Dining room is the place
where food which has been
carefully prepared is to be
served. In a foodservice
establishment , care must
be taken to prepare and
arrange the dining room
such that efficient service to
guests can be render. The
best food may lose its
appeal when served in a
poor manner. On the other
hand, good service
sometimes makes up for
whatever is lacking in the
Calls for customers or
guests selecting their own
food form a point where
food offerings are arranged
, either in a food counter or
in an assembly line. The
guests then carry their own
food to the dining table.
There are two categories of
this type of service. These
are the cafeteria service and
the buffet service.
There are two major categories
of food server service: counter
service and table service. As
the term implies, food server
service is distinguished by the
presence of someone who
personally attends to the
needs of the diner, in contrast
to the self-service type where
the diner is given minimal
assistance from the
Cafeteria- is a type of food
service location in which there
is little or no waiting staff table
service, whether a restaurant
or within an institution such as
a large office building or
school; a school dining
location is also referred to as a
dining hall or canteen (in the
UK, Ireland and some
Cafeterias are different from
coffeehouses, although that is
the Spanish meaning of the
Buffet – sometimes called
smorgasbord. A buffet is typically
a long table with lavish displays of
food. Guests make their way
down the line to pick and choose
from an a la carte-style menu.
Buffets are versatile and work for
many cuisine styles. Guests
appreciate the variety a buffet
offers, and even finicky eaters can
find something to nibble on. While
this is a less formal service style,
a well-planned buffet meal can still
be elegant depending on the
dishes you serve.
Traditional Cafeteria Service Bollow Square Service
Where foodservice staff stand
behind the counter where food is
displayed or arranged , ready to
serve the diners as they pass by. This
type of service is commonly used for
school and industrial foodservices. Its
major concern is to serve food in a
fast and efficient manner , using
uniform portions consistent with the
standard portions used in the
establishment. Efficiency is often
measured in terms of the numbers of
guests that can be served un an hour
or in a meal period.
Is designed so that every guest can go
directly to the areas he or she is
interested in. (Once in a while, you'll hear
it referred to as a hollow square
program.) Food stations may be laid out
in a giant U-shape, a square with islands
within the middle, or just about any
shape the room size will permit. This
design can be attractive but is frequently
confusing for first time customers.
You're most most likely to discover this
layout in an industrial cafeteria, where
employees eat each day and soon
become familiar with it.
Counter service is a form of
service in restaurants, pubs,
Counter service is also
called "bar service" in the
case of pubs and
bars where the counter is
also called the bar.
Counter service is
compared with table service
where service is provided at
This is use in residences and
in hotels and restaurants
where dining areas are
arranged in varying degrees
of formality and where service
staff attend to the diners’
needs as they follow certain
styles of service.
In general there are four
distinct styles if table service.
These are the American, the
English , the French, and the
Russian. The first two are
informal types while the other
two are more formal.
: The American service is a pre-plated service
which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen
itself and brought to the guest. The portion is predetermined by the kitchen
and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation
in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a
coffee shop where service is required to be fast.
The following advantages of this type of service account for the wide
usage in homes and foodservice establishment.
1. The kitchen staff is mainly responsible for the food quality, portioning, and
presentation. Hence, consistency of the food product is maintain.
2. This service style allows for prompt service because most food items are
already prearrange on the plate when served to the guest.
3. There is no need for skilled food servers. Service can be efficiently
performed with minimal training and experience.
4. The cost of equipment needed for this type of service is minimal. No
elaborate trays, carts and table appointments are necessary.
: Often referred to as the "Host Service"
because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is
brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for
approval. The waiter then places the platters on the tables. The
host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or
portions the food and allows the waiter to serve. For
replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes
around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter.
This type of service is commonly used in homes and informal
restaurant. Its popularity and wide usage could be due to the
1. It is simple and easy to execute.
2. It does not call for highly experienced or trained food servers.
3. The dining room space required is minimal.
4. Service can be fast, depending on the diners’ preference since
they can control their pace while dining.
: It is a very personalized service. Food
is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed
directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the
guests help themselves.
1. Food is served from the gueridon where the rechaud keeps the
food warm. The gueridon is kept close to the guest’s table.
