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Dining room preparation

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  • 1.  Dining room is the place where food which has been carefully prepared is to be served. In a foodservice establishment , care must be taken to prepare and arrange the dining room such that efficient service to guests can be render. The best food may lose its appeal when served in a poor manner. On the other hand, good service sometimes makes up for whatever is lacking in the food.
  • 2. SELF-SERVICE  Calls for customers or guests selecting their own food form a point where food offerings are arranged , either in a food counter or in an assembly line. The guests then carry their own food to the dining table.  There are two categories of this type of service. These are the cafeteria service and the buffet service. FOOD-SERVER SERVICE  There are two major categories of food server service: counter service and table service. As the term implies, food server service is distinguished by the presence of someone who personally attends to the needs of the diner, in contrast to the self-service type where the diner is given minimal assistance from the foodservice staff
  • 3. Cafeteria Cafeteria- is a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen (in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries). Cafeterias are different from coffeehouses, although that is the Spanish meaning of the English word. Buffet Buffet – sometimes called smorgasbord. A buffet is typically a long table with lavish displays of food. Guests make their way down the line to pick and choose from an a la carte-style menu. Buffets are versatile and work for many cuisine styles. Guests appreciate the variety a buffet offers, and even finicky eaters can find something to nibble on. While this is a less formal service style, a well-planned buffet meal can still be elegant depending on the dishes you serve.
  • 4. Traditional Cafeteria Service Bollow Square Service  Where foodservice staff stand behind the counter where food is displayed or arranged , ready to serve the diners as they pass by. This type of service is commonly used for school and industrial foodservices. Its major concern is to serve food in a fast and efficient manner , using uniform portions consistent with the standard portions used in the establishment. Efficiency is often measured in terms of the numbers of guests that can be served un an hour or in a meal period.  Is designed so that every guest can go directly to the areas he or she is interested in. (Once in a while, you'll hear it referred to as a hollow square program.) Food stations may be laid out in a giant U-shape, a square with islands within the middle, or just about any shape the room size will permit. This design can be attractive but is frequently confusing for first time customers. You're most most likely to discover this layout in an industrial cafeteria, where employees eat each day and soon become familiar with it. Article Source:
  • 5. Counter Service Counter service is a form of service in restaurants, pubs, and bars. Counter service is also called "bar service" in the case of pubs and bars where the counter is also called the bar. Counter service is compared with table service where service is provided at the table. Table Service This is use in residences and in hotels and restaurants where dining areas are arranged in varying degrees of formality and where service staff attend to the diners’ needs as they follow certain styles of service. In general there are four distinct styles if table service. These are the American, the English , the French, and the Russian. The first two are informal types while the other two are more formal.
  • 6. : The American service is a pre-plated service which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest. The portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where service is required to be fast. The following advantages of this type of service account for the wide usage in homes and foodservice establishment. 1. The kitchen staff is mainly responsible for the food quality, portioning, and presentation. Hence, consistency of the food product is maintain. 2. This service style allows for prompt service because most food items are already prearrange on the plate when served to the guest. 3. There is no need for skilled food servers. Service can be efficiently performed with minimal training and experience. 4. The cost of equipment needed for this type of service is minimal. No elaborate trays, carts and table appointments are necessary.
  • 7. : Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the platters on the tables. The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve. For replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter. This type of service is commonly used in homes and informal restaurant. Its popularity and wide usage could be due to the following reasons: 1. It is simple and easy to execute. 2. It does not call for highly experienced or trained food servers. 3. The dining room space required is minimal. 4. Service can be fast, depending on the diners’ preference since they can control their pace while dining.
  • 8. : It is a very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves. 1. Food is served from the gueridon where the rechaud keeps the food warm. The gueridon is kept close to the guest’s table. 2. Food is partially prepared by the chef in the kitchen and cooking is finished by the chef de rang using the gueridon, in full view of the guests. The chef de rang also does the carving of meal or poultry, the preparation and flaming of the dishes, and the arrangement of the cooked food on the guests plates. The commits de rang carries the plate of the food of the guests. 3. Food is served to the guests from his/her right side, except butter, bread plates and salad.
  • 9. : An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service except that the food is portioned and carved by the waiter at the guerdons trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this service. The principle involved is to have whole joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter.
