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Engineers & SustainabilityProblems, Paradoxes and Possibilities          Didac Ferrer, Karel Mulder,         Harro Van Len...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Contents Engineering & Sustainability 1. Problems & Paradoxes 2. Possibilities 3. ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering ...
Ecological  year is“finished”      D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Evolution?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Engineers & SustainabilityD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
When we ‘ll have finished                                               creating the problem, we’ll                       ...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
1% of high altitude wind could cover world’s energy demand     D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Why Refrigerators?                               •   Perishable food problem: loss of                                   fi...
Chloro-Fluoro-Carbons1928 Synthesis by ThomasMidgleyMain advantages:•effective•Non-toxic•Non-flammable•Somewhat more expen...
Cleveland accident:    May 15th, 1929: 128 people died of methyl-chloride poisoning    1930 CFC RefrigerantD. Ferrer-Balas...
Other applications                                                   AirconditionersCFCs: Solution for dangerousspray cans...
CFCs as global threat1970 Lovelock traces CFC’s in wind at Western Ireland1974 F. Sherwood Rowland (UC-Irvine), Mario Moli...
So?• 1930: miracle solution: “really sustainable”• 1974: New issue: atmospheric effects,  serious doubts• 1987: “ozone kil...
Types of knowledge• What we know• What we know we don’t know• What we don’t know we don’t knowHow to to manage poorly defi...
Post-normal scienceWhen uncertainties are either ofepistemological or the ethical kind, or whendecision stakes reflect con...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Naive conceptions ….“Sustainable because 100 % recyclable”,“Sustainable Energy, because 100% from renewable sources”     D...
• Sustainable technology is only a useful concept if it involves   hardware and software: a socio technical praxis      D....
Technology only makes sense by its          social context Scale: • The fossil fueled car is sustainable (<1000) • Rural b...
What is Sustainable Technology? Why is this an important question?SD is a holistic concept:meets the needs of the present ...
SD ArticulationsVarious articulations of SD   – Clean   – Non depleting   – Safe   – Creating options for underprivileged ...
Safe or fuel efficient?                                                            27      D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & ...
So Engineering Design: a Perpetuum    Mobile? (perpetual motion)• Or not even that? As it is a  waste of brains?     D. Fe...
Dilemma’s and ParadoxesVarious SD articulations are important in engineering designSD Articulations might change over time...
What is Sustainable Technology?1. What is sustainable technology? K. Mulder, D. Ferrer, H. van Lente2. Perceptions of tech...
Broadening the Innovation process in space and time                                                          31    D. Ferr...
Levels of innovation                           Systems renewal                              Renovación                    ...
Implications• Consider technology in its broadest sense (materials, organisation,  infrastructure…)• Involve stakeholders:...
• There is no future if this is not sustainable• But there is not one sustainable future, there  are many!• ‘healthy food’...
Contents Engineering & Sustianability 1. Problems & Paradoxes 2. Possibilities 3. ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering ...
Can we learn sustainability in      today’s engineering schools?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEF...
Can we learn football here?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
SD in Eng Education (self-ranking)                [Source: EESD-Observatory]  D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainabilit...
10 years of EESD    Engineering Education in Sustainable Development•   2002: TU Delft                          1.    What...
A good engineer would not   reinvent the wheel…D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
What should engineers learn on SD?A) What the problems are• Inter/transdisciplinarity, intercultural,  intergenerational p...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
How to trigger institutional change within engineering schools: top-down or bottom-up?Opposing views:• Disciplinarization ...
How to trigger cultural change - how to win the hearts and souls of the faculty?• From “Teach the teacher” to  “ask the te...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Curriculum change: starting new programs or changing        existing ones?• in-depth elective SD  education programs can c...
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
The contribution of active learning      and project based learning?• Doing a project in a real life setting (e.g. like  w...
How to measure SD learning effects?• For SD, however, it is of crucial importance that  students are able to think in syst...
Before                                 After                                          (Novak’s concept maps)    D. Ferrer-...
Practice what you preach: how to green the  campus, diminish resource consumption and          sustainabilise procurement?...
The role of external stakeholders,         external cooperation?• Highly motivating & educative• Relations between the uni...
How to teach normative content in an         academic context?• It therefore seems that SD  learning always needs to  inco...
Can we learn sustainability in           today’s engineering schools?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa...