2. Food is partially prepared by the chef in the kitchen and cooking is
finished by the chef de rang using the gueridon, in full view of the
guests. The chef de rang also does the carving of meal or poultry,
the preparation and flaming of the dishes, and the arrangement of
the cooked food on the guests plates. The commits de rang carries
the plate of the food of the guests.
3. Food is served to the guests from his/her right side, except
butter, bread plates and salad.
: An elaborate silver service much on
the lines of French service except that the food is portioned and
carved by the waiter at the guerdons trolley in the restaurant in full
view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this
service. The principle involved is to have whole joints, poultry, game
and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and
carved and portioned by the waiter.
Table appointments are implements used from dining which
consist of linen, silverware, dinnerware, glassware and
centerpiece. Proper care and wise selection of table
appointments result in beauty in table setting. The appearance
of the table will add to the enjoyment of the meal. It is used in
buffet service, meal service, plate service , formal service,
French style , American style , English style and Russian style.
Tablecloth- a piece of cloth , paper , or plastic used to cover the
Runner- a long , narrow strip of cloth used to provide accent to a
bare table. Accent could be created through the runner’s color,
design, or texture.
Place mat- a piece of cloth, paper, or plastic over which the table
appointments to be used by a diner are arranged. Place mats come
in different shapes and range of sizes of a mat is 46 cm x 61 cm.
Silence cloth- a thick material used under a tablecloth to minimize
noise during table setting and dinning.
Top cloth- a piece of cloth placed over the tablecloth to protect
from being soiled and at the same time enhance the appearance of
the table. It is used to avoid replacing the tablecloth too often, thus
saving laundry cost and preventing excessive wear and tear. Top
cloth cloths come in varied colors and materials to match the dining
- pieces of cloth or paper provided for guests use during
dining to wipe off spillages and/or smears and smudges on the
diner’s lips. Napkins come in different sizes depending on the meal
and style of service observed, thus:
a. Dinner napkins – traditionally made of white linen damask or plain-
colored linen material, the standard size of which is anywhere
between 46 to 61 cm square
b) Luncheon or breakfast napkin- made of absorbent material or
paper, the standard size of which is anywhere between 23 to 30 cm
c) Tea napkin- used for merienda, snack, tea, the standard size of
which is anywhere between 15 to 23 cm square.
d) Cocktail napkins- a small piece of material, the standard size of
which ranges from 10 to 15 cm square; cocktail napkins come in
different colors or design.
Linens must be selected based on the following consideration:
occasion, type of material, color and design, durability, and
Formal occasions call for ramie or damask materials. Paper and
plastic are only used for informal occasions.
Linens must be made of absorbent material. They must also be
durable to withstand frequent washing and colorfast to be always
presentable in the dining room.
The color and design of the linen must be selected to the blend with
the overall color motif and style of the dining room.
It is wiser and more practical in the long run to purchase linens of a
durable material, even at a relatively higher price, than to practice
false economy by buying cheaper linens which are not durable.
The more uses can be made of one’s lines, the less investment is
Washable lines, whether the are made of natural, synthetic, or
fiber blend, can easily be cared for following these
1. Remove stains immediately, while fresh.
2. Always know the type of material used. Be sure materials are
colorfast before attempting to used chemical for removing
3. Glycerine ma be used to moisten lipstick stains, making it
easy to remove them. Stains from coffee, fruits, and
vegetables may be removed by soaking the cloth in cold
4. Be sure linens are clean and dry before storing them.
5. Press colored and embroidered linen on the wrong side to
protect color and design.
All table over which placed
during dining are called
dinnerware. They come in a
variety of materials
including clay, glass,
ceramic, plastic, and paper.
The type of material used
determines the quality,
price, and durability of the
1. Place mat- a 30-cm plate usually made of metal, wood, porcelain,
or wicker and serves as an underline for other dinnerware used
during the meal, especially formal dinners.
2. Dinner plate- a 25-cm plate used for the main dish in formal
3. Luncheon or breakfast plate- a 23-cm multipurpose plate used for
4. Soup plate- a 23-cm deep plate used for soup in formal or sit-
5. Salad plate- an 28-cm plate used for salads and desserts or as
under liners for glass stemware.