  • 10. Table appointments are implements used from dining which consist of linen, silverware, dinnerware, glassware and centerpiece. Proper care and wise selection of table appointments result in beauty in table setting. The appearance of the table will add to the enjoyment of the meal. It is used in buffet service, meal service, plate service , formal service, French style , American style , English style and Russian style. Table Appointment
  • 11.  Tablecloth- a piece of cloth , paper , or plastic used to cover the dining table.  Runner- a long , narrow strip of cloth used to provide accent to a bare table. Accent could be created through the runner’s color, design, or texture.  Place mat- a piece of cloth, paper, or plastic over which the table appointments to be used by a diner are arranged. Place mats come in different shapes and range of sizes of a mat is 46 cm x 61 cm.  Silence cloth- a thick material used under a tablecloth to minimize noise during table setting and dinning.  Top cloth- a piece of cloth placed over the tablecloth to protect from being soiled and at the same time enhance the appearance of the table. It is used to avoid replacing the tablecloth too often, thus saving laundry cost and preventing excessive wear and tear. Top cloth cloths come in varied colors and materials to match the dining room atmosphere.
  • 12. - pieces of cloth or paper provided for guests use during dining to wipe off spillages and/or smears and smudges on the diner’s lips. Napkins come in different sizes depending on the meal and style of service observed, thus: a. Dinner napkins – traditionally made of white linen damask or plain- colored linen material, the standard size of which is anywhere between 46 to 61 cm square b) Luncheon or breakfast napkin- made of absorbent material or paper, the standard size of which is anywhere between 23 to 30 cm square. c) Tea napkin- used for merienda, snack, tea, the standard size of which is anywhere between 15 to 23 cm square. d) Cocktail napkins- a small piece of material, the standard size of which ranges from 10 to 15 cm square; cocktail napkins come in different colors or design.
  • 13.  Linens must be selected based on the following consideration: occasion, type of material, color and design, durability, and versatility.  Formal occasions call for ramie or damask materials. Paper and plastic are only used for informal occasions.  Linens must be made of absorbent material. They must also be durable to withstand frequent washing and colorfast to be always presentable in the dining room.  The color and design of the linen must be selected to the blend with the overall color motif and style of the dining room.  It is wiser and more practical in the long run to purchase linens of a durable material, even at a relatively higher price, than to practice false economy by buying cheaper linens which are not durable.  The more uses can be made of one’s lines, the less investment is needed.
  • 14.  Washable lines, whether the are made of natural, synthetic, or fiber blend, can easily be cared for following these techniques: 1. Remove stains immediately, while fresh. 2. Always know the type of material used. Be sure materials are colorfast before attempting to used chemical for removing stains. 3. Glycerine ma be used to moisten lipstick stains, making it easy to remove them. Stains from coffee, fruits, and vegetables may be removed by soaking the cloth in cold water. 4. Be sure linens are clean and dry before storing them. 5. Press colored and embroidered linen on the wrong side to protect color and design.
  • 15. All table over which placed during dining are called dinnerware. They come in a variety of materials including clay, glass, ceramic, plastic, and paper. The type of material used determines the quality, price, and durability of the dinnerware.
  • 16. 1. Place mat- a 30-cm plate usually made of metal, wood, porcelain, or wicker and serves as an underline for other dinnerware used during the meal, especially formal dinners. 2. Dinner plate- a 25-cm plate used for the main dish in formal dinners. 3. Luncheon or breakfast plate- a 23-cm multipurpose plate used for daily dining. 4. Soup plate- a 23-cm deep plate used for soup in formal or sit- down dinners 5. Salad plate- an 28-cm plate used for salads and desserts or as under liners for glass stemware. 6. Cereal bowl- a 15-cm multipurpose plate used for cereals, dessert, salads, and soups, depending on the depth. 7. Bread-and-butter plate- a 15-cm plate which has a flat, smooth surface and used for breads, desserts , molded, salads, or individual portions of rice.
  • 17.  Cup and saucer- used for serving hot beverages, such as coffee or tea. The saucer is used as an underliner for the cup . As differentiated from the bread-and-butter plate, the saucer has an inner ring or groove which is meant to hold the bottom of the cup in the place to prevent it from sliding during service.  Demitasse cup and saucer- a small cup with small saucer used to contain half the amount of hot beverages as served in the regular cup. This is used in formal dinners where , with the number of courses served, the regular cup of coffee or tea may be more than what a guest can consume; hence, the use of smaller cups.
