Pedagoo London 2014


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Pedagoo London 2014

  1. 1. From error springs insight. Erring [is] vital to any process of invention and creation. How can we trust when perception is accurate and when it is not? We cannot. Katherine Schultz, Being Wrong
  2. 2. The Illusion of Naïve Realism Katherine Schultz, Being Wrong
  3. 3. The Illusion of Naïve Realism Katherine Schultz, Being Wrong
  4. 4. •  Our brains are not rational or logical: we protect ourselves from being wrong –  Confirmation bias –  The Illusion of Asymmetric Insight –  The Backfire Effect –  Sunk Cost Fallacy –  The Anchoring Effect David McRaney, You Are Not So Smart
  5. 5. •  You can see learning •  Increasing pupils’ performance is a good thing •  Outstanding lessons are a good thing •  Feedback is always good (AfL)
  6. 6. •  We can only infer learning from performance •  Performance is a very poor indicator of learning •  Reducing performance might actually increase learning
  7. 7. The input/output myth We believe “engaging in learning activities…transfers the content of the activity to the mind of the student… as learning occurs, so does forgetting… learning takes time and is not encapsulated in the visible here-and-now of classroom activities.” Graham Nuthall
  8. 8. Rob Coe
  9. 9. Introducing difficulties at the point of acquisition increases long term retention and transfer.
  10. 10. Storage strength The (New) Theory of Disuse   Telephone number you had 20 years ago Old friend’s telephone number What you learn in this session New friend’s telephone number Retrieval strength
  11. 11. •  Increasing retrieval strength only improves performance •  Increasing storage strength depends on the power of forgetting: –  Spacing –  Interleaving –  Variability –  Testing
  12. 12. Hermann Ebbinghaus, 1885
  13. 13. Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 3 Topic 1 Topic 4 Topic 2 Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 4 Topic 3 Topic 5 Topic 1 Topic 6 Topic 1 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 6 Topic 2 Topic 5 Blocking vs interleaving Topic 5 Topic 6
  14. 14. Which study pattern will result in the best test results? 1.  STUDY STUDY STUDY STUDY – TEST 2.  STUDY STUDY STUDY TEST – TEST 3.  STUDY STUDY TEST TEST – TEST 4.  STUDY TEST TEST TEST - TEST
  15. 15. •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Sustained & rapid progress ✗ Consistently high expectations ✓ Excellent subject knowledge ✓ Systematic, accurate assessment ? Well judged, imaginative teaching strategies ? Sharply focused & timely support ? Enthusiasm, participation & commitment ? Resilience, confidence & independence ? Frequent & consistently high quality feedback ✗ Engagement, courtesy, collaboration & ? cooperation
  16. 16. •  ‘Outstanding’ lessons focus on performance at the expense of learning •  There is no such thing as an outstanding lesson •  Don’t get me started on lesson grades!
  17. 17. The power of feedback Feedback indicates performance… Response type exceeds goal falls short of goal Exert less effort Increase effort Change goal Increase aspiration Reduce aspiration Abandon goal Decide goal is too easy Decide goal is too hard Feedback is ignored Feedback is ignored Change behaviour Reject feedback Dylan Wiliam
  18. 18. Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Simply providing more feedback is not the answer, because it is necessary to consider the nature of the feedback, the timing, and how the student ‘receives’ this feedback (or, better, actively seeks the feedback)
  19. 19. With inefficient learners, it is better for a teacher to provide elaborations through instruction than to provide feedback on poorly understood concepts…  Feedback can only build on something; it is of little use when there is no initial learning or surface information.
  20. 20. •  Empirical evidence suggests that delaying, reducing, and summarizing feedback can be better for long-term learning than providing immediate, trial-by-trial feedback. •  Numerous studies—some of them dating back decades—have shown that frequent and immediate feedback can, contrary to intuition, degrade learning.
  21. 21. •  Working memory is severely limited •  Experts think differently to novices •  Our brains are not designed for thinking.
  22. 22. @websofsubstance  
  23. 23. @websofsubstance  
  24. 24. @websofsubstance  
  25. 25. •  Abandon the Cult of Outstanding •  Be careful about how we give feedback •  Introduce ‘desirable difficulties’ •  Question all your assumptions – be prepared to ‘murder your darlings’
  26. 26. David Didau @LearningSpy