6. Cereal bowl- a 15-cm multipurpose plate used for cereals, dessert,
salads, and soups, depending on the depth.
7. Bread-and-butter plate- a 15-cm plate which has a flat, smooth
surface and used for breads, desserts , molded, salads, or
individual portions of rice.
Cup and saucer- used for serving hot beverages, such as
coffee or tea. The saucer is used as an underliner for the cup
. As differentiated from the bread-and-butter plate, the
saucer has an inner ring or groove which is meant to hold the
bottom of the cup in the place to prevent it from sliding
Demitasse cup and saucer- a small cup with small saucer
used to contain half the amount of hot beverages as served in
the regular cup. This is used in formal dinners where , with
the number of courses served, the regular cup of coffee or
tea may be more than what a guest can consume; hence, the
use of smaller cups.
Dinnerware must be selected based on the following considerations:
1. Shape of each piece
2. Versatility of use
3. Type of material in relation of one’s requirements
4. Design in relation to the style of service
To prolong the life of dinnerware, the following handling
procedures are suggested:
1. Handle and store carefully to avoid breakages. When storing
china, use pads in between pieces.
2. Dinnerware made of china and earthenware may be heated in
warm, not hot, temperature.
3. Rinse plate immediately after use and scrape food using a
rubber scraper. Steel wool or any rough scouring pads are
likely to damage the surface of the plates. Tea and coffee
cause stains on plates. Immediately rinsing after every use is
4. Wash dishes in warm using mild detergent.
Beverages ware includes all dining implements used to serve all
types of beverages. This includes glassware, plastic ware, and paper
The common used beverages ware items are as follows:
1. Water tumbler- a 236-ml glass with a narrow base and wide mouth.
2. Juice glass- a 177-ml tumbler used for juiced.
3. Highball- a 355-ml glass whose width is the same as its mouth.
4. Whiskey glass- a 44-ml glass with a narrow base and a wide mouth
5. Old fashioned glass- a 222-ml glass with a narrow base, a wide
mouth , and a thick body.
6. Goblet- a 236-to 355-ml glass with a wide mouth and a wide bowl
7. Cocktail glass- a 74- to 148-ml stemmed glass whose body comes
in different shapes.
8. Champagne glass- a 133- to 163-ml stemmed glass
with saucer like appearance and hallow stem
9. Sherry- a 59- to 89-ml V-shaped glass with a short
10. Wine glass- an 86- to 148-ml tulip-glass with a long
11. Cordial- a 29-ml glass with tulip-shaped body
12. Brandy glass- a 148- to 325-ml glass with wide ,
oblong-shaped body, arched mouth, and a short stem
There are three types of glassware: lime glass, lead glass,
and borosilicate glass.
1. Lime glass
2. Lead glass
3. Borosilicate glass
The quality of glassware is
determined by its clarity , luster,
freedom from bubbles or streaks,
absence of shade of color,
perfect shape, and smooth,
Glassware must be selected
based on versatility of used,
quality of material, flexibility of
design, availability, and price.
To ensure that glassware keeps
beautifully and provides service for a
long time, the following suggested
care procedure should be observed:
1. Wash glassware with warm water
and mild detergent.
2. Dr glassware using lint-free cloth.
3. Store on shelves with the rims
facing up to avoid possible
chipping. Do not stack one over the
Flatware includes all tools used for eating and serving. The more
commonly used flatware pieces are as follows:
1. Dinner fork- a four- pronged fork used for regular meals.
2. Salad/dessert fork- a four- pronged fork, shorter and broader than the
dinner fork, used for salads and desserts.
3. Oyster fork- a small, three-pronged fork used to pick the oyster from
4. Pickle/Lemon fork- a very small, two- pronged fork used for small
pieces of food.
5. Serving fork- a large, four-pronged fork with a longer and larger
handle used for serving food.
6. Dinner spoon- a spoon with an oval bowl used for luncheons and
7. Soup spoon- a spoon with a round bowl used for soups.
8. Relish spoon- a small, usually pierced spoon used for serving relish,
olives, and pickles.