  • 18.  Dinnerware must be selected based on the following considerations: 1. Shape of each piece 2. Versatility of use 3. Type of material in relation of one’s requirements 4. Design in relation to the style of service 5. Workmanship 6. Availability 7. Durability 8. Price
  • 19.  To prolong the life of dinnerware, the following handling procedures are suggested: 1. Handle and store carefully to avoid breakages. When storing china, use pads in between pieces. 2. Dinnerware made of china and earthenware may be heated in warm, not hot, temperature. 3. Rinse plate immediately after use and scrape food using a rubber scraper. Steel wool or any rough scouring pads are likely to damage the surface of the plates. Tea and coffee cause stains on plates. Immediately rinsing after every use is necessary. 4. Wash dishes in warm using mild detergent.
  • 20.  Beverages ware includes all dining implements used to serve all types of beverages. This includes glassware, plastic ware, and paper ware. The common used beverages ware items are as follows: 1. Water tumbler- a 236-ml glass with a narrow base and wide mouth. 2. Juice glass- a 177-ml tumbler used for juiced. 3. Highball- a 355-ml glass whose width is the same as its mouth. 4. Whiskey glass- a 44-ml glass with a narrow base and a wide mouth 5. Old fashioned glass- a 222-ml glass with a narrow base, a wide mouth , and a thick body. 6. Goblet- a 236-to 355-ml glass with a wide mouth and a wide bowl stem. 7. Cocktail glass- a 74- to 148-ml stemmed glass whose body comes in different shapes.
  • 21. 8. Champagne glass- a 133- to 163-ml stemmed glass with saucer like appearance and hallow stem 9. Sherry- a 59- to 89-ml V-shaped glass with a short stem 10. Wine glass- an 86- to 148-ml tulip-glass with a long stem 11. Cordial- a 29-ml glass with tulip-shaped body 12. Brandy glass- a 148- to 325-ml glass with wide , oblong-shaped body, arched mouth, and a short stem
  • 22.  There are three types of glassware: lime glass, lead glass, and borosilicate glass. 1. Lime glass 2. Lead glass 3. Borosilicate glass
  • 23. The quality of glassware is determined by its clarity , luster, freedom from bubbles or streaks, absence of shade of color, perfect shape, and smooth, rounded edges. Glassware must be selected based on versatility of used, quality of material, flexibility of design, availability, and price.
  • 24. To ensure that glassware keeps beautifully and provides service for a long time, the following suggested care procedure should be observed: 1. Wash glassware with warm water and mild detergent. 2. Dr glassware using lint-free cloth. 3. Store on shelves with the rims facing up to avoid possible chipping. Do not stack one over the other
  • 25.  Flatware includes all tools used for eating and serving. The more commonly used flatware pieces are as follows: 1. Dinner fork- a four- pronged fork used for regular meals. 2. Salad/dessert fork- a four- pronged fork, shorter and broader than the dinner fork, used for salads and desserts. 3. Oyster fork- a small, three-pronged fork used to pick the oyster from its shell. 4. Pickle/Lemon fork- a very small, two- pronged fork used for small pieces of food. 5. Serving fork- a large, four-pronged fork with a longer and larger handle used for serving food. 6. Dinner spoon- a spoon with an oval bowl used for luncheons and dinners. 7. Soup spoon- a spoon with a round bowl used for soups. 8. Relish spoon- a small, usually pierced spoon used for serving relish, olives, and pickles. 9. Teaspoon- a small spoon with an oval bowl used for coffee or tea. 10. Demitasse teaspoon- smaller than the standard teaspoon and used for after-dinner coffee or tea.
