It is necessary to provide guidance about all facets of the study, from assessing the general philosophical ideas behind the inquiry to the detailed data collection and analysis procedures. It also allows researchers to lodge their plans in ideas well grounded in the literature and recognized by audiences that read and support proposals for research.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONEnglish Department UPR AguadillaProf. Belinda Rodriguez Loperena
Research Methodology Approaches to Research Involving knowledge claims, strategies and methods: these are all contributions to the research approaches, which can be distributed in: Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach Mixed Methods Approaches Let’s learn from Creswell (handouts)
Activity Paraphrase what you have read from the Table 1.4, and write it on your column, then write it on the black board. Read the sentences and decide as a group to which column they belong.
A framework for design What is a framework? Is it necessary to adopt one?
A framework for design What is a framework? Philosophy, strategies and methods Is it necessary to adopt one? It is necessary. It will provide guidance about all facets of the study, from assessing the general philosophical ideas behind the inquiry to the detailed data collection and analysis procedures. It also allows researchers to lodge their plans in ideas well grounded in the literature and recognized by audiences that read and support proposals for research. The research will not depend completely on the framework, but it will allow the researcher to organize the data and
A framework for design II Important Areas in framework Identify the philosophical knowledge claims Consider what strategy of inquiry to use Identify a research methods to use Select a quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods approach to selected research Criteria useful for selecting an approach Research problem Personal experiences Audiences for whom we seek to write
How do kids acquire L1? Video After watching the video and judging from your own experiences in acquiring both: What is the main difference from L1 and L2 The Puerto Rican experience TESL or TEFL Reflective Diary on this subject
Visiting the library and itsresources Getting to know the resources in the library with the Librarian Stanley Irizarry
Krashen’s Theory of SLA No need of using conscious grammar rules It requires NATURAL interaction in the target language Learners will be more concerned with messages that are being conveyed and understood Not necessarily with the form of their utterances
Important methods for SLA Those that supply comprehensible input in low anxiety situations Those that will not force production in early stages, Those that allow students to produce when they are ready Those that provide real world conversations
Who is Stephen Krashen? Linguist University of South California Hold over 100 books and articles and has been invited to deliver over 300 lectures throughout Canada and the US.
Five main hypothesis The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis The Monitor Hypothesis The Role of The Natural Order Hypothesis Gramma r in The Input Hypothesis Krashen ’s View The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The Acquisition LearningHypothesis Most fundamental Two systems: The learned – the acquired Acquired – process children undergo with L1, it requires natural communication Learned – product of formal instruction, comprises a conscious process for a conscious knowledge Learning is less important than acquisition
The Monitor Hypothesis Explains the relationship between acquisition and learning, defining the influence of one over the other. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learning of grammar Acquisition system is the utterance initiator but the learning system is the monitor, the one that corrects and edits. Over-users, under-users and optimal users of the monitor
The Natural Order Hypothesis Based on research, acquiring grammatical structure follows a natural order It proceeds in a predictable order The order seem to be independent of: the learner’s age L1 Background Conditions of Exposure The theory points out the implication of that natural order, however he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is SLA
The Input Hypothesis Concerned with acquisition only Learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he receives L2 input that is one step beyond her stage of linguistic competence i+1
Ferdinand de Saussure The Sign Signified Signifier
Factors considered in SLALearner Characteristics Who am I teaching?Linguistics Factors L1 and L2 Instructional VariablesLearning Processes Outside the classroom, home, How does learning take place? natural environment…Age and acquisition Context Cultural and linguistics milieu When does learning take place? Purpose Their reasons, Will it strengthen the learning?
Eclectic Quest Eclectic – meaning No single theory or hypothesis will provide a magic formula for all learners in all contexts However, you are urged to be extremely cautious and critical in considering various methods, theories and research findings.
A definition for language (Activity 1) 30 minutes activity: Look at page 6 in Brown’s text. Lets consider both definitions Judging by your experiences as a language teacher or as a bilingual, make your own definition, selecting or arranging only the sentences you consider necessary for your definition. Add if you think is needed.
Schools of thought in SLA I Structural Linguistics (Descriptive) Rigorous application of scientific observation of human languages Only “publicly observable responses” could be subject of investigation Their task: Describing human languages and identifying the structural characteristics of them. No preconception could apply across them, they differ from each other without limit
Schools of thought in SLA II Language could be dismantled into small pieces or unitsAmong psychologists, a behavioral paradigm also focused on publicly observable responses: Objectively perceived Recorded MeasuredDisadvantage-the observable conduct can be conditioned to respond in desired ways (as has been shown in Pavlov experiments)
Schools of thought in SLA III Generative Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology Tried to show that language can not be scrutinized in terms of observable stimuli Descriptions of attaining the levels of descriptive adequacy Explanatory levels of mentioned adequacy Early sings with Saussure Cognitive psychologists asserted that meaning, understanding and knowing, looking for organization and functioning (Ausubel 1965)
Behaviorism According to behaviorism the subject matter of psychology is behavior including how and why it happens. Psychology through a behaviorists eye is an experimental extension of natural science. The goal of behaviorism is the prediction and control of behavior. The behaviorist uses animals responses and compares them to man. The behavior of man is only part of the total investigation of behaviorism. There are also many individuals responsible for the development of behaviorism. These are important contributors. Pavlov and Watson These psychologists studied behaviorism experimentally.
