MGT 162 Fundamentals of ManagementUnit 5 – Motivating Organizational Members MOHAMMAD FIRDAUS BIN MOHAMAD
Learning outcome1. Define motivation2. Discuss the process of motivation.3. Explain and identify the theories of motivation
Motivation• Process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.• The forces acting upon or within a person that cause that person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner.• A psychological process that gives purpose and direction to behavior. • Motivation Ability = Performance M A=P
The Relationship between Motivation and Performance
Definition• Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine: 1) direction of behavior in an organization; 2) the effort or how hard people work; 3) the persistence displayed in meeting goals. – Intrinsic Motivation: behavior performed for its own sake. • Motivation comes from performing the work. – Extrinsic Motivation: behavior performed to acquire rewards. • Motivation source is the consequence of an action.
1) Maslow Hierarchy of needs• Founded by Abraham Maslow• He stated that people possess a set of five needs in them.• Any deprived need will dominate the attention of people and will determine their attitude & behavior.
Hierarchy of Needs Need Level Description Examples Self- Realize one’s Use abilities Actualization full potential to the fullest Feel good Promotions Esteem about oneself & recognition Social Interpersonal Belongingness interaction, love relations, parties Job security, Safety Security, stability health insurance Food, water, Basic pay level Physiological shelter to buy itemsLower level needs must be satisfied before higher needs are addressed.
2) Herzberg - Factor TheoryTheory assume there are two group offactors;• Motivators account for high level of job satisfaction and motivation• Hygiene factors can cause dissatisfaction with work.
MOTIVATERS HYGIENE FACTORS (Lead to job (Lead to job satisfaction) Dissatisfaction)ACHIEVEMENT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPRECOGNITON COMPANY POLICY/ ADMINISTRATIONWORK ITSELF SUPERVISIONRESPONSIBILITY SALARYADVANCEMENT WORKING CONDITION
3) David McLelland Acquired• Proposed that people develop a profile of needs that influence behavior.• These needs are learned through life experiences.• Employees with high achievement needs enjoy challenges and strive in stimulating environment.
Needs Elaboration1 Need for -A person’s desire to be achievement independent, to accomplish complex tasks & to resolve problems.2 Need for -A person’s desire to influence & power control behavior in others, to complete and to exercise authority.3 Need for -A person’s desire to associate with affiliation others. To form friendly relationship and to avoid conflict.
1) Expectancy Theory• Developed by Victor Vroom and is a very popular theory of work motivation.• Vroom suggests that motivation will be high when workers feel: – High levels of effort lead to high performance. – High performance will lead to the attainment of desire outcomes.• Consists of three areas: – Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence.
Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence Effort Performance Outcomes Expectancy: Instrumentality Valence: Person’s perception that How desired perception that performance are the outcomes their effort will results in from a result in outcomes job performance
Expectancy TheoryHigh Expectancy High High Valence Instrumentality (Worker desires the(Worker knows that (Worker perceives that outcomes resultingif they try, they can high performance from high perform) leads to outcomes) performance) High Motivation
2) Equity TheoryConsiders worker’s perceptions of the fairness ofwork outcomes in proportion to their inputs. • Adams notes it is the relative rather than the absolute level of outcomes a person receives. – The Outcome/input ratio is compared by worker with another person called a referent. – The referent is perceived as similar to the worker.
Equity TheoryEquity exists when a person perceivestheir outcome/input ratio to be equal tothe referent’s ratio. –If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity.
ADAM’S EQUITY THEORYPERCIEVED RATIO EMPLOYEE’S COMPARISON ASSESSMENT Outcomes A Outcomes B Inequity < (Under rewarded) Inputs A Inputs B Outcomes A Outcomes B = Equity Inputs A Inputs B Outcomes A Outcomes B Inequity > (Over rewarded) Inputs A Inputs B* Person A is the employee, and Person B is a relevant other or referent
3) Reinforcement theoryBased on the idea that people learn to repeat behaviors that are positively rewarded (reinforced) and avoid behaviors that are punished (not reinforced).Application of reinforcement theory (also called behavior modification) involves changing one’s own behavior or the behavior of another.Managers should reward desirable employee behavior (e.g., high performance) and punish behavior (e.g., poor performance) that is not.