  • 26. 11. Iced teaspoon- a long- handled teaspoon used for drink served in a tall glass, such as iced tea. 12. Serving spoon- a large spoon with a deeper bowl and longer handle used for serving food. 13. Sugar spoon- a small teaspoon with a spreading bowl used for serving sugar. 14. Dinner knife- a knife with either straight or serrated blade and a broad or rounded tip used for luncheons and dinners. 15. Steak knife- a knife with a serrated and a pointed tip used for steak. 16. Butter knife or spreader- a small, broad spatula used as an individual butter server. 17. Butter server- a small broad spatula, bigger than the spreader used for serving butter. 18. Pastry or pie server- a short- handled spatula, which is elongated and leaf shaped, used for serving cakes and pastries. 19. Soup ladle- a big, round bowl with a long handle used for serving soup. 20. Gravy ladle- a small bowl with along handle used for serving gravies and sauces. 21. Sugar tongs- small tong used for serving sugar cubes. 22. Iced tong- tong with a rounded bowl and a short prongs used to pick cubes of ice.
  • 27.  Flatware come in different materials such as sterling silver , plate silver, vermeil, stainless steel, and other combination of metal. Sterling silver Stainless steel Silver-plated Vermeil
  • 28.  The following are suggested guides in selecting flatware: 1. Get as much information as possible before any purchases are made. Flatware can be expensive. Be sure that what you buy is worth the cost. 2. Lay the pieces of flatware side and look at the patterns and design in terms of your intended usage. 3. Try to handle each piece and pretend to go through the motion of eating to check if each piece is comfortable to handle and use. some flatware pieces are impractical in shape and difficult to hold. 4. Note the weight and thickness of the parts. The fork should be thickest at the narrowest part of its handle. The knife should be thickest at the part which joins the blade and the handle.  Flatware must be selected based on durability, utility for table service, size and shape, versatility of design and material, and care required.
  • 29.  The table is set for any of the following reasons: 1. To make dining easier and more comfortable on the part of the diner. 2. To give a sense of security to the diner, knowing that all implements needed in dining are within his/her reach 3. To give the dinner an enjoyable, aesthetic experience 4. To depict a style of living or a family’s way of life, values, and tradition  To preserve its beauty and functionality, flatware must be washed as soon as possible after use with hot water and mild soap or detergent. For flatware that tarnishes, store the pieces in tarnish- proof bags.
  • 30.  In table setting, common sense should be the best guide when one is not sure of what to do. Anything that is not needed on the table, or is not required by the menu, need be set. As long as one remembers the purpose of table setting, it is easier to make decisions specially when resources are limited.  There are some guidelines commonly observed in table setting. These are general rules that pertain particularly to the cover, table decorations, and centerpieces, and in arranging tables and chairs.
  • 31.  The smallest unit in a table setting is called a cover. It consists of the linen, dinnerware, flatware, and beverage were used by one person. The breadth allotted for one cover ranges from 51 to 76 cm, but an average of 61 cm is widely used. This is large determine by factors such as the menu or type of food to be served, the size of the table, and the style of service.  All table appointments laid on a cover must be aligned 2 ½ to 4 cm from the edge of the table.
  • 32. 1. Napkin 2. Fork 3. Breakfast plate 4. Knife 5. Spoon 6. Cup and saucer 7. Juice glass 8. Water glass 1 2 3 4 5 6 78
  • 33. 1. Napkin 2. Fork 3. Luncheon/dinner plate 4. Knife 5. Spoon 6. Juice glass 7. Water glass 8. Dessert teaspoon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 34. 1. Linen a. Press the tablecloth to remove all creases for a neat appearance. Lay the tablecloth on the table, allowing an overhang of 30 to 38 cm. Be sure that the drops at the sides of the table are even. Check also that the shape of tablecloth conforms with the shape of the table. b. For more formal dining, the use of the silence cloth is suggested. Lay this under the tablecloth to minimize noise. c. When the table has a beautiful finish, place mats may be used in place of tablecloths. d. Place mat must be arranged flushed with the edge of the table or at a distance of not more than 2 ½ to 4 cm from the edge of the table.
  • 35. e. Napkins may be laid on the table in any of the following ways:  At the center the cover, between the knife and the fork.  On the dinner plate  On the left side of the dinner plate, under the fork  On the left side of the fork  When the napkins are simply folded and laid on the left side of the plate, the open edges must face toward the right, facing the plate.  Napkins may be folded in different ways, ranging from the simple fold to more elaborate ones.