9. Teaspoon- a small spoon with an oval bowl used for coffee or tea.
10. Demitasse teaspoon- smaller than the standard teaspoon and used for
after-dinner coffee or tea.
11. Iced teaspoon- a long- handled teaspoon used for drink served in a tall
glass, such as iced tea.
12. Serving spoon- a large spoon with a deeper bowl and longer handle
used for serving food.
13. Sugar spoon- a small teaspoon with a spreading bowl used for serving
14. Dinner knife- a knife with either straight or serrated blade and a broad
or rounded tip used for luncheons and dinners.
15. Steak knife- a knife with a serrated and a pointed tip used for steak.
16. Butter knife or spreader- a small, broad spatula used as an individual
17. Butter server- a small broad spatula, bigger than the spreader used for
18. Pastry or pie server- a short- handled spatula, which is elongated and
leaf shaped, used for serving cakes and pastries.
19. Soup ladle- a big, round bowl with a long handle used for serving soup.
20. Gravy ladle- a small bowl with along handle used for serving gravies
21. Sugar tongs- small tong used for serving sugar cubes.
22. Iced tong- tong with a rounded bowl and a short prongs used to pick
cubes of ice.
Flatware come in different materials such as sterling silver , plate
silver, vermeil, stainless steel, and other combination of metal.
Sterling silver Stainless steel
The following are suggested guides in selecting flatware:
1. Get as much information as possible before any purchases are
made. Flatware can be expensive. Be sure that what you buy is
worth the cost.
2. Lay the pieces of flatware side and look at the patterns and
design in terms of your intended usage.
3. Try to handle each piece and pretend to go through the motion of
eating to check if each piece is comfortable to handle and use.
some flatware pieces are impractical in shape and difficult to
4. Note the weight and thickness of the parts. The fork should be
thickest at the narrowest part of its handle. The knife should be
thickest at the part which joins the blade and the handle.
Flatware must be selected based on durability, utility for table service,
size and shape, versatility of design and material, and care required.
The table is set for any of the following reasons:
1. To make dining easier and more comfortable on the part of
2. To give a sense of security to the diner, knowing that all
implements needed in dining are within his/her reach
3. To give the dinner an enjoyable, aesthetic experience
4. To depict a style of living or a family’s way of life, values, and
To preserve its beauty and functionality, flatware must be washed as
soon as possible after use with hot water and mild soap or
detergent. For flatware that tarnishes, store the pieces in tarnish-
In table setting, common sense should be the best guide when one
is not sure of what to do. Anything that is not needed on the table,
or is not required by the menu, need be set. As long as one
remembers the purpose of table setting, it is easier to make
decisions specially when resources are limited.
There are some guidelines commonly observed in table setting.
These are general rules that pertain particularly to the cover, table
decorations, and centerpieces, and in arranging tables and chairs.
The smallest unit in a table
setting is called a cover. It
consists of the linen, dinnerware,
flatware, and beverage were
used by one person. The
breadth allotted for one cover
ranges from 51 to 76 cm, but an
average of 61 cm is widely used.
This is large determine by
factors such as the menu or type
of food to be served, the size of
the table, and the style of
All table appointments laid on a
cover must be aligned 2 ½ to 4
cm from the edge of the table.
3. Breakfast plate
6. Cup and saucer
7. Juice glass
8. Water glass
3 4 5
a. Press the tablecloth to remove all creases for a neat
appearance. Lay the tablecloth on the table, allowing an
overhang of 30 to 38 cm. Be sure that the drops at the
sides of the table are even. Check also that the shape of
tablecloth conforms with the shape of the table.
b. For more formal dining, the use of the silence cloth is
suggested. Lay this under the tablecloth to minimize noise.
c. When the table has a beautiful finish, place mats may be
used in place of tablecloths.
d. Place mat must be arranged flushed with the edge of the
table or at a distance of not more than 2 ½ to 4 cm from
the edge of the table.
e. Napkins may be laid on the table in any of the following ways:
At the center the cover, between the knife and the fork.
On the dinner plate
On the left side of the dinner plate, under the fork
On the left side of the fork
When the napkins are simply folded and laid on the left side of
the plate, the open edges must face toward the right, facing the
Napkins may be folded in different ways, ranging from the
simple fold to more elaborate ones.
1. Fold AB over CD.
2. Turn napkin over.
Roll from edge EF to
GH, exposing the
cuff which is folded
3. Let stand as shown.
F H1 2
1. Fold well-starched square napkin to form a triangle by
bringing point A to B. Crease folded portion CD.
2. From the folded end CD, make another fold, EF,
approximately 5 cm wide, to GH to form cuff. Crease
3. Roll napkin neatly and evenly, with the cuff outside, from
point C to D.
4. Tuck the end of the cuff C, firmly inside the cuff to fold
candle in place.
5. Let candle stand firmly.
1. Fold well-starched square napkin according style, each small
fold approximately 5 cm wide, or according to desired width.
Fold from points AC to points BD. Crease thoroughly.
2. Fold in half horizontally, by bringing points AB over CD. Press
3. Put the folded points EF inside a water glass. Arrange inside
folds to spread evenly and fold over the sides of the glass to
form a fan
This fold used when wine glass is being
provided in the meal.
1. Fold square napkin by
bringing points AB upwards to
points CD . Crease.
2. Fold CD downward to points
3. Fold GH downwards, slightly
overlapping the fold created
4. mentally divide the napkin
into six parts, then the fold
under one-sixth of the napkin
(points KL) on the left and on
5. Bring together the folded ends
by folding them over to meet
at the center, MN.
1. Fold square napkin
horizontally into half by
bringing points CD to
2. Form accordion-pleats
from points EF to GH.
3. Fold the accordion-pleated
napkin into two at points
4. Press O to P for the fan
handle. Securing the
centerfold with a pin,
spread out the pleats to
give a fanlike effect.
1. Fold corners A, B, C, and D of
a square napkin to center.
2. Once more, fold corners E,F,G,
and H to center. Crease
3. Turn napkin to opposite side.
4. Fold corners I,J,K, and L to
center. Holding the center-
point firmly, turn napkin
5. Spread out the folds and flaps
to form a rose shape.
6. Place napkin over a plate or
1. Hold folded corner
of square napkin in
your left hand.
2. With the right
thumb, fold corner A
to corner B.
3. Curl the triangle
around the thumb to
form a tent.
4. Let tent stand over a
plate, in the middle
of a cover or on the
left side of the fork.
a. Hold dishes and plates without touching the surface, with the thumb on
the edge of the plate and the rest of the fingers supporting the plate
b. Set the bread-and-butter plate at the left of the cover above the tip of
the fork. This is meant to balance the glasses on the right side of the
c. When table space is inadequate, the bread-and-butter plate may be
omitted. Instead, bread and butter may be placed on the dinner plate.
d. Set the salad plate on the table in any of the following places:
1. At the tip of the fork on the left of the cover, if no bread-and-butter
plate is used.
2. To the left, a little below the bread-and-butter plate which is set at the
tip of the fork.
3. To the right of the bread-and-butter plate , which in this case is moved
further to the left. In this arrangement, the salad plate is on the left side
and is almost above the lunch or dinner plate.
e. In formal service , set place plates on the center of the cover.
f. If the dinner plate is to be set, place it on the center of the cover last,
just before dinner is to be served.
a. All flatware must be clean and free from spots and fingerprints.
b. Lay flatware pieces 2 ½ cm from the edge of the table. Set them in
order of used, from the outside toward the plate.
c. Used symmetry and a logical and convenient arrangement of flatware
on the table.
d. Lay the dinner knife on the right side of the plate with its cutting edge
facing the plate. With the cutting edge turned toward the plate, the
dinner avoids cutting his/her fingers when the knife is picked up.
e. Do not set more than three knives. The knife need not be set when the
menu does not call for anything to be cut.
f. Lay all spoons on the right side of the plate with their bowls facing up.
g. Lay all forks on the left side of the plate with their tines facing up. The
only exception is the oyster pork which, when used, is set on the right
side of the soup spoon.
h. No more than three forks should be set at the left.
Parallel to the
table edge, across
the edge of the
On the right side of
plate perpendicular to
the edge of the table,
with the cutting edge
facing toward the left.
In the center of the
plate with the cutting
edge facing the diner.
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