Chapter 7 Grammar And Usage Slideshow Format

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Chapter 7 Grammar And Usage Slideshow Format

  1. 1. Grammar and Usage<br />Chapter 7<br />October 4, 2009<br />1<br />
  2. 2. PRONOUNS<br />Pronouns are used to replace nouns. The ACT writers like to see if you understand the rules of pronouns. There will probably be several pronoun questions on the test you take.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />2<br />
  3. 3. The first pronoun rule: Agreement<br />A pronoun must always agree with the noun to which it refers.<br />Try to spot the error in the sentence below<br />Any young boy who watched the first moon landing probably spent the next few years wishing that they could become an astronaut.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Any young boy who watched the first moon landing probably spent the next few years wishing that they could become an astronaut.<br />In the spoken English, people make pronoun agreement errors all the time. In written English, you have to be precise.<br />As you read the above sentence, try to decide which noun is being referred to by the pronoun “they”<br />If you decided that “they” was referring to “boy” then you are correct.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Any young boy who watched the first moon landing, probably spent the next few years wishing that he could be an astronaut. <br />Because “boy” is singular, the pronoun referring to boy has to be singular as well.<br />“He” correctly referrers back to “boy”.<br />The following charts contain some commonly used singular and plural nouns.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />5<br />
  6. 6. SINGULAR PRONOUNS<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />6<br />
  7. 7. PLURAL PRONOUNS<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Another example:<br />Neither of the two young girls with whom I watched the first moon landing expressed their feelings out loud, but I knew that all three of us wanted to be astronauts.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Neither of the two young girls with whom I watched the first moon landing expressed her feelings out loud, but I knew that all three of us wanted to be astronauts.<br />Neither and either are considered singular<br />Therefore we should use the singular pronoun “her”<br />The following indefinite pronouns are singular<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />9<br />
  10. 10. The Second Pronoun Rule: Case<br />If a pronoun is the subject of a sentence, it must be expressed as a subject<br />Subject pronouns include<br />I, we you, he, she, it they, and who<br />If a pronoun is the object of a sentence, or the object of a preposition, it must be expressed as an object.<br />Object pronouns include<br />Me, us you, him, her, it, them and whom<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Which choice best fits the sentence?<br />(She/Her) bought a souvenir sweatshirt.<br /><ul><li>Because the person who buys the shirt is the subject of the sentence, the correct pronoun is “she”.</li></ul>October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Which choice best fits the sentence?<br />Jane bought a souvenir NASA sweatshirt for (he/him).<br /><ul><li>Because the person who receives the shirt is the object of the preposition “for”, the correct pronoun is “him”.</li></ul>October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Which choice best fits the sentence?<br />Before the moon landing, the TV announcer gave some additional background on the astronauts, about (whom/who) we were all quite interested.<br /><ul><li>A pronoun following a preposition is suppose to be the object of that preposition. The correct answer is “whom”.</li></ul>October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />13<br />
  14. 14. How Do You Spot Pronoun Errors?<br />Look for pronouns<br />Don’t forget that many indefinite pronouns are singular<br />If the pronoun is being used as a subject, it must be in the subject<br />If the pronoun is being used as an object, it must be in the form of an object<br />If who or whom appears in the underline portion of the question you must determine if the subject or the object of the clause in which it appears<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />14<br />
  15. 15. How Do You Spot Pronoun Errors?<br />if it is in the subject, “who” is correct<br />If it is an object “whom” is correct<br />Generally, if the relative pronoun follows a preposition, the correct form will be “whom”<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />15<br />
  16. 16. VERBS<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Subject – Verb Agreement<br />The verb of sentence must always agree with its subject<br />If a sentence contains a singular subject, the verb that goes with it must also be singular<br />If the sentence contains a plural subject, the verb that goes with it must also be plural<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Look at an example:<br />The best moment during a broadcast filled with many great moments were when the astronaut step out of the Lunar Lander and bounced on the moon.<br />What is the subject of this sentence?<br />Is the subject singular or plural?<br />What is the verb in this sentence?<br />Should it be singular or plural?<br />How should the sentence read?<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />18<br />