  • 36. 1. Fold AB over CD. Crease 2. Turn napkin over. Roll from edge EF to GH, exposing the cuff which is folded underneath. 3. Let stand as shown. A B C D E G F H1 2 3
  • 37. 1. Fold well-starched square napkin to form a triangle by bringing point A to B. Crease folded portion CD. 2. From the folded end CD, make another fold, EF, approximately 5 cm wide, to GH to form cuff. Crease thoroughly. 3. Roll napkin neatly and evenly, with the cuff outside, from point C to D. 4. Tuck the end of the cuff C, firmly inside the cuff to fold candle in place. 5. Let candle stand firmly.
  • 38. 1. Fold well-starched square napkin according style, each small fold approximately 5 cm wide, or according to desired width. Fold from points AC to points BD. Crease thoroughly. 2. Fold in half horizontally, by bringing points AB over CD. Press lightly. 3. Put the folded points EF inside a water glass. Arrange inside folds to spread evenly and fold over the sides of the glass to form a fan
  • 39.  This fold used when wine glass is being provided in the meal.
  • 40. 1. Fold square napkin by bringing points AB upwards to points CD . Crease. 2. Fold CD downward to points EF. Crease. 3. Fold GH downwards, slightly overlapping the fold created in (2). 4. mentally divide the napkin into six parts, then the fold under one-sixth of the napkin (points KL) on the left and on the right. 5. Bring together the folded ends by folding them over to meet at the center, MN.
  • 41. 1. Fold square napkin horizontally into half by bringing points CD to points AB. 2. Form accordion-pleats from points EF to GH. 3. Fold the accordion-pleated napkin into two at points IJ. 4. Press O to P for the fan handle. Securing the centerfold with a pin, spread out the pleats to give a fanlike effect.
  • 42. 1. Fold corners A, B, C, and D of a square napkin to center. Crease thoroughly. 2. Once more, fold corners E,F,G, and H to center. Crease thoroughly. 3. Turn napkin to opposite side. 4. Fold corners I,J,K, and L to center. Holding the center- point firmly, turn napkin upwards. 5. Spread out the folds and flaps to form a rose shape. 6. Place napkin over a plate or soup plate.
  • 43. 1. Hold folded corner of square napkin in your left hand. 2. With the right thumb, fold corner A to corner B. 3. Curl the triangle around the thumb to form a tent. 4. Let tent stand over a plate, in the middle of a cover or on the left side of the fork. 1 2 3 4
  • 44. a. Hold dishes and plates without touching the surface, with the thumb on the edge of the plate and the rest of the fingers supporting the plate underneath. b. Set the bread-and-butter plate at the left of the cover above the tip of the fork. This is meant to balance the glasses on the right side of the cover. c. When table space is inadequate, the bread-and-butter plate may be omitted. Instead, bread and butter may be placed on the dinner plate. d. Set the salad plate on the table in any of the following places: 1. At the tip of the fork on the left of the cover, if no bread-and-butter plate is used. 2. To the left, a little below the bread-and-butter plate which is set at the tip of the fork. 3. To the right of the bread-and-butter plate , which in this case is moved further to the left. In this arrangement, the salad plate is on the left side and is almost above the lunch or dinner plate. e. In formal service , set place plates on the center of the cover. f. If the dinner plate is to be set, place it on the center of the cover last, just before dinner is to be served.
  • 45. a. All flatware must be clean and free from spots and fingerprints. b. Lay flatware pieces 2 ½ cm from the edge of the table. Set them in order of used, from the outside toward the plate. c. Used symmetry and a logical and convenient arrangement of flatware on the table. d. Lay the dinner knife on the right side of the plate with its cutting edge facing the plate. With the cutting edge turned toward the plate, the dinner avoids cutting his/her fingers when the knife is picked up. e. Do not set more than three knives. The knife need not be set when the menu does not call for anything to be cut. f. Lay all spoons on the right side of the plate with their bowls facing up. g. Lay all forks on the left side of the plate with their tines facing up. The only exception is the oyster pork which, when used, is set on the right side of the soup spoon. h. No more than three forks should be set at the left.
  • 46. Parallel to the table edge, across the edge of the bread-and-butter plate. On the right side of the bread-and-butter plate perpendicular to the edge of the table, with the cutting edge facing toward the left. In the center of the bread-and-butter plate with the cutting edge facing the diner.

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