Rationalism This school of thought takes on various philosophical positions that rely on the function of reason when searching for truth. It can be contrasted with empiricism, which believes that experience is necessary to acquire knowledge. For rationalists, ideas are innate. For empiricists, ideas are acquired. Concepts of rationalism can be traced back to early Greece where Plato believed reason was something internal, one of the four faculties of the soul. Rene Descartes
Constructivism A multidisciplinary approach Constructivism emerged as a prevailing paradigm and today is almost an orthodoxy It integrates: Linguistic Psychological paradigm Sociological paradigm The cognitive area deals with the learner’s own mental representation of reality The social area emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing cognitive and emotional images of reality.
Activity 2 Creating a Timeline Go to page 15 in Brown’s text Create in the blackboard a timeline using the information on Table 1.1 As with any other activity, explain and paraphrase what is written to achieve a better understanding
Error analysis I Learning a language involves making mistakes and errors. There is a difference between both A mistake is a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip, it will happen to individuals in native and second language situation. When attention is called to them (the mistakes) can be self-corrected An error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, it reflects the competence of the learner Sometimes it is not easy to identify them, only when they self-correct, otherwise there will always be a doubt
Error Analysis II Error analysis has been defined as the evaluation of errors that can be observed, classified, and analyzed to reveal something of the system operating within the learner Manifestations of errors arise from possible general sources: Interlingual errors of interference from the native language Interlingual errors with the target language The sociolinguistic concept of communication Psycholinguistics and cognitive strategies, among others
Identifying and describing errors Overt errors Covert errors See page 260 (Last paragraph)
Error identification I (Activity #3) Using the blackboard make a list of common mistakes made by language learners in any language: Subdivide them in the four language arts English Spanish
Error identification II (Activity #4) Addition Omission Substitution Ordering Levels Global Local Domain ExtentLook for definitions in pages 262-263
Interlingual transfer When learning a language (in the early stages) the student is specially vulnerable to interlingual transfer or interference from the native language. The native language (L1) is the only system upon which the learner can draw and produce. Example: Pronunciation Sheep instead of ship
Intralingual transfer Errors that become apparent within the target language itself These errors are predominant once the student is familiarized with the target language system (L2) Example: Does John can sing? He goed I don’t know what time is it?
Typical English intralingualerrors Go to page 264-265 Let’s discuss and understand Table 9.1
SLA Theory Stages Second language Stage I: Silent Stage acquisition refers to any language other than one’s mother tongue: the Stage II: Early Production stages mentioned here describe the processes in gaining the language Stage III: Emergence of Speech Having L1 will obstruct in the acquisition Stage IV: Intermediate ability of L2, however it will become a fundamental tool for the developmental Stage V: Advanced fluency processes in the target language.
Stage I: Silent Stage It forms from about ten hours to six months Not yet speaking, but able to respond to new words and pronunciation. Stage that should be focused in gaining words, meaning and pronunciations Language shock – rejection of words for not knowing their meaning Not speaking – though self-talking
Stage II: Early Production Lasts for about six months 1000 active words Speaking of few words and simple phrases Mispronunciations are common
Stage III: Emergence of Speech Learners achieving what has been described in previous stages will begin to speak in this stage Forming simple statements Improving pronunciation Steps toward reading and writing Mistakes in the grammatical structuring Motivate students to grater usage of words
Stage IV: Intermediate Ability 1 year of length after the speech emergence Complex sentences and use of newly acquired language They will be able to opine, discuss, and Beginning to think in the 2nd language
Stage V: Advanced Fluency It may take a couple of years to gain complete proficiency and absorb into their minds Fluent conversation and clear thinking in 2nd language Development of separate vocabulary and confidence of expressing one self by means of one’s second language
Factors involved in L2acquisition Age and acquisition Psychological Personality Sociocultural Communicative competence
Age and Acquisition The Critical Period Hypothesis Neurobiological considerations Hemispheric lateralization (Table 5.1, page 125) Biological timetables Anthropological Evidence The significance of Accent
Psychological Classical Behaviorism (Pavlov) Operant conditioning (Skinner) Subsumtion Theory (Ausubel) Humanistic Psychology (Roger) Transfer, Interference and Overgeneralization
Personality The Affective Domain (Emotional side of human behavior) Self-Esteem AttributionTheory Willingness to Communicate Inhibition Risk Taking Anxiety Empathy Extroversion
Sociocultural Social Distance Teaching Intercultural Competence Language policy and politics World Englishes ESL and EFL Linguistic Imperialism Language Rights Language, thought and culture Culture in the language classroom
Communicative competence Language functions Discourse Analysis Conversation Analysis Contrastive Rhetoric Pragmatic Discourse Styles Nonverbal Communication
Teaching with movies (Why?) Watch the movie “Dead Poet Society” Visualize teaching your students using the movie. Be creative After watching the movie, Which techniques or strategies would you use to teach: Listening comprehension Writing Reading Speaking