Clase 04 bio cel
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  • 1. Metabolismo celular. Diego Iriarte León. Biología y Ciencias Naturales.
  • 2. Metabolismo celular. Definición:son los procesos químicos que ocurren dentro de la célula para mantener la vida. Acoplamiento Quimiosmótico.
  • 3. !"Actividad enzimática. Vías metabólicas
  • 4. Catabolismo.En presencia En ausenciade oxígeno. de oxígeno.Respiración Fermentación.celular.
  • 5. Glucolisis.La célula transforma la glucosa endos moléculas de piruvato o ácidopirúvico.Se forman 2 NADH.¿Cómo funciona el NADH?
  • 6. LE 9-6_3 Electrons Electrons carried carried via NADH and via NADH FADH2 Oxidative Glycolysis Citric phosphorylation: acid electron transport Glucose Pyruvate cycle and chemiosmosis Cytosol Mitochondrion ATP ATP ATP Substrate-level Substrate-level Oxidative phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
  • 7. LE 9-8 Energy investment phase Glucose 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Glycolysis Citric Oxidative acid cycle phosphorylation Energy payoff phase ATP ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 4 ATP formed 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O Net Glucose 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 ATP 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+
  • 8. LE 9-11 Pyruvate (from glycolysis, 2 molecules per glucose) Citric CO2 Glycolysis acid Oxidation phosphorylation cycle NAD+ CoA NADH ATP ATP ATP + H+ Acetyl CoA CoA CoA Citric acid 2 CO2 cycle FADH2 3 NAD+ FAD 3 NADH + 3 H+ ADP + P i ATP
  • 9. LE 9-12_4 Glycolysis Citric Oxidation acid cycle phosphorylation ATP ATP ATP Acetyl CoA NADH + H+ H 2O NAD+ Oxaloacetate Malate Citrate Isocitrate CO2 Citric acid cycle NAD+ H 2O NADH Fumarate + H+ !-Ketoglutarate FADH2 CO2 NAD+ FAD Succinate Pi NADH GTP GDP Succinyl + H+ CoA ADP ATP
  • 10. LE 9-13 NADH 50 FADH2 Multiprotein I FAD complexes 40 FMN Free energy (G) relative to O2 (kcal/mol) Fe•S Fe•S II Q III Cyt b Oxidative Glycolysis Citric phosphorylation: 30 Fe•S acid cycle electron transport and chemiosmosis Cyt c1 IV Cyt c Cyt a ATP ATP ATP Cyt a3 20 10 0 2 H+ + 1/2 O2 H 2O
  • 11. LE 9-14 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+ A rotor within the membrane spins H+ H+ as shown when H + flows past H+ H+ it down the H+ gradient. H+ H+ A stator anchored in the membrane holds the knob stationary. A rod (or stalk ) extending into the knob also spins, activating catalytic sites in the knob. H+ Three catalytic sites in the ADP stationary knob + join inorganic ATP phosphate to Pi ADP to make ATP. MITOCHONDRAL MATRIX
  • 12. LE 9-15 Inner mitochondrial membrane Oxidative Glycolysis Citric acid phosphorylation: cycle electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP ATP ATP H+ H+ H+ H+ Protein complex Cyt c Intermembrane of electron space carriers Q IV I III ATP synthase Inner II 2H+ + 1/2 O2 H 2O mitochondrial FADH2 FAD membrane NADH + H+ NAD+ ADP + P i ATP (carrying electrons from food) H+ Mitochondrial Electron transport chain Chemiosmosis matrix Electron transport and pumping of protons (H+), ATP synthesis powered by the flow Which create an H+ gradient across the membrane of H+ back across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation
  • 13. LE 9-16 CYTOSOL Electron shuttles MITOCHONDRION span membrane 2 NADH or 2 FADH2 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Glycolysis Oxidative 2 2 Citric phosphorylation: Glucose Pyruvate Acetyl acid electron transport CoA cycle and chemiosmosis + 2 ATP + 2 ATP + about 32 or 34 ATP by substrate-level by substrate-level by oxidation phosphorylation, depending phosphorylation phosphorylation on which shuttle transports electrons form NADH in cytosol About Maximum per glucose: 36 or 38 ATP
  • 14. LE 9-17a 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 CO2 + 2 H+ 2 Ethanol 2 Acetaldehyde Alcohol fermentation
  • 15. LE 9-17b 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 CO2 + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactate Lactic acid fermentation
  • 16. LE 9-18 Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O2 present O2 present Fermentation Cellular respiration MITOCHONDRION Ethanol Acetyl CoA or lactate Citric acid cycle
  • 17. LE 9-19 Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Amino Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids acids Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde-3- P NH3 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation