 74. Hace 4.000 millones de años
  75. 75. Hace 200 millones de años
  76. 76. Hace 3.5 millones de años
  77. 77. Hace 5.000 años
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