YES WE CAN; BUT SOME FIXING WORK IS NEEDED:D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Transitions in 3D (Jansen 2003)                                   FRAMEWORK                                   Cultura     ...
The dimensions of change of the University Knowledge subsystem                                                            ...
Resources: booksD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Resources: special issuesD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
Envision              Start from the question:what should be the role of engineers in the    required sustainability trans...
Start from your                                             roots                               Avoid adding-on in a      ...
ExperienceBase SD learning onopen, uncertain, transdisciplinary   and intercultural problems.Start using campus as a lab! ...
ReinventSD as a societallearning processuniversities shouldrelearn to be learningorganisationsthemselves and beable to tra...
Engineers & Sustainability ?A critical question for the engineering  community,but also to society at large as we are conv...
“A whole new way of thinking is neededin order to solve the problems we have created with the old way of thinking” D. Ferr...
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Engineers & sustainability. Problems, Paradoxes and Possibilities

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  1. 1. Engineers & SustainabilityProblems, Paradoxes and Possibilities Didac Ferrer, Karel Mulder, Harro Van Lente, Jordi Segalàs D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  2. 2. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  3. 3. Contents Engineering & Sustainability 1. Problems & Paradoxes 2. Possibilities 3. ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  4. 4. Ecological year is“finished” D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  5. 5. Evolution?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  6. 6. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  7. 7. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  8. 8. Engineers & SustainabilityD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  9. 9. When we ‘ll have finished creating the problem, we’ll start with the solutionD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 (Roto)
  10. 10. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  11. 11. 1% of high altitude wind could cover world’s energy demand D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 http://www.tendencias21.net/TENDENCIAS-DE-LA-INGENIERIA_r19.html
  12. 12. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  13. 13. Why Refrigerators? • Perishable food problem: loss of fish and vegetables, risk of food poisoning • Toxic/flammable refrigerants: Ammonia, SO2, CH3Cl, hydrocarbons .. • Search for safe refrigerants: non toxic, non flammable and effectiveD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  14. 14. Chloro-Fluoro-Carbons1928 Synthesis by ThomasMidgleyMain advantages:•effective•Non-toxic•Non-flammable•Somewhat more expensive D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  15. 15. Cleveland accident: May 15th, 1929: 128 people died of methyl-chloride poisoning 1930 CFC RefrigerantD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  16. 16. Other applications AirconditionersCFCs: Solution for dangerousspray cans D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  17. 17. CFCs as global threat1970 Lovelock traces CFC’s in wind at Western Ireland1974 F. Sherwood Rowland (UC-Irvine), Mario Molina1984-5 Joe Farman1987 Protocol Montreal D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  18. 18. So?• 1930: miracle solution: “really sustainable”• 1974: New issue: atmospheric effects, serious doubts• 1987: “ozone killer” D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  19. 19. Types of knowledge• What we know• What we know we don’t know• What we don’t know we don’t knowHow to to manage poorly defined problems & uncertainties? D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  20. 20. Post-normal scienceWhen uncertainties are either ofepistemological or the ethical kind, or whendecision stakes reflect conflicting purposesamong stakeholders… the appropriatescientific approach will be based on theassumption of the unpredictability,incomplete control and a plurality oflegitimate perspectives (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993) D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  21. 21. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  22. 22. Naive conceptions ….“Sustainable because 100 % recyclable”,“Sustainable Energy, because 100% from renewable sources” D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  23. 23. • Sustainable technology is only a useful concept if it involves hardware and software: a socio technical praxis D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  24. 24. Technology only makes sense by its social context Scale: • The fossil fueled car is sustainable (<1000) • Rural biofuel energy production: sustainable even if it is rather inefficient • Efficient biofuel production in industrial countries: unsustainable (it ruins local ecosystems, transport, endangers food security). D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 24
  25. 25. What is Sustainable Technology? Why is this an important question?SD is a holistic concept:meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsBut is ill defined at the micro scale……articulation(s): expressions of SD in regard to needs of people:• Maintaining air/water/..• quality,• healthy,• not depleting resources,• not contributing to climate change,• …… D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  26. 26. SD ArticulationsVarious articulations of SD – Clean – Non depleting – Safe – Creating options for underprivileged – …..Which change over timeAnd create dilemma’s – Food or fuel – Supporting Africa’s poor or being recyclable – Emitting x or y – …. – … D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 26
