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The Rococo
 

The Rococo

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Overview of Rococo art in the period following Louis XIV's death. Preview of Enlightenment and its influence on the arts.

Overview of Rococo art in the period following Louis XIV's death. Preview of Enlightenment and its influence on the arts.

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    The Rococo The Rococo Presentation Transcript

    • Rococo and the Age of Enlightnment Europe during the Rococo period
    • The Rococo Characteristics of Style • Response to darker paintings of 1600s • Typical of Rococo style : – – – – – Pastel color scheme Small scale works Delicate rendering of objects and figures Idyllic and saccharine settings Fête galante and leisure activity of French aristocracy – Poussinistes vs. Rubenistes
    • Poussinistes vs. Rubenistes • During the Rococo, artists gravitated toward the styling of 2 Baroque artists, Rubens and Poussin • There began a battle of the Poussinistes and Rubenistes mid 18th century – Poussin=control of line should determine design – Rubens=color should dominate canvas
    • The Rococo Dates and Places: • 1715 to 1780 • France and England People: • Philip, duke of Orléans, Louis XV • Aristocrats • Urban townhouses • Social intercourse, cultivation of good taste • Royal art academies Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Signboard of Gersaint, 1720-1721. Oil on canvas, 64” x 121.” Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin
    • The Rococo • The boxing of Pierre Mignard's portrait of the deceased king implies the end of the old régime, as does the clock above. Jean-Antoine Watteau, detail The Signboard of Gersaint, 17201721. Oil on canvas, 64” x 121.” Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin
    • Jean-Antoine Watteau, detailsThe Signboard of Gersaint, 1720-1721. Oil on canvas, 64” x 121.” Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin
    • Jean-Antoine Watteau, detailsThe Signboard of Gersaint, 1720-1721. Oil on canvas, 64” x 121.” Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin
    • The Rococo Example: • Fête galante • New category of painting • Color for decorative effect, Rubeniste • Light and airy • Elegant sophistication • Sensuality and Antoine Watteau Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717. Oil on canvas, 50.8” × 76.4”. Collection of the Royal sexuality Academy of Painting and Sculpture. Figure 21.1.
    • The Rococo Example: • Characterized by ornate style, saccharine scenes of love and gaiety • Subject usually leisure activities of upper class formerly of Louis XIV’s court at Versailles • Style characterized by wispy brushstrokes heavily reliant on Rubens’ and Venetian color palette Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767. Oil on canvas, 31 7/8” x 25 3/8”. The Wallace Collection, London. Figure 21.3
    • The Rococo Themes: • Fête galante • Leisure of the upper classes • Ornament Forms: • Small and delicate • Pastels • Feathery brushwork Claude Michet (Clodion), Satyr Crowning a Bacchant, 1770.Terracotta, 12 19/32” x 12 19/32” x 10 15/64.” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
    • The Rococo Example: • Late Baroque style in art • Strays from Classical styling of French Baroque under Louis XIV • Celebrates life outside of Louis XIV’s reign • Interiors totally designed • Rocailles • Organic, playful, moving decoration • Proper setting for entertaining guests Francois De Cuvilliés, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Munich, early 18th century. The Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, early 18th century
    • The Rococo Example: • Originally designed for Duchess de Villars • Rococo interiors treat entire space • Decoration dominated by gilding, fine metalwork, ornate details like scrolling, arabesques, organic themes (shells, leaves, anima ls, etc.) Nicolas Pineau, Varengeville Room in the Hotel de Varengeville, 217 Boulevard St. Germain, Paris, c. 1735. Carved, painted, and gilded oak, 18’ 3 ¾” x 40’ 6 ½” x 23 ½.” Photograph dated c. 1995. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
    • The Rococo Example: • Small sculptures used to adorn interior • Subject intimate, flirtatious coquettish scenes of eroticism • Designed for intimate viewing • Studies at Versailles • Bernini infuence • Rome Prize (1759) • Known for small works Claude Michet (Clodion), Nymph and SatyrCarousing, c. 1780.Terracotta, 23 1/4” heigh. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 21.7
    • The Rococo Example: • French decorative arts meets German Rococo • Surface covered with ornate detailing • Airiness dominates Balthasar Neumann and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Kaiseraal Residenz, Würzburg, Germany, 1719-1744. Frescoes 1751-1752. Fig. 21.11
    • The Rococo Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Würzburg ceiling fresco with detail of The Marriage of the Emperor Frederick IBarbarossa to Beatrice of Burgundy, 1751-1752. Fresco, 158” x 197.” Kaiseraal Residenz, Würzburg, Germany. Fig. 21.11
    • The Enlightenment Dates and Places: • 1700-1800 • Western Europe People: • Replace faith with reason • Scientific, empirical approach • Philosophes Élisabeth Lousie Vigée-LeBrun, Marie Antoinette • Positivism and Her Children, 1790. Oil on canvas, 8’8” x 6’ 10.” Musée National du Château de Versailles, Versailles, France. Figure 21.5.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • Interest in natural, uncorrupted state • Influence of Rousseau • Domestic scenes of simple people • Moral instruction • Sentimental • Reaction against Rococo Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Saying Grace, 1740. Oil on canvas, 19.5” x 15.2”. Musée du Louvre, Paris.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • Excels in still life and genre • Found inspiration in the Dutch and Flemish paintings found in France • Images celebrate lifestyle and morals opposite the life of the aristocracy – In opposition to leisurely activity, hard work and moral living dominate – Works admired and purchased by developing bourgeois class Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Back from Market,, 1739. Oil on canvas, 18 1/2” x 14 3/4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 21.4.
    • Jan Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance. c.1664. Oil on canvas, 16 3/4” x 15.” National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Fig. 19.18. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Back from Market,, 1739. Oil on canvas, 18 1/2” x 14 3/4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 21.4.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • English painter and printmaker • Originates English “modern moral painting” • Satire of modern life • Moralizing story of misbehaving upper class • Narrative sequence like theater • Comment on poor taste William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Oil on canvas, 28” x 36”. The National Gallery, London.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • First major English artist since Elizabethan period • Begins as engraver, moves to painting • Best known for “modern moral subjects” William Hogarth, The Rake's Progress, Plate III "Tavern Scene,” 1735. Engraved by W.H. Worthington, 14” x 16 ¼.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 21.8.
    • The Enlightenment William Hogarth, The Rake's Progress, Plate IV, “Arrested for Debt,” and Plate V, “Marrying an Old Maid,”1735. Engraved by W.H. Worthington, 14” x 16 ¼.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • Interest in the natural • More intimate portrait type, reveals personality • Some Rococo pretense • Grand manner portraiture = refined, elegant portraits, large scale, symbolic setting, low horizon • Bridges gap between the Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785. Rococo and new Oil on canvas, 49” x 39.” The National naturalism Gallery of Art, London. Fig. 21.9
    • The Enlightenment Example: • Rival of Gainsborough • President Royal Academy of Arts • Inspiration from Michelangelo figures, Sistine Ceiling Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the • Allegory Tragic Muse, 1784. Oil on canvas, 7/9” x 4.9 ½.” Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, CA. Fig. 21.10.
    • Michelangelo, Prophet Isiah, detail from Sistine Chapel, 1508. Fresco, 150” x 150.” Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784. Oil on canvas, 7/9” x 4.9 ½.” Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, CA. Fig. 21.10.
    • Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Siddons, 1785. Oil on canvas, 49” x 39.” The National Gallery of Art, London. Fig. 21.9 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1784. Oil on canvas, 7/9” x 4.9 ½.” Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, CA. Fig. 21.10.
    • The Enlightenment Example: • Vedute • Souvenir of travels • Possibly used camera obscura • Drawn on site, painted (and improved) later Antonio Canaletto, The Bucintoro at the Molo on Ascension Day, 1732. Oil on canvas, 1’ 6 ½” x 2’ 7/8”. The Royal Collection, Queen Elizabeth II. Figure 21.12
    • The Enlightenment Themes: • Nature and naturalness • Grand tour • Genre/ moral genre painting • Simple, honest, unaffected, people in natural settings/jobs • Elimination of ornament • Direct and plain • Lower classes, non-aristocrats portrayed Forms: • Empirical observation • Classicizing approach • Narrative clarity Antonio Canaletto, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1735–1740.