A. GERUNDA gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing andfunctions as a noun. The term verbal indicatesthat a gerund, like the other two kinds ofverbals, is based on a verb and thereforeexpresses action or a state of being.However, since a gerund functions as a noun, itoccupies some positions in a sentence that anoun ordinarily would, for example:subject, direct object, subject complement, andobject of preposition.
KINDS OF GERUNDS1. Gerund as a subject2. Gerund as direct object3. Gerund as subject complement4. Ferund as object of preposition
1. Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)
2. Gerund as direct object They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.) They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)
3. Gerund as subjectcomplement My cats favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) My cats favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)
4. Gerund as object ofpreposition The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.) The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)
B. INFINITIVEAn infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word toplus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) andfunctioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Theterm verbal indicates that an infinitive, like theother two kinds of verbals, is based on a verband therefore expresses action or a state ofbeing. However, the infinitive may function as asubject, direct object, subjectcomplement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.Although an infinitive is easy to locate becauseof the to + verb form, deciding what function ithas in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.
EXAMPLES1. To wait seemed foolish when decisive actionwas required. (subject)2. Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)3. His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)4. He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)5. We must study to learn. (adverb)
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