  27. 27. Safe or fuel efficient? 27 D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  28. 28. So Engineering Design: a Perpetuum Mobile? (perpetual motion)• Or not even that? As it is a waste of brains? D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  29. 29. Dilemma’s and ParadoxesVarious SD articulations are important in engineering designSD Articulations might change over timeSD articulations often create dilemmasBut dilemma’s might turn out to be paradoxes by clever innovationHow to deal with the dilemmas/paradoxes of SD in technologydevelopment? D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 29
  30. 30. What is Sustainable Technology?1. What is sustainable technology? K. Mulder, D. Ferrer, H. van Lente2. Perceptions of technology: An historical overview A.W. Stahel,3. Chlorofluorocarbons: Drivers of their emergence and substitution K. Mulder4. Vehicles of sustainability in the field of nanocoatings H. van Lente,5. Articulations of sustainability in the development of wind power in the Netherlands L. M. Kamp,6. Environmental technology in a new urban neighbourhood: Stockholm’s Hammarby Sjöstad R. Wennersten and A. Spitsyna,7. Trade-offs in the district heat distribution system M. Svanström, M. Fröling8. Municipal solid waste: Treatment, management and prevention C. Block and C. Vandecasteele,9. What is a sustainable transport system? Dilemmas regarding transport solutions in Sweden, R. Wennersten and A. Spitsyna10.Reducing material use in passenger cars 1920–2020: Balancing energy, waste and safety E. Tempelman11.Hydrogen: a stack of competing visions S. Bakker12.Sustainable technologies for water treatment J. Morató, A. Pires Carneiro and A. Ortiz,13.Dilemmas in water systems development in China X. Song and W. Ravesteijn14.Conclusions: perceptions, paradoxes and possibilities K. Mulder, D. Ferrer, H. van Lente D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  31. 31. Broadening the Innovation process in space and time 31 D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  32. 32. Levels of innovation Systems renewal Renovación based on needs basada en 20 &necesidades y functions funcionesEfficiency factor Process or Mejora del product proceso o improvement producto 5 optimization Uso óptimo 2000 time 2050 (Jansen,, 2003)D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 32
  33. 33. Implications• Consider technology in its broadest sense (materials, organisation, infrastructure…)• Involve stakeholders: – To recognise dilemmas – To discuss values and interest, the engineer cannot decide on behalf of others – Take care of quality debate in society – Do not hide value- and interest discussions• Allow radical solutions (never easy, opposed to established interests & lifestyles)• Sustainability is never established forever – New threats might emerge and old ones dissappear D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  34. 34. • There is no future if this is not sustainable• But there is not one sustainable future, there are many!• ‘healthy food’ vs. ‘healthy food habits’• Such a thing as a inherently Sustainable Technology does not exist, D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11 34
  35. 35. Contents Engineering & Sustianability 1. Problems & Paradoxes 2. Possibilities 3. ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  36. 36. Can we learn sustainability in today’s engineering schools?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  37. 37. Can we learn football here?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  38. 38. SD in Eng Education (self-ranking) [Source: EESD-Observatory] D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  39. 39. 10 years of EESD Engineering Education in Sustainable Development• 2002: TU Delft 1. What should engineers learn on SD?• 2004: UPC Barcelona 2. How to trigger change? 3. How to win the hearts and souls of the• 2006: INSA Lyon faculty?• 2008: TU Graz 4. Starting new programs or changing• 2010: Chalmers, Göteborg existing ones? 5. Active learning and project based• 2012: Kiev… learning? 6. The role of external stakeholders, external cooperation? 7. How to measure SD learning effects? 8. How to practice what we preach in the 9? 9. campus? How to teach normative content in an academic context? D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  40. 40. A good engineer would not reinvent the wheel…D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  41. 41. What should engineers learn on SD?A) What the problems are• Inter/transdisciplinarity, intercultural, intergenerational perspectives• Active learningB) How to solve them.• No Such a thing as “sustainable technology”• Process orientation vs product orientation D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  42. 42. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  43. 43. How to trigger institutional change within engineering schools: top-down or bottom-up?Opposing views:• Disciplinarization of knowledge + hyper rational culture of engineering create strong barriers for introducing change.• Real change therefore needs to be enforced, and depends on soft un-engineering things like emotions, perceptions, group dynamics, motivations, leaderships...• Structural + cultural• Strong coupling between bottom-up and top- down initiatives, and that they have to be seen as co-evolving D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  44. 44. How to trigger cultural change - how to win the hearts and souls of the faculty?• From “Teach the teacher” to “ask the teacher”• Lecturers invited to suggest contributions of their own (sub-) discipline to SD D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  45. 45. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  46. 46. Curriculum change: starting new programs or changing existing ones?• in-depth elective SD education programs can co- exist and are complementary with obligatory SD courses for all students.• Besides basic knowledge on SD for every engineer (linked to its social responsibility), there is a need for SD engineering specialists. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  47. 47. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  48. 48. The contribution of active learning and project based learning?• Doing a project in a real life setting (e.g. like working in sustainability in a developing nation, in an NGO network or even within the university associations) can be a life changing experience for a student from an industrialized country.• Segalas (2009, 2010 ) demonstrated that active learning is more effective in terms of learning interdisciplinary skills and systems thinking.• However, it takes more resources, needs good contacts with external stakeholders and motivated staff that are trained in working in interdisciplinary groups. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  49. 49. How to measure SD learning effects?• For SD, however, it is of crucial importance that students are able to think in systems, i.e. in connections between various elements, and in dynamic processes (that often involve long time frames).• Conceptual maps were introduced as an appropriate method for evaluating SD understanding: they are graphic representations for organizing and representing knowledge. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  50. 50. Before After (Novak’s concept maps) D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  51. 51. Practice what you preach: how to green the campus, diminish resource consumption and sustainabilise procurement?• Coherence in the main university functions and need to give example• using campus greening as a real life setting for sustainability education, applying results of the university’s sustainability research and acting as an exemplar to transfer innovative solutions to society. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  52. 52. The role of external stakeholders, external cooperation?• Highly motivating & educative• Relations between the university and the external partner should be of a more permanent character.• Educational projects cannot guarantee results for the commissioner and they should understand that learning is the primary goal.• Interfacial structures between the university and other organisations have an important role.• Not all subjects are fit for an educational project: subjects might be too political or commercially sensitive, or there might be too strict deadlines. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  53. 53. How to teach normative content in an academic context?• It therefore seems that SD learning always needs to incorporate value controversial cases.• Solutions should be developed in regard to different value systems.• Awareness of values and value gaps is essential, especially in intercultural cooperation . D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  54. 54. Can we learn sustainability in today’s engineering schools?D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  55. 55. YES WE CAN; BUT SOME FIXING WORK IS NEEDED:D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  56. 56. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  57. 57. Transitions in 3D (Jansen 2003) FRAMEWORK Cultura Estructura Tecnología LEVELACTORS OptimizationStakeholders Improvementinvolved Renewal D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  58. 58. The dimensions of change of the University Knowledge subsystem FRAMEWORK Sustainable Intercultural dialogue Transdiciplinary structures Technical University Rational + Intuition knowledge (future vision) Learning Organisation (transparency, participation & accountability) Current Monoculture Disciplinary Technical University Rational-centered (present situation) Peer-review Closed & endogamic Efficient technology Academic-centerd Education about sustainability Stakeholders Participation Sustainable technology Science-society interfaces Sustainable education Extended peer-review ACTORS LEVEL D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  59. 59. Resources: booksD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  60. 60. Resources: special issuesD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  61. 61. ConclusionsD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  62. 62. Envision Start from the question:what should be the role of engineers in the required sustainability transitions? D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  63. 63. Start from your roots Avoid adding-on in a crowded curricula, Rebuild it by taking the contribution of a field of expertise to SD as the leading principle for curriculaD. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  64. 64. ExperienceBase SD learning onopen, uncertain, transdisciplinary and intercultural problems.Start using campus as a lab! Connect students to the needs of your neighbouring communities and go beyond,There is room for all:we are all unsustainable!!! D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  65. 65. ReinventSD as a societallearning processuniversities shouldrelearn to be learningorganisationsthemselves and beable to transcend therigid disciplinaryfences. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  66. 66. Engineers & Sustainability ?A critical question for the engineering community,but also to society at large as we are convinced that committed and engaged engineers are crucial for our common future. D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
  67. 67. “A whole new way of thinking is neededin order to solve the problems we have created with the old way of thinking” D. Ferrer-Balas “Engineering & Sustainability” Lisboa, SEFI, 29/9/11
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