Taboo Rap Gen Lec

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Taboo Rap Gen Lec

  1. 1. Prepared By:Montalbo, Daniel Justin B.De Castro, Ralph Louis R.
  2. 2.  Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that there are two alleles for every gene determining a specific characteristic, and these alleles are segregated into separate gametes during reproduction. When the 2 different alleles occur together in one individual (heterozygote), the dominant allele will be the one that is expressed in the phenotype of the individual. The Law of Addition is used to combine probabilities, when there are 2 or more ways to arrive at a given outcome. The Law of Multiplication is used to combine probabilities of 2 or more different events that need to occur in combination. Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment says that 2 or more different genes, if found on separate chromosomes, are determined independently of each other. Many characteristics have been found to follow patterns of inheritance that are modifications of Mendel’s rules.
  3. 3. • pure • forked line• gene breeding • polygenes• allele • hybrid • contributor• dominant • homozygous y allele• recessive • heterozygous • non- contributor• character • P (parental y allele generation)• trait • continuous • F1 (first filial variation• phenotyp generation) • discontinuo e • F2 (second us variation• genotype filial generation) • Punnett
  4. 4. CHARACTERS TRAITS• Pre-Mendel beliefs in genetics: blending theory• Augustinian monk and science teacher• Why Pisum sativum? – Pea plants available in many varieties • character (heritable feature) • trait (character variant) – Perfect flowers • cross-pollination and self-pollination – Short generation time – Many offspring
  5. 5. MONOHYBRID CROSSinheritance of a single trait P Generation (true-breeding x parents) Purple White flowers flowers F1 Generation (hybrids) All plants had purple flowers self-pollination F2 Generation 705 plants 224 plants
  6. 6. Allele for purple flowers  Alternative versions of genes exist Homologous (alleles)Locus for flower-color gene pair of › Dominant chromosomes › Recessive  Organism inherites Allele for white flowers 2 alleles › Dominant is fully expressed › Recessive has no visible effect  Law of segregation › 2 alleles for one character separate and go to different gametes
  7. 7. True-breeding plants have identical P Generationalleles. x Purple flowers White flowersGametes each contain only one allele PP ppfor the flower-color gene. Every gamete Appearance:produced by one parent has the same allele. Genetic makeup: P p Gametes:F1 hybrids have a Pp combination.Purple-flower allele is dominant, F1 Generationall hybrids have purple flowers. Purple flowersHybrid plants produce gametes, Appearance: Genetic makeup: Pptwo alleles segregate: half thegametes receiving the P allele and 1 /2 P 1 /2 p Gametes:the other half the p allele.Punnett square: shows all possible F1 spermcombinations of alleles in offspring P pfrom an F1 x F1 (Pp x Pp) cross. F2 Generation PEach square represents an equally probable PP Ppproduct of fertilization. F1 eggs p Pp ppRandom combination of the gametesresults in the 3:1 ratio that Mendel 3 :1observed in the F2 generation.
  8. 8. • Homozygous – identical alleles, true-breeding• Heterozygous – different alleles• Phenotype – physical appearance• Genotype – genetic make- up
  9. 9. APPLICATIONAn organism displaying the dominant phenotype can either Xbe homozygous or heterozygous for the trait. A test-cross willhelp determine which. Dominant phenotype, Recessive phenotype, unknown genotype: known genotype: TECHNIQUE PP or Pp? pp The individual with the unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous individual expressing the recessive trait (white flowers in this example). By observing the If Pp, If PP, phenotypes of the offspring resulting from this then 1⁄2 offspring purple then all offspring cross, we can deduce the genotype of the purple-flowered purple: and 1⁄2 offspring white: parent. p p p p RESULTS P P Pp Pp Pp Pp P p Pp Pp pp pp
  10. 10.  Illustrates the inheritance of two characters Produces four phenotypes in the F2 generation Law of Addition - combines probabilities for mutually exclusive events The Law of Multiplication - combines probabilities of 2 or more independent events that need to occur together
  11. 11. Forked Line MethodAaBbCc x AaBbCc
  12. 12. 1. Codominance – two dominant alleles affect phenotype in separate ways – both alleles manifest – e.g. roan coloring in horses – both red and white2. Incomplete dominance – phenotype of offspring is between phenotypes of two parents – e.g. red and white parents give rise to pink offspring3. Multiple alleles – genes with more than two alleles that control the phenotype – e.g. ABO blood type system has 3 alleles--A,B,i. A and B are codominant, i is recessive to both

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