  19. 19. ACT writers use many modifying phrases and clauses between the subject and the verb to confuse you.<br />ACT form<br />The best moment during a broadcast filled with many great moments were when the astronaut stepped out of the Lunar Lander and bounced on the moon.<br />ACT form minus the modifiers<br />The best moment were when the astronaut stepped out of the Lunar Lander and bounced on the moon.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Pronoun-Verb Agreement<br />Sometimes the subject of a sentence is pronoun<br />The verb must still agree with the subject, even if the subject is a pronoun.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Look at another example:<br />Each of these moments have played in our mind again and again as I try to recapture the excitement of that momentous day in June.<br />What is the subject of the sentence?<br />Is the subject singular or plural?<br />What is the verb of the sentence?<br />Is the verb singular or plural?<br />How do you fix the sentence?<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />21<br />
  22. 22. The fixed sentence…<br />Each of these moments has played in my mind again and again as I try to recapture the excitement of that momentous day in June.<br />Sounds awkward?<br />But it is correct.<br />This is a great example of how knowing and applying the rules leads you to the correct answer, while using your ear may not.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />22<br />
  23. 23. How do you spot Subject-Verb Agreement Errors?<br />Isolate the subject and the verb of the sentence<br />Try drawing a line between any words or phrases between them to see the relationship<br />Remember answer choices can provide valuable clues<br />If the underlined portion of the sentence contains a verb, check to see if the answer choices contains different forms of that verb. If they do, you have a potential subject-verb agreement error.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Verb Tense (do not put in notes)<br />Verb tense tells us WHEN the action of the sentence is taking place<br />Present tense<br />He runs the 440 in 50 seconds.<br />Past tense<br />He ran the 440 in 50 seconds last week.<br />Future tense<br />He will run the race next Saturday.<br />Present perfect tense<br />He has run the 440 in under 50 seconds in the last four races.<br />Future perfect tense<br />He will have finished the race by next Sunday.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />24<br />
  25. 25. How does the ACT test Verb Tense<br />The ACT writers do not care if you know the names of the verb tenses<br />They sometimes do not care if you know what tense the passage is written in<br />They want to see if you can spot inconsistencies in verb tense<br />If the verb in the non-underlined portion of the sentence is in one tense,<br />The verb of the underlined portion tends to be in the same tense<br />October 4, 2009<br />Sample footer<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Look at an example:<br />Sam is walking down the street when he found a large suitcase.<br />The verb “is walking” and “found” are in two different tenses<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />26<br />
  27. 27. How does the ACT test Verb Tense<br />You will not be asked to make a decision as to which tense would be more appropriate for the sentence<br />Only one verb will be underlined and it will be up to you to look at other verbs in the sentence or verbs in the surrounding sentence to decide how to change the underlined verb<br />Look at underlined verbs in the “…ing” form very carefully<br />Especially the verbs “having” and “being” which are almost always used improperly<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />27<br />
  28. 28. How Do You Spot Verb Tense Errors<br />If you spot a verb in the underlined portion of the passage or<br />In any of the answer choices<br />Immediately anticipate subject-verb agreement error or<br />Verb tense error<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />28<br />
  29. 29. One more ACT Verb Error<br />Sometimes ACT will put together two perfectly fine past tense verbs to create a past tense construction that does not work<br />For Example: Mike has ate all the cookies in the cookie jar.<br />In this sentence either “ate” or “has eaten” would be correct<br />But “has ate” is incorrect<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Adjectives and Adverbs<br />ADJECTIVES<br />ADVERBS<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Adjective vs. AdverbThe ACT sometimes tests to see if you know the difference between the two.<br />Adjective<br />Modifies a noun<br />Passes the “He is very ____” test<br />A comparative adjective is often used when a sentence is comparing two things. For example: Juanita is taller than Jane.<br />Adverbs<br />Modifies everything else (verbs, adjectives and other adverbs)<br />Usually end in “…ly”<br />A comparative adverb is often used when a sentence is comparing two actions. For example: Juanita dances more graceful than Jane.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Superlatives<br />When more than two THINGs are being compared, the sentence needs a superlative adjective<br />To make a comparison of three or more things add “…est” to the adjective<br />Of the many men in the room, John is the strongest.<br />When more than two ACTIONS are being compared, a sentence often needs a superlative adverb<br />to make a superlative adverb, add the words “most” or “least” before the adverb<br />Compared with the other boys in the school, Sid behaves the most politely.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Idiomatic Expressions<br />Idioms are expressions that require the use of specific prepositions<br />Fortunately, you will be familiar with many of the idioms on the ACT <br />The best way to spot them would be to look for preposition in the answer choices<br />I’m in love (with/for) you.<br />My sculpture is based (on/after) Rodin’s Thinker.<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Grammar Drill<br />7 questions focusing on grammar<br />Set up in ACT form<br />Review Chp 7 materials and techniques including:<br />Pronoun Agreement<br />Verb Tense<br />Adjective vs. adverb<br />Subject- Verb agreement<br />Idiomatic expressions<br />Superlatives<br />October 4, 2009<br />Grammar and Usage<br />